Web-and-computer-based learning and teachingVirtual education and digital collaborationOpportunities to access and learn information online
To incorporate pedagogical principles such as social learning theory and multiple intelligences theory into our instructional activities2. To bring experts into the classroom worldwide3. To revamp the curriculum and maximize learning and teaching opportunities while utilizing technology
The learning pyramid indicates that we learn and remember best when we teach others. In an online learning environment, learners can communicate, collaborate, and teach each other with positive learning outcomes.
Social learning perspectives: Context: Interactions in web-based learning environment Learners interact with peers, instructors, and other professionals globally (messages, shared experiences, modeling, …) Group and class size Research indicated that large class size might be overwhelming for instructors and learners. In small groups of 15- 20 learners, students and instructors may have better opportunities to assist each other (Hill, Song, & West, 2009). Resources Providing various resources such as text, video, and audio helps accommodate different learners’ learning styles and preferences. Culture and Community: Culture Cultural differences and ethnicity influence learners’ perceptions of online learning. For example, a comparison between Korean and American graduate and undergraduate students indicated that Korean Students tend to be “goal-oriented” and believe that success is directly related to hard-work, while US students like the learning process and mastering the skills (Hill, Song, & West, 2009, p. 94). Regarding the ethnicity, foreign students who have issues with language fluency will have time in a virtual environment to process information and respond to digital communications. Community Research indicated that working in groups and communicating with peers are effective learning methods in online learning environment and create a sense of community necessary for socializing while gaining knowledge (Hill, Song, & West, 2009).
Learner Characteristics Epistemological beliefs Includes learners personal beliefs about how knowledge is obtained. Research indicated that “constructivist-oriented” learners preferred online learning environments that promoted problem-based learning and “reflective thinking” (Hill, Song, & West, 2009, p. 95). Individual learning styles According to Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory, each learner has a different learning style (Jackson, Gaudet, McDaniel, & Brammer, 2009). To accommodate different learners’ cognitive styles, e-learning brings new opportunities to facilitate learning and performance. Self-efficacy Learners’ confidence in approaching and learning new tasks. Recent studies indicated that learners who were familiar with internet technologies participated more in bulletin and discussion boards while learning to their fullest potentials (Hill, Song, & West, 2009). Motivation Intrinsic motivation – personal interest and desire for learning Extrinsic motivation – externally rewarded behaviors From a social learning perspective, different types of motivation affect learners’ online learning and performance.
Utilizing technology to support and facilitate learningSocial networking tools such as blogs, wikis, and google docsare commonly used for communicating, collaborating, learning, teaching, and much more.
Informal – learners occasionally explore different websites to find the information they are looking for…. Self-paced – learners access learning materials and decide when, where, and how fast to learn
Leader-led – Instructors or leaders facilitate learning and provide assistance for learnersPerformance Support Tools – online assistance for performing different tasks electronically
Northcentral University School of Education EL 7001 Roya Azimzadeh July 2012
Overview E-Learning Definition Why should we embrace e-learning? The learning pyramid Social learning theory and technology Types of E-learning
E-Learning Definition Electronic Learning (E-Learning) Technology-assisted learning and teaching (online and in class) Content is delivered using various media such as text, images, animations, streaming videos, and audio Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-learning
Why Should We Embrace E-Learning? Pedagogical principles World-class education Technological advancements
Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory (socially constructing knowledge and sharing experience) Context Interactions Group and class size Resources Culture and Community Culture Community Image source: Southalabama.eduAdopted from Hill, J. R., Song, L., & West, R. E. (2009). Social Learning Theory and Web-Based Learning Environments: AReview of Research and Discussion of Implications. American Journal Of Distance Education, 23(2), 88-103.doi:10.1080/08923640902857713
Social Learning Theory (Continued) Learner Characteristics Epistemological beliefs – learners’ personal beliefs about how knowledge is obtained Individual learning styles – Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory (Jackson, Gaudet, McDaniel, & Brammer, 2009). Self-efficacy – learners’ confidence in managing new tasks Motivation – Intrinsic and extrinsic – different types of motivation affect learners’ online learning and performanceAdopted from Hill, J. R., Song, L., & West, R. E. (2009). Social Learning Theory and Web-Based Learning Environments: AReview of Research and Discussion of Implications. American Journal Of Distance Education, 23(2), 88-103.doi:10.1080/08923640902857713
Social Learning and Technology WikiImage source: http://www.google.com
Types of E-Learning Informal Learners occasionally navigate different websites to learn information without any structured curriculum. Kassens- Noor, 2012 referred to Twitter as an “active, informal, and outside-of-class learning tool” (p. 2). Self-paced learners access learning materials designed by training professionals at their preferred time, location, and pace. (e.g. learners independently develop learning strategies in an e-Learning course) (Wiklund-Engblom, 2009).
Types of E-Learning (continued) Leader-led An instructor or professional leader designs instructional activities and facilitates students’ learning electronically. Students can access synchronous course-related information per video-conferencing, audio, or text messaging. Students can also access asynchronous course materials online at any time. Performance support Tools Electronically supported learning and teaching (e.g. how-to software and tutorials)Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructor-led_training http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?search=performance+support+tools&title=Special%3ASearch
Summary Reasons for embracing e-Learning: To improve the quality of educational practices To accommodate different learners’ learning styles Flexibility of time, location, and speed To practice innovative educational approaches To offer learner-centered education (eliminate passive learning and foster interactive learning while engaging the participants) And much more ….. Thank you for your time!
ReferencesJackson, A., Gaudet, L., McDaniel, L., & Brammer, D. (2009). Curriculum integration: The use of technology to support learning. Journal Of College Teaching & Learning, 6(7), 71-78.Kassens-Noor, E. (2012). Twitter as a teaching practice to enhance active and informal learning in higher education: The case of sustainable tweets. Active Learning In Higher Education, 13(1), 9-21. doi:10.1177/1469787411429190Sandars, J. (2011). The e-learning site. Education For Primary Care, 22(5), 345-346.Wiklund-Engblom, A. A. (2009). Approaches and strategies for choice of actions in self-paced e-learning in the workplace. International Journal Of Advanced Corporate Learning, 2(1), 56-61. doi:10.3991/ijac.v2i1.618