Hello, I am Roy Daniel. My presentation will be about autism and the autism spectrum disorder, abbreviated to ASD.
The term Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to three specific conditions. I will be talking about them and who can be affected or diagnosed and the signs and symptoms of ASD.
This is what most people think of when hearing the word "autism." Not everyone is like “Rain Man”. People with autistic disorder usually have significant language delays, social and communication challenges, and unusual behaviors and interests. Many people with autistic disorder also have intellectual disability (CDC.gov, 2012).
Pervasive Developmental Disorders - Not Otherwise Specified: (PDD-NOS; also called "atypical autism"). Many people, but not all, who meet some of the criteria for autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome, may be diagnosed with PDD-NOS. People with PDD-NOS usually have fewer and milder symptoms than those with autistic disorder. The symptoms might cause only social and communication challenges (CDC.gov, 2012).
Asperger’s Syndrome: People with Asperger syndrome usually have some milder symptoms of autistic disorder. They might have social challenges and unusual behaviors and interests. However, they typically do not have problems with language or intellectual disability (CDC.gov, 2012).
ASDs occur in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups, but are four times more likely to occur in boys than in girls (CDC.gov, 2012).
About 1 in 150 people are ASD (CDC.gov, 2012).
More people than ever before are being diagnosed with an ASD. It is unclear exactly how much of this increase is due to a broader definition of ASDs and better efforts in diagnosis. However, a true increase in the number of people with an ASD cannot be ruled out (CDC.gov, 2012). Some notable and historical people are speculated to have been ASD. People such as: Andy Warhol, Charles Darwin, Emily Dickinson, Albert Einstein, Lewis Carroll, Sir Issaac Newton, Thomas Jefferson, and Mozart, to name a few.
ASD symptoms begin to show before the age of 3 and last throughout a person's life, although, symptoms may improve over time. Some children with an ASD show hints of future problems within the first few months of life. In others, symptoms might not show up until 24 months or later. Some children with an ASD seem to develop normally until around 18 to 24 months of age and then they stop gaining new skills, or they lose the skills they once had (CDC.gov, 2012).
ASDs are "spectrum disorders." That means ASDs affect each person in different ways, and can range from very mild to severe. People with ASDs share some similar symptoms, such as problems with social interaction. But there are differences in when the symptoms start, how severe they are, and the exact nature of the symptoms (CDC.gov, 2012). A person with an ASD might: Not give any big smiles or display joyful expressions by two months old. Infants might not “coo” with their parents back and forth by six months. By 12 -18 months babbling is a skill that should be under development so, the toddler should be exhibiting some sounds like it.
A lot of in the early months and years of their lives wont gesture in a communicative way. They don’t call out things which would normally catch the attention of a non ASD. They don’t point out objects or show toys of interest or even reach for something they want. In most Cases ASDs are hypersensitive to all sensory stimuli. This is especially true when going to do thing that non ASDs take for granted. Some ASDs have repetitive movements like rocking back and forth or flapping their arms like a bird.
Each child or adult with autism is unique and, so, each autism intervention plan should be tailored to address specific needs. Intervention can involve behavioral treatments, medicines or both. Many persons with autism have additional medical conditions such as sleep disturbance, seizures and gastrointestinal (GI) distress (Autismspeaks.org, 2012).
Most parents would welcome a cure for their child, or a therapy that would alleviate all of the symptoms and challenges that make life difficult for them. Just as a child’s challenges can't be summed up in one word, they can't be remedied with one therapy. Each challenge must be addressed with an appropriate therapy. No single therapy works for every child. What works for one child may not work for another. What works for one child for a period of time may stop working. Some therapies are supported by research showing their efficacy, while others are not. The skill, experience and style of the therapist are critical to the effectiveness of the intervention(Autismspeaks.org, 2012). Applied behavior analysis, early start Denver model, floor time, pivotal response therapy, and verbal behavior therapy are all effective methods of treatment.
While there currently isn’t a clear and concise cause for ASD there have been advances in research which lead physicians to believe that there are genetic and environmental contributing factors. There also is no known cure for ASD. As parents and family, for now, all we can do is help our relative live as close to normal a life as can be expected by: treatment, therapy, and medication, if needed.
Autism & Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism & Autism Spectrum Disorder Rogelio O. Daniel Jr.American InterContinental University
Conditions• Autistic Disorder – Most associated with “Autism” – Significant Language Delays – Social and Communication Challenges – Unusual Behaviors and Interests – Intellectual Disability
Conditions• Pervasive Developmental Disorders - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) – AKA Atypical Autism – Not All are Diagnosed PDD-NOS – Fewer & Milder Symptoms – Only Social and Communication Challenges
Conditions• Asperger’s Syndrome – Symptoms are milder – Social Challenges – Unusual Behavior and Interests – Do not Have Language or Intellectual Disabilities
The AffectedASDs occur in all racial, ethnic, andsocioeconomic groups, but are fourtimes more likely to occur in boys thanin girls (CDC.gov, 2012).
The Affected•About 1 in 150 people are ASD (CDC.gov, 2012)
The Affected• More people than ever before are being diagnosed with an ASD.
To learn more about Autism and the Autism Spectrum Disorder visit www.autismspeaks.org
References• Yeargin, M. Dr. (2010). In What is Autism? Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/NCBDDD/autism/videos/wh atisautism.html• CDC.gov. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html• Autismspeaks.org. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.autismspeaks.org/what- autism/treatment