Basic Environmental Engineering & Elementary BioloDepartment of Electronics & Designed by Soujanya Roy, Sanjoy Moitra, Monalisa, Mayurima andCommunication Engineering Krishanu
AGENDA Introduction to the Basic concept of Eutrophication -Basic Idea -Definition Types of Eutrophication - Natural Eutrophication - Cultural Eutrophication Sources - Point sources - Non-point sources - A brief outline Effects of Eutrophication Remedial Measures/Monitoring Bibliography
Introduction- Basic Concepts Whats actually Eutrophication?BASIC IDEA: - originated from greek words: eu=‘well’ and trophes=‘fed’. Thus it means ‘well fed’ or ‘nutrient rich’ - It alters the dynamics of a number of plant, animal and bacterial populations; thus, bringing about changes in community structure. - It is a form of water pollution and like all other forms of pollution is the result of human activities influencing ecological cycles. Eutrophication in the Sea of Azov. Source: SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAG
Introduction- Basic Concepts Defining Eutrophication Can be defined as excessive nutrient load in a water body that support a dense growth of algae and other organisms, the decay of which depletes the shallow waters of oxygen in summer. eutrophication may be defined as an increase in the rate of supply of organic matter to an ecosystem. It means ‘enhanced nourishment’ and refers to the stimulation of aquatic plant growth by mineral nutrients, particularly the combined forms of phosphorus or nitrogen
Getting into: Types of Eutrophication Lets Browse through the different types of Eutrophication
Types of Eutrophication Two types of Eutrophication are: √ √ √ √ √
Two types : A comparison Natural Eutrophication Cultural Eutrophication√√ a process that occurs as a lake or river a process that occurs when humans ages over a period of hundreds or release excessive amounts of nutrients; thousands of years. it shortens the rate of aging to decades.
Getting into- Sources Sources of Eutrophication √ √ √Point sources are directly attributable to one influence. In point sources the nutrient waste travels directly from source to water. Point sources are relatively easy to regulate.
Getting into- Sources Sources of Eutrophication √ √ Nonpoint source pollution (also known as diffuse or runoff pollution) is that which comes from ill-defined and diffuse sources. Nonpoint sources are √difficult to regulate and usually vary spatially and temporally (with season, precipitation, and other irregular events). It has been shown that nitrogen transport is correlated with various indices of human activity in watersheds, including the amount of development. Ploughing in agriculture and development are activities that contribute most to nutrient loading.
SOURCES- point & non point Point Sources Non-point Sources√Waste water effluent (municipal and Runoff from agriculture/irrigation industrial) Runoff from pasture and range Runoff and leachate from waste disposal Urban runoff from unsewered areas√systems Septic tank leachate Runoff and infiltration from animal Runoff from construction sites> 20000 feedlots sq. mtrs Runoff from mines, oil fields, unsewered Runoff from abandoned mines industrial sites Atmospheric deposition over a water Overflows of combined storm and surface sanitary sewers. Runoff from construction Other land activities generating sites less than 20000 sq. mtr. contaminants. Untreated Sewage
SOURCES Major Sources of Eutrophication √ Major sources of excess nutrients are agricultural fertilizers, domestic √ sewage and livestock wastes. Agricultural fertilizers provide inorganic nutrients. √ Sewage and wastes provide both inorganic and organic nutrients.
PICTORIAL SUMMARY OF SOURCES OFCultural Eutrophication EUTROPHICATION
Impact- Effects on Environment Effects of Eutrophication on the Environment Decrease in the transparency of water Development of anoxic conditions (low oxygen levels) Increased algal blooms Loss of habitat (e.g. Sea grass beds) Change in dominant biota (e.g. Changes in plankton and macrophyte community structure or changes in fish composition) Decrease in species diversity Change in the aesthetic value of the water body
Impact- Effects on Society Socio-economic Consequences of Eutrophication Increased vegetation may impede water flow and the movement of boats The water may become unsuitable for drinking even after treatment Decrease in the amenity value of the water (e.g. it may become unsuitable f or water sports such as sailing) Disappearance of commercially important species (such as trout) Loss of tourism/recreation (swimming, boating) Loss of aesthetic value: visual disamenity of algal blooms in lakes
IMPACT Before Eutrophication After Eutrophication√√
Algal bloom in a lake EFFECTS OF EUTROPHICATION
Overgrowth of floatingAquatic plants EFFECTS OF EUTROPHICATION
On right: Fish mortality duelack of O2 in Indonesian lake EFFECTS OF EUTROPHICATION
NOW PLAYING Getting Real- Video footageCREDITS: Lets understand the process SIMPLY…!Piotr SokolowskiSource:www.youtube.com
REMEDIAL MEASURES Reduction in the use of phosphates as builders in detergents Reduction in the use of nitrate containing fertilisers Implementation of tertiary sewage treatment methods which remove phosphate and nitrate Improvements in agricultural practices (economising on fertiliser use and improving land use) Aeration of lakes and reservoirs to prevent oxygen depletion particularly during algal blooms Restoration of natural wetlands, efficient in nutrient removal Removing phosphate-rich plant material from affected lakes Removing phosphate-rich sediments by dredging
Bibliography- References Thanks to the sources…!!! √ √ √ √ √