Examples include social networking services, SMS, Youtube, Skype.
At end of 2008, 1.54 bil people had access to the internet. By end of 2009, 4.6 bn people will be subscribed to a mobile phone. Mobile broadband 5% of world population and rapidly growing – in Europe, 50% penetration by 2013 from 20% today.
We are tackling learning across informal and formal settings in our $5Mil per year research center with 20 professors and 50 doctoral students and postdocs. distributed center – partners ; one of six.
Our unique focus - to deeply examine the special roles of the social in learning. Learning in K-12 settings under 20% awake time – relatively unexplored sea of blue for learning the other 80% time. Greater potential than realized for harvesting “funds of knowledge” from people’s learning experiences outside of classrooms. Many more forms of productive learning are found and experienced outside school than those exploited by schooling. We need to support bridging across informal and formal learning. We need far more knowledge on the development of learning interests and learning pathways over time and space - and their influences. And we need to treat the activities and life experiences of the learner throughout the day as our units of learning design, description and explanation.
Source: John Seely Brown’s diagrams from Minds on Fire, Brown & Adler (2008)
Secure student groups formed by teachers. Matters for social networking policy issues in many US Schools
March 5, 2010 Release of the Obama AdministrationNational Educational Technology Plan -Establish the purpose and focus of the NETP-Brief you on key elements of the NETP - goals, recommendations, & actions for transforming American education
Today, we have examples of systems that can recommend learning resources a person might like, learning materials with embedded tutoring functions, software that can provide universal design for learning (UDL) supports for any technology-based learning materials, and learning management systems that move individuals through sets of learning materials and keep track of their progress and activity. What we do not have is an integrated system that can perform all of these functions dynamically while optimizing engagement and learning for all learners. Such an integrated system is essential to implementing the individualized, differentiated, and personalized learning called for in the NETP.
The multiple-choice tests used in nearly all large-scale assessment programs fail to meet the challenge of capturing some of the most important aspects of 21st century expertise and competencies. Past attempts to measure these areas have been high in cost and limited in their reliability. Promising R&D applying technology to each of these components of the grand challenge are ongoing, but the pieces have yet to be integrated into a single system that is applicable across content domains and cost-effective to implement.
To meet the education and productivity goals articulated in the NETP, learners and their parents, educators, school and district leaders, and state and federal policymakers must use timely information about student learning and financial data to inform their decisions. Today, these data are maintained in a variety of digital formats in multiple systems at local and state levels. As the processes of learning, assessment, and financial management and accounting move into the digital realm, educational data systems and educational research has become data-intensive and complex in scale, heterogeneity, and requirements for privacy. Still, we must create systems that capture, curate, maintain, and analyze educational and financial data in all scales and shapes, in near time, from all venues in which learning occurs: school, home, and community. This must be done fully consistent with privacy regulations.
Research labs and commercial entities are hard at work developing online learning systems and combined online and offline learning systems that support the development of expertise within and across academic disciplines. We know we can accelerate learning through online tutoring, restructuring curricula, aiding concentration, and through the use of positive reinforcements including giving control of the learning largely to the learner. And we know that the current “packages” of learning that define semester and yearlong courses are generally arbitrary and a result of long-standing tradition rather than the result of careful studies. Twice the content expertise and competencies in half the time at half the cost through online learning systems will require careful design, development, and testing.
Roy pea lpch_06_10_10
Developments in the Learning Sciences and TechnologiesRoy PeaStanford UniversityLPCH Leadership Forum10 June 2010 <br />
Topical map<br /><ul><li>Brief on Stanford University’s H-STAR Institute
Radical changes in learning environments with technology
NSF LIFE Center: “Social turn” in sciences of learning
Creating the 2010 National Educational Technology Plan
Preparing Learning Sciences and Technologies researchers at Stanford
Dialogue</li></li></ul><li>What is H-STAR?<br />Interdisciplinary research center focused on people and technology – and an industry partners program, Media X.<br />Emphases: How people use technology, how to better design technology to make it more usable (and more competitive in the marketplace), how technology affects people's lives & the innovative use of technologies in research, education, art, business, commerce, entertainment, communication, national security & other walks of life.<br />H-STAR pursues its mission in a number of ways, all built on our core belief in the power of collaboration: <br />we organize interdisciplinary grants, contracts, and other funding opportunities; <br />we convene faculty to work collaboratively on projects — across the campus and in collaboration with faculty at other universities around the world; and <br />we organize events such as lectures, small seminars, workshops and conferences, sometimes through our Media X program <br />
H-STAR as crossroads for interdisciplinary research <br />…engaging people, expertise, projects & programs connecting Stanford resources in human sciences with research & innovation in information technology.<br />The social problems at this intersection are significant, challenging, and in flux, as there is no social equivalent to Moore's Law — technological capabilities are expanding far more rapidly than our social and cultural adaptations to their properties.<br />At the individual level, technology can be difficult to use, limiting its potential benefits: it can join people — but also separate them; it can teach — but also distract and create new inequities; and it can accelerate work and life — but also interfere and overwhelm.<br />The "digital divide" highlights how information technology is distributed unevenly on the basis of economics, knowledge, language, and culture. Although technology is a primary business force that can make products and services better, cheaper, and faster, it also transforms the fundamental character of human experiences in disruptive waves. <br />
H-STAR focus<br />Individual and societal challenges with research and innovation that preserves the details, literatures, and methods of traditional disciplines while benefiting from the emergent synergies and surprises that come from interdisciplinary ventures.<br />The human science literatures represented in H-STAR include the cognitive sciences and neurosciences, linguistics, logic, symbolic systems, learning sciences and education, philosophy, sociological & anthropological studies of social interaction mediated by technologies, information processing, emotions, persuasion and rhetoric, visualization and vision sciences, and work about oral, written, visual and musical production.<br />The information technologies that H-STAR influences include computing and media systems of all shapes and sizes that can understand and produce language, faces, gestures and emotions, and systems that can automate human-machine dialogue, display information in different formats and sizes, and create collaborative work and learning spaces, incorporating agents, avatars, gaming, and immersive environments.<br />
MediaX<br />Research Activities <br />Span Stanford Labs<br />Stanford University Medical Media & Information Technology<br />SUMMIT<br />Distributed Vision Lab<br />DVL<br />Electrical Engineering<br />Psychology<br />Psy<br />Computer<br />Science<br />Virtual Human Interaction Lab,<br />Communications between Humans and Interactive Media Lab<br />EE<br />Linguistics<br />Ling<br />Philosophy <br />CS<br />Com<br />Phil<br />SHL<br />Stanford Humanities Lab<br />Graduate School<br />Of Business<br />GSB<br />VWG<br />Virtual Worlds Group <br />SCIL<br />Stanford Center for Innovations in Learning<br />CSLI<br />Center for the Study Of Language & Information<br />Art<br />Digital Art<br />Center<br />Eng<br />Engineering<br />& Product <br />Design<br />Ed<br />School of Education;<br />Education and<br />Learning Sciences<br />PBLL<br />Law<br />Work Technology & Organization<br />Des<br />SSP<br />Stanford Joint Program in Design<br />PBLL<br />Law School<br />LIFE<br />Project Based Learning Laboratory<br />Symbolic<br />Systems Program<br />Learning in Informal and <br />Formal Environments<br />
H-STAR faculty participation<br />59 Stanford researchers from all five schools have carried out H-STAR funded research, participated in an H-STAR research planning retreat, or hosted a visiting H-STAR researcher from another university.<br />Over 90 Stanford faculty with their students have received over $2.5 M in research support through H-STAR's Media X Industry Partners Program (last 6 years).<br />Active areas include<br /><ul><li>immersive virtual worlds and virtual humans
entertainment and serious games</li></li></ul><li>What are the Learning Sciences?<br />Field devoted to advancing scientific understanding of learning & engaging in design, implementation, assessment of learning innovations.<br />Origins in late 1980’s: integrating cognitive science, computer science, educational psychology, anthropology.<br />LS researchers have expanded focus to: curriculum design, informal learning environments, instructional methods, policy innovations, and the learning neurosciences<br />
Professional Society, Journals, Doctoral programs<br />“ISLS is dedicated to the interdisciplinary empirical investigation of learning as it exists in real-world settings and how learning may be facilitated both with and without technology.”<br />Journal of the Learning Sciences<br />International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning<br />Many different doctoral programs in USA and abroad….<br />
How are Learning Environments being Transformed? <br />
Youth are (mostly) wired and ready for tomorrow’s education<br /><ul><li> 93% of 12-17 yr old teens use the Internet
64% of online teens are generating new media content 39% of online teens share online their own artistic creations, photos, stories, or videos
28% have created their own online journal or blog
Next decade of technology-enhanced learning opportunities combines… <br />Very-low cost, “always on” smart phones<br />Participatory media culture<br />Social networks used for learning and education<br />Increasingly open educational resources, tagged to learning standards<br />Immersive worlds and games – for learning, too<br />Location-aware services (GPS) for learning-in-the world<br />More accessible platforms for developing learning and educational tools to be used by learners 24/7 <br />
What’s enabled these changes? <br /><ul><li>Pervasive information and computing technologies including mobile devices, connected with networks (cell, wi-fi, wired…)
Web technologies enabling people to share, access, publish—and learn from—online content and software, across the globe.
Convergence: Professional tools such as desktop and laptop computers have begun merging with personal technologies - mobile phones, PDAs, music players, digital video recorders, digital cameras.
Networked content today provides a rich immersive learning environment incorporating accessible data using colorful visualizations, animated graphics, and interactive applications - Not only “classroom content” – books and videos.</li></li></ul><li>
The Learning in Informal and Formal Environments (LIFE) Center<br />life-slc.org<br />An NSF Science of Learning Center<br />
LIFE Center Purpose<br />To develop and test principles about the social foundations of human learning in informal and formal environments, including how people learn to innovate in contemporary society, with the goal of enhancing human learning from infancy to adulthood<br />
The “Social Turn”in the Sciences of Learning<br />Increasing attention to social foundations of learning, to augment the cognitive revolution.<br />Learning involves not only transformation of cognitive structures but of participation in cultural practices.<br />Evidence that social interactions contribute significantly to key “drivers” of learning: identity, interests, agency, engagement, social networks.<br />Concern with examining cultural practices that shape learning outside of school – including family, community, media & tools.<br />Sense of increasing societal importance of collaboration and teamwork & need for science to better understand and improve practice and mediating technologies<br />Greater use of social designs in formal instruction beyond teacher-led classes.<br />Appreciation of special brain processing of social stimuli from social neuroscience research – e.g., on mirror neurons.<br />
Learning Ecology Framework (Brigid Barron, Human Development, 2006)<br />Accessed set of contexts, comprised of configurations of activities, material resources, and relationships that are found in co-located physical or virtual spaces that provide opportunities for learning.<br />(Source: B. Barron, Human <br />Development, 2006)<br />Contexts of Development<br /> • Unit of analysis is person and multiple life spaces<br />• A learning ecology is dynamic <br />• Subject to interventions<br />• Activities, ideas are more or less boundary crossing<br />• Influences: Lewin, Bronfenbrenner, Cole, Engeström, Lave, Rogoff, Saxe, Vygotsky<br />Framework has descriptive and prescriptive uses <br />
Mapping learning activity across setting and time<br />Case analyses indicate that most sustained learning projects have been aided by one or more learning partners, and that choices of learning opportunities often had dramatic consequences for expertise development – learning is profoundly social<br />Learning partners<br />father<br />Community<br />School<br />Home<br />
Learning and developing 21st Century expertise (LIFE Center)<br />Expertise is the integrated blending of knowledge, skills, tools, strategies and values to adaptively respond to the changing conditions of thinking and action in a global context.<br />Both disciplinary knowledge and interdisciplinary knowledge<br />Developed & evidenced in “communities of practice”<br />Striking a balance of efficiency and innovation<br />“For the past 25 years, we have optimized our organizations for efficiency and quality. Over the next quarter century, we must optimize our entire society for innovation.”<br />(US National Innovation Initiative, Council on Competitiveness, 2004)<br />
LIFE Center: ‘What develops with expertise?’<br />Competencies and dispositions for acting adaptively in problem domains – including: <br />Knowledge and skills<br />e.g., conceptual, procedural, strategic, tactical, and analogical capabilities -- traditional focus of expertise studies<br />Metacognition <br />e.g., knowing when and how to use resources if you have them, and how to recruit them if you do not - in terms of people, tools, information<br />Sense of self <br />e.g., identity development, interests, engagement, persistence, orientation to error and failure<br />Social network relationships with others <br />and their resources of all these kinds, possible divisions of labor if they can help<br />Uses of and innovations with technologies and material resources<br />e.g., representational and computational tools for mediating problem solving, physical stuff that can be leveraged in the situation at hand<br />Values <br />e.g., the dimensions of valuation that influence whether something is viewed as a problem or not, strategies considered culturally appropriate in addressing it, consideration of acceptable tradeoffs when values conflict<br />
Navigating Complex Learning Ecologies in a Changing World (cf. Carol Lee, Educational Researcher, 2008)<br />U.S. society is becoming increasingly diverse (ethnic and racial group representation, global migration, linguistic variation, etc.). <br />Understanding life-course outcomes necessitates studying how people move and learn across settings and navigate across varied cultural practices and value systems. <br />Places vary in their ability to adapt to (and leverage) the variable resources that learners bring with them. Learning is largely not coordinated across settings.<br />There is basic science needed to document the multiple learning pathways that exist across the complex ecologies of society. <br />
LIFE Consensus Study on Learning In and Out of School in Diverse Communities<br /><ul><li>Report synthesizes research on the relation between school and out-of-school learning of diverse students.
Focus on maximizing strengths and building on the educational capital of diverse students, rather than a focus on performance gaps.</li></li></ul><li>Consensus Study on Learning In and Out of School in Diverse Communities<br />Learning is situated in broad socio-economic and historical contexts and is mediated by local cultural practices and perspectives.<br />Learning takes place not only in school but also in the multiple contexts and valued practices of everyday lives across the life span. <br />All learners need multiple sources of support from a variety of institutions to promote their personal and intellectual development.<br />Learning is facilitated when learners are encouraged to use their home and community language resources as a basis for expanding their linguistic repertoires.<br />
A shift… to The Future of Cyberlearning: A vision of the year 2015…<br />Mobile technology access to school materials and assignments<br />Virtual Laboratory<br />Simulations<br />Learners<br />Virtual interaction with classmates<br />Supplemental content<br />Visualizations of real-time data from remote sensors<br />Parents<br />Teachers<br />Lifelong “Digital Portfolio”<br />Home<br />School<br />
What Is Cyberlearning?<br />“Learning that is mediated by networked computing and communications technologies”<br />As in “cyberinfrastructure”: “if infrastructure is required for an industrial economy, then we could say that cyberinfrastructureis required for a knowledge economy.”<br />“Cyber” also as in Norbert Wiener’s (1948) “cybernetics” — built etymologically on the Greek term for “steering.”<br />Cyberlearning is learning in a networked world, where the forms of “steering” of learning can come from personal, educational, or hybrid designs. <br />
A Brief History of Technological Advances Making Cyberlearning Possible<br />
Participatory culture: 21st Century Education<br />“We have also identified a set of core social skills and cultural competencies that young people should acquire if they are to be full, active, creative, and ethical participants in this emerging participatory culture:<br />Play — the capacity to experiment with your surroundings as a form of problem-solving<br />Performance — the ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery<br />Simulation — the ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real world processes<br />Appropriation — the ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content<br />Multitasking — the ability to scan one’s environment and shift focus as needed to salient details.<br />Distributed Cognition — the ability to interact meaningfully with tools that expand mental capacities<br />Collective Intelligence — the ability to pool knowledge and compare notes with others toward a common goal<br />Judgment — the ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility of different information sources<br />Transmedia Navigation — the ability to follow the flow of stories and information across multiple modalities<br />Networking — the ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate information<br />Negotiation — the ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms.”<br />• How do we ensure that every child has access to the skills and experiences needed to become a full participant in the social, cultural, economic, and political future of our society?<br />• How do we ensure that every child has the ability to articulate his or her understanding of the way that media shapes perceptions of the world?<br />• How do we ensure that every child has been socialized into the emerging ethical standards that will shape their practices as media makers and as participants within online communities?<br />
LETS GO! Mobile Science Inquiry<br />Roy Pea & Heidy Maldonado<br />Stanford University<br />Marcelo Milrad & Daniel Spikol<br />
LETS GO: Learning Ecologywith Technologiesfrom Sciencefor Global Outcomes<br /><ul><li>Innovating learning science by doing science – both science content & inquiry strategies
Key Audiences<br />K-16 education leaders and educators<br />Public and private sector education community<br />Policymakers<br />Business leaders<br />Students and their families<br />Public at large<br />
Key Messages<br />The NETP is a Five-Year Action Plan for Transforming American Education, Powered by Technology<br />an urgent national priority, based on a growing understanding of what we need to do to remain competitive in a global economy.<br />A Rigorous and Inclusion Process<br />The NETP, led by the Department of Education’s Office of Educational Technology, was developed using a rigorous and inclusive process built on the report of a Technical Working Group of leading education researchers and practitioners, and on input received from tens of thousands respected education leaders and the public.<br />Five Goals, Recommendations and an Action Plan<br />The NETP presents five goals with recommendations for states, districts, the federal government, and other stakeholders in our education system that address the five essential components of a 21st century model powered by technology: Learning, Assessment, Teaching, Infrastructure, and Productivity.<br />The Time to Act is Now<br />We do not have the luxury of time – we must act now, embrace continuous improvement, and commit to fine-tuning and mid-course corrections as we go.<br />
“Transformation, Not Evolution”<br />To accomplish these goals, we must embrace a strategy of innovation, prompt implementation, regular evaluation, and continuous improvement.<br />The programs and projects that work must be brought to scale so every school has the opportunity to take advantage of that success. <br />Our regulations, policies, actions, and investments must be strategic and coherent. <br />The NETP presents goals, recommendations, and an action plan for revolutionary transformation rather than a plan for evolutionary tinkering.<br />
Five Goals, Recommendations, and an NETP Action Plan<br />NETP presents five goals with recommendations for states, districts, the federal government, and other stakeholders in our education system that address the five essential components of a 21st century model powered by technology: Learning, Assessment, Teaching, Infrastructure, and Productivity.<br />
Informed by the Learning Sciences, Powered by Technology<br />Advances in the learning sciences give us valuable insights into how people learn.<br />The new recognition of life-long, life-wide learning ecologies requires new designs.<br />Technology innovations give us the ability to act on these insights as never before. <br />
“Broadband Everywhere”<br />The plan relies on the broadband initiatives funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, including the FCC’s broadband plan, which are intended to accelerate broadband deployment in unserved, underserved, and rural areas, and to strategic institutions that are likely to create jobs or provide significant public benefits.<br />
The NETP’s Five Goals<br />Learning: “All learners will have engaging and empowering learning experiences both in and outside of school that prepare them to be active, creative, knowledgeable, and ethical participants in our globally networked society”<br />Assessment: “Our education system at all levels will leverage the power of technology to measure what matters and use assessment data for continuous improvement.”<br />Teaching: “Professional educators will be supported individually and in teams by technology that connects them to data, content, resources, expertise, and learning experiences that can empower and inspire them to provide more effective teaching to all learners.”<br />Infrastructure: “All students and educators will have access to a comprehensive infrastructure for learning when and where they need it.”<br />Productivity: “Our education system at all levels will redesign processes and structures to take advantage of the power of technology to improve learning outcomes while making more efficient use of time, money, and staff.” <br />
1. Learning<br />The model of 21st century learning described in this plan puts students at the center and empowers them to take control of their learning. The model asks that we change what and how we teach to match what people need to know, how they learn, where and when they will learn, and who needs to learn. It calls for bringing state-of-the art technology into learning in meaningful ways to engage, motivate, and inspire students to achieve.<br />
2. Assessment<br />The sciences, technology, and assessment theory provide a strong foundation for much-needed improvements in assessment. These include new and better ways to measure what matters, diagnose strengths and weaknesses in the course of learning when there is still time to improve student performance, and involve multiple stakeholders in the process of designing, conducting, and using assessment. This plan looks to technology-based assessment to provide data to drive decisions on the basis of what is best for each and every student, and that in aggregate will lead to continuous improvement across our entire education system.<br />
3. Teaching<br />Teaching today is a profession practiced much as it has been done for the past century and mostly in isolation. Transforming our education system will require a new model of teaching that strengthens and elevates the profession. Just as leveraging technology can help us improve learning and assessment, technology can help us build the capacity of educators by enabling a shift to a model of connected teaching. In a connected teaching model, connection replaces isolation, and classrooms are fully instrumented with 24 by 7 access to data about student learning, and analytic tools that help educators act on the insights the data provide.<br />
4. Infrastructure<br />A comprehensive infrastructure for learning that provides every student, educator and level of our education system with the resources they need is necessary to transform our education system. Its essential underlying principle is that infrastructure includes people, processes, learning resources, and policies, and sustainable models for continuous improvement in addition to broadband connectivity, servers, software, management systems, and administration tools. Building such an infrastructure is a far-reaching project that will demand concerted and coordinated effort to achieve.<br />
5. Productivity<br />While investment in education is important to transforming education, tight economic times and basic fiscal responsibility demand that we get more out of each dollar we spend. We must be clear about the learning outcomes we expect from the investments we make. We must leverage technology to plan, manage, monitor, and report spending to provide decision-makers with a reliable, accurate, and complete view of the financial performance of our education system at all levels. Such visibility is essential to our commitment to continuous improvement, and our ability to continually measure and improve the productivity of our education system to meet our goals for educational attainment within the budgets we can afford.<br />
Grand Challenge Problems: Ambitious R&D efforts that should be funded to support this plan<br />
Grand Challenge Problems: History<br />A grand challenge defines a commitment by a scientific community to work together towards a common goal - valuable and achievable within a predicted timescale. <br />Predecessor: Hilbert’s1900 address to International Congress of Mathematicians on 23 major mathematical problems to be studied for the next century.<br />“Grand Challenges”: major problems of science and society whose solutions require 1000-fold or greater increases in the power and speed of supercomputers and their supporting networks, storage systems, software and virtual environments:<br />U.S. High Performance Computing and Communications program (HPCC, 1991)<br />Larry Smarr, NCSA Director, c. 1989<br />
GCP #1<br />“Design and validate an integrated system that provides real-time access to learning experiences tuned to the levels of difficulty and assistance that optimize learning for all learners, and that includes self-improving features that enable it to become increasingly effective through interaction with learners.”<br />
GCP #2<br />“Design and validate an integrated system for designing and implementing valid, reliable, and cost-effective assessments of complex aspects of 21st century expertise and competencies across academic disciplines.”<br />
GCP #3<br />“Design and validate an integrated approach for capturing, aggregating, mining, and sharing content, student learning and financial data cost-effectively for multiple purposes across many learning platforms and data systems in near real time.”<br />
GCP #4<br />“Identify and validate design principles for efficient and effective online learning systems and combined online and offline learning systems that produce content expertise and competencies equal to or better than those produced by the best conventional instruction in half the time at half the cost.”<br />
NETP urges education system at all levels to:<br />Be clear about the outcomes we seek<br />Monitor and measure our performance to improve learning outcomes while managing costs<br />Use a process of continuous improvement – redesigning processes, putting them in place, and constantly evaluating them and iterating for effectiveness, efficiency, and flexibility<br />Apply the advanced technology available in our daily lives to student learning and our entire education system in innovative ways that improve designs, accelerate adoption, and measure outcomes<br />Learn from other kinds of enterprises that have used technology to improve outcomes and increase productivity<br />
The Time to Act is Now<br />No luxury of time – we must act, embrace continuous improvement, commit to fine-tuning and mid-course corrections as we go.<br />Success = Leadership + Collaboration + Investment<br />Success will require leadership, collaboration, and investment at all levels of our education system – states, districts, schools, and the federal government – as well as partnerships with higher education institutions, private enterprises, and not-for-profit entities.<br />
Leadership principles: “Model the Way”and “Enable Others to Act”<br />
Ph.D. Program in Learning Sciences and Technology Design (LSTD)<br />LSTD is dedicated to the systematic study and design of psychological, social, and technological processes that support learning in diverse contexts and across the lifespan, including educational settings. <br />LSTD students complete foundational research on learning, and they design innovative learning technologies. Graduates of the program take research leadership positions as faculty, scientists in companies, government and other research labs, designers and evaluators of formal and informal learning environments, and in learning technology policy-making.<br />The LSTD curriculum includes courses on learning, research, and design, as well as small integrative seminars and explicit apprenticeship opportunities. Students also develop advanced technical proficiencies (e.g., programming, computer animation, graphics design, simulation modeling, video production, user experience, museum display). <br />