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Basic Japanese Cheat Sheet


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Basic Japanese Cheat Sheet

  1. 1. C9 '19 '3 '17 F-"E+ U +3‘%> ti’ t7E+L$5 I73-T 7'£IITT’l. Ii IT. i!+ 7.§: L‘& I"E-l- 7ZIfJ‘D7'. :‘5 M + 7‘£: L‘t7>LIf7£I: L Q 313 + b"5/OTC‘ '3 IoI, u,= ,rcm| sho clccom llerln Ilsaoes I -3 + Ielf If. .. I— -1] + E If not. .. lefl + E» - Must/ have to. .. + rgwmf gfigrgm :33 + 7‘. ')“5 After. .. F ‘H + '5 PM + Eliot? ‘ Before. .. + iii: Because. .. In orderto. .. '7 -H + T: <V)IZ While. “ (at the same time) L. -l I. Even if/ when. .. 4» 4]} + ‘E m lpEllTllSSII)IEI L113 + ZE) . I, IlI, lg ® Try to", to do and set the result L I]: + to make an effort + Must not. .. W] + I; ,tl, lT7': r.l. lit To do in advance. .. W] + 35 < To do too much. .. Li. ] + 3'§Z> To do. .. and so on. To (irreversibly) do. .. Combination Verb ; .] +/ ER32 Chaining Phrases 4» 4]} + pi-iRA5[2 Iliragana I13 013 01‘! IE + 7.‘;7b‘Df: 0) -W3 llI—'crIrs) I. iitI, I.u~. Im P5 C B '* "I -c _Ia, p 3,] . T.e: :e This document can be downloaded for free from: http: //cheatsheets. nihonshock. com lormalllerlls Inlormalllerlls Present/ Future Tense + E? " Present/ Future Tense 3]] Past Tense + $ L7’: Past Tense 4% Progressive Tense 4» 4]] + DE? ’ Progressive Tense Pi} + L, %> Negative Present/ Future 4» -] + ififu Negative Present/ Future 43} + fail. ‘ Negative Past Tense A -] + $13.’/ uT°I, T'c Negative Past Tense Command Form 471]} + <7"E‘5l. ‘ Command Form 3 + 7?: ‘5b‘D m ea —> La Usually zoiisidered rude! (5 —> ZL, Negative Command + 7'. ;<L'C‘<TE'$L Negative Command + 7.§<b"C‘ + 7‘; 3 Potential Form I1Wcr| »<> 4? + $3’ Potential Form «ivmini 5% + 7;: ID *‘a“”*i"“° <1W'«~i'l~~WB+'5T’1$”9" i. m.. i.. ;a+Ena §'%—> FEE? ‘ </ E>—> ZZ‘57r1§? ’ '§'éT T36 Goa Zhé Want to. .. 17] + 7". :l, "C‘? ' Want to. .. 9 ~] + 7“. :L, Don't want to. .. »- -] + 7“: <7L'; L‘T‘? ' Don't want to. .. + 7‘7:<7'é: L Let's. .. I» -] + E Lot’) Let's. .. - Shall we. ../ Shall I ~ foryou? + E L, .,t57b‘ - Shall we. ../ Shall I ~ foryou? + 75‘ Passive Form tl‘—erl>l M] + hi? ’ Passive Form IL —’t~rbs) Ii. ) + 11%) ‘B T I” be Ned (RU—'crbsi L + 151"L§"g" Irtit1»rti«i {.3 + 511%; 3'6» ens? <6» Zliiirli? 3’/ ER t‘T’L%> <%>—> ZI57r1%> Causative Form iuvcri-si T7.-I + ’c4_*§‘s3' Causative Form iU—'rrl»> 4- «B + ff/ E: ‘B : §%§IL‘§lTZL‘§ <'“Wcrb—= > lfl + Eiii? ‘“'i“’"‘”l r N + ‘$337 §'%>—> 312%? ’ <%a—> Zitiid d’%a—> Etié <%>—> Zt*’é%> coniuuating tlerlrs SHEET WEST TEST 3 each store river mountain car (E ii: R E TEI what north south east '1" “ / E E i 73 write buy learn understand 1-‘—v tc E Fa‘? 5'6 safety long interval previous sky fish rain white TO Nilionshockcom ZOIZ, All rights reserved. flower year gzt-. ~ EU L read l%J high / : it spirit Yen book ‘:2 3% :3 hour week as an talk language E an old new '5-E X electricity heaven ear noon 3 say / A . 3 meet ii iii 4% name school company country ER station "'1? / polite) I : 7Z; b“(“9" is interchangable with 35 U ifl/ u (slightly more formal). Adjectives that end in L‘ are i-Adjectives, '3 except where the final la ‘ is part ofa kanji. I1? EASILY CONFUSED NA—ADJECT| VES ? E7I"LlN I3‘-3iE€ / beautiful) Tb “I21 14 ( 0}} 5~:5'L ~ (<2: ‘T / unfair) was fast not fast wasn't fast if fast if not fast too fast A o A o I, r bw AN aw _. /w . /N 7w EAIWTME Bmbmewsnuém _7mn/ mwwbuum TEA 21$ e Wln em am am mm aw am / emamememem vmsasmxmem Ewimyymm . .@m. om$m. .«msum . Am. .em.7m mam n+_X+_m%¢i. H . eaom$w. «n. um Aaem7w. C.. ;am ill I I M 5 ufltm emoasmamem mAmeH7m$. am . naTL. rE 3 “I ammmwmmmom m. .7.N. .:m.7w. ._$/ m mmflwflmmumfl . nmEn. amrm: am x . am: Tn. ../ mgrmem m , . 1 1 I e m m taemomcnem anew. /mamrm mtcin moi euunrmenem . aa. .yn. xm_e. ... .ym mfiaammamn l ambm weeem R/ as/ mxwocqf/ m IE B A H a n . m mtzm . .na. +T. .awZ. .:m . mm%m<muu: m sumambmaenm mtfimame . @AmI5u, z.f5o TA/ I1+/ ulaaao : t%mEs 3 M K m m N M; m: fl/ Egon S v C . " .0 emnewwe M . u.. U I Wrroimbivbt vol ab min W 9 an A-T_cc_cc . )k Hfionmmcm mm T G40 ms; 5 m M 53% mamas, M. 15m m hum v. a. ..s<. <em. m calm w (me; mwaww U 1:1 C9” 0 C «v.4» IC I¢¢¢¢ 52,. Mn em M +/ ;J. T¢. T¢. T¢ : .0 mm me I Z M . 0 0.. . a anbznmmhm m mm M / C: c<ZZ¢c¢¢TW7m%% M at Tam NE E? I mmnflm H x. ._x. ._¢c$c “wow an Am. ..“ m 5 . I)d fig «QM . .€. .€L ‘um, .. fl 79 . ®h. rm7cEm, m nw 9 mUn _. C.Me P. @ +9LL+9+9LLL on ma NF afiwmm nzm m. .(l« I . ll NM Km see u efifim n B 5 LT Lb m . ... ..vw. I.. vw we dmim n. .en. eze 9 M cccczcma s. a.m. m.m v. .«. «.«. «.«. .«. .«»» m I Wm wrsqi Wtttttth ch. w m m . ... n.: ... _o 0 Su maths F. nriimmm m mm mmm in 5 E V_L M mmmkm F netaee. m um . n. MRMMM am . +_<q Manatee M mmmmmmwm meee. Ummwfwaws WI mmmmmmeh meme. Ia*‘*’. f3": 7’: l$T~i. <7E: l.‘ lzM5.<7T;7ti‘o T: lzM*>. lf7hl; l’ lzM°. <7EIIThI£ lid’-‘. ‘9"i? é - Drop 7; from NA-Adjectives if followed by a form of -cases ' ow (good) always conjugates as Act‘ - It is possible (but uncommon) to add is to a NA-Adjective to create a noun (ie. if/ aisa‘) G) : "Noun—ab| e"form (can be changed into a noun with C& or 0))
  2. 2. WA - Tonic lllarlter - Marks the topic of a sentence. (non—grammatica| ) - Contrasts one option or thing against others. - Used when elaborating on things already known to the listener. <%«$ (3 hfcl, b‘ 5/ufk» L, $L7’: a 7’c7;<b‘fi‘/ u ii 35i3‘ita E {ai‘Cb$3'a As for the car, I was the one who drove it. Mr. Tanaka has money. (he is rich) (tn-Sulliecllllarlter ll - Marks the subject of a verb. (grammatical) - Separates / calls out one option orthing from others. - Used when adding new things/ information to a conversation. - Used when describing specific things with adjectives. - Marks objects of potential-form verbs. (can/ able to) r - Connects clauses with a meaning of"but”or’despite. ” lilé/ of 75‘? 'ZL, l; tt: ’é'§? 'a 7’: f;7f; ‘é'/ via‘ &t5b‘i<. t% 4Eaa‘(L‘§3'a (l) can speaklapanese a little. Mr. Tanaka has the money. (with him now) WA vs. GA (Detailed Article) - http: //nihonshock. com/ waga - Marks the object of a verb. - With verbs of motion, shows where the motion occurs. <9 E bwi Lfca %5 E as: tisi/ o :7) :9; E imsr. (I) bought shoes. To fly (in) the sky To talk about (things of) one's self. Written with hiragana "u/ o", but the "tv"sound is very faint. @ Ill - Tlle "l| iming” Particle ' Marks an indirect object (the person/ thing an action is done for/ directed toward) - Marks a destination, direction or specific place for an action. (to/ at) - Marks a specific point in time (ie. Monday / 3pm / 1972/July) Q - Marks a period of time that something repeats in. (ie. twice a week) ° Marks direct objects for: 3%: (to become), 355 (to meet), 0%; (to ride) ia~: nt; .t )2 two E filffaa 3:50 l: Cain/1/ll cxeieata. L“5l: *5 i: :r—e— E izixv 036. (l) gave her a book. Let's go to the park on Saturday. (I) drink 2 cups of coffee a day. I'll - The “lr'rIIle" Particle - Marks a person that an action is done Lb. - Links nouns to create a complete ”and”group. E] - Marks guoted speech or ghrasal obects: ages (to think), 7b‘< (to write) - Shows a natural/ predictab| e”i” relationship between clauses. - Marks onomatopaeic words. (words that mimic sounds) Phrasal ob)ect a. _?f? ’__7_5____Ci°__*_EZ“_= .. 3=>‘*»L‘$3'o (| )th kthechairbroke. (3 When quoting speech, <3 can become ‘UT (informal) El : *’: C% & lit? ’ to speak in whispers U’/ uf) L$L7": a argum nt with (my) boss and manager. I]! - The “EnaIIIino" Panicle - Marks a pli, m, or length of time inside which something occurs. - Marks a method to_o| or circumstance under which something happens. - Marks a material or substance; composition. Moi; E lib/ tr rs $5671: Lt. an L: twee ca ? f§LT: a (I) learned kanji in two years. Today (l) came by train. lllll - Evenllllso lllarlter - Used with other particles to add a meaning of"a| so/ too”or"even. ” (‘E replaces ii, tr‘, and E completely, but follows all other particles) - Turns interrogative words (ac, fin, mo, etc. ) into every~/ a|| ~ words. a5a*~5:*b ice) vfiibrca vial, L? a pm *6? oh. hm lzt woe E5 ‘(too (I) also/ even went to Osaka. It's okay even if (you) ignore (him). He is always like that. Jiistri '(‘ ’)<'5>h. f: 7752 a scarf made of wool Can be used instead of L: to mark a destination. - Marks a sentence as a question. - Links nouns to create an "or”group. - Turns interrogative words into some~ words. Kym (who) + b = fihbx (someone) Note: hiragana "he"is used. Links nouns to create an incom lete”and” rou - Shows possession. (is 7': (,0) 2 my/ mine) - Combines two nouns. Note: the final noun becomes tlre”primary"meaning. bwbe 0) <6$ 2 the company car iii» to i/ UUO <%$ £7) 7:rLl, (%> 2 a car company books and pencils (and such) n : also marks objects of? l’)75‘Z) (understand), li l, L"C‘3' (want), and 3'rd§'C"§' (like). E: k (and 75‘) groups listall theirmembers, ’5 only lists some. Written with hiragana "ha", but pronounced "wa" I%@l@ li“7b‘ D 4 L. IIIKE Ci’ - Marks a | imitet mt or extent of something. (”not more than”) - Used with ‘(‘i*E> (and other potential verbs) to mean "as ~ as possible” l, ‘*Sl. i/3‘/ u fflf £3? <f': °‘é’L‘a Please wait forjust one hour. "(fir 7’EHl1‘’~‘< tJ‘L"( <1'E‘é’l. ‘a Please write it as quickly as you can. - Marks an extent oramount which presents a problem for the speaker. - Always used with a negative verb form. b7". :l. L1 it/ vi/ u L26‘ -‘€n‘(t, ¥t= _‘/ no I haven't but one thousand yen. 357:7’: it Lb‘ ‘-{"£‘7é: l,‘a Only you can do it. 6 i 2:“ - Marks a degree or extent of something. (not small) ' Marks an approximate number or length of time. IIIIIIII ' Marks the greater element in a negative comparison. %0)<Zu$ ii Z¢7J<Z>§ liéf l; t‘‘5<7£; L‘T‘? 'a lié 75‘ L‘f: < 7.';9f: lifi hlilni Lita That car is not as fast as this car. I laughed so hard that my stomach became painful. Marks the lesser element in a positive comparison. “From ~” (when closing a private letter) ? fD <6§ (3 CU) 979$ 4:’) l1'5l. ‘ ‘("551 That car is fasterthan this car. Marks a possibility or suggestion. Turns interrogative words into any~ words. M - (Used as an interjection) means"even so/ but/ however” 355’? Tit 0D<7>*§L, $5b‘a l. 9'(“b '(‘/ vb LT <7"ETSL‘a Shall we drink some tea or something? Please call me anytime. Marks an approximate or negotiable degree, amount, or length of time. (speakerfeels that the exact number is not irnportant) Alternate form: <“ BL‘ 73‘/1/Li E l; ‘37bL (“5L 75‘< & 1'J'§’1'L7;L J1» If you write a kanji about 10 times, you won't forget it. Means ”on| y’£ or“to the exclusion of other things” Bmmm - Can be pronounced lzfob“)/ lzfo b‘ for emphasis. 50> ‘Saki L’: (3 as/ ot»; €>: lib“) vim That classroom has nothing but girls in it. é: trff15 #5 E535 Lfco - Marks a starting place ortime. Iheard about it from a friend. ' Marks a source of information. bt~=5‘ lat Wat; tee idol; 3? rte‘. the meeting is from 1 o'clock until 3 o'clock. I ' ' E 'Z* . yV; g<; ;o"“: "w{}g9b; 'ffe screizrz i/ a*f—l~ me am‘. er Pl 1 th tb 1 . MM“ meansuby/ before” ease wrr e e repor y omorrow llmfllmmillfiilil lififn‘ eomnarison liivellteceiue ° Marks the greater element in a positive comparison H ‘“l’°"""°“““‘°' (JCU marks the lesser element). 3 T Q ' Can take past tense verbs even for non—past sentences. '5 L35 W5 V73 73 < case . ;u E/ ot2‘L i: ewe lié as new can an} Sugvgd Qeceive Rather thanlooking it up, itwould be fasterto ask theteacher. J g ‘ 35lf%> “Eb? lllmlnlnlldiilil treat» whether or not ; m7mmaf CU) ii/ u E b‘5 /3‘ E5 /3‘ b‘/ r/75‘7c'(L‘E? a _ l’m considering whether or not to buy this book. 6'“ (‘° me) Informal llIfl1lll: OL‘T nltoutllteaanlinu ”"'“b'° CU) L/ IT3—| *l3lCl§/ uU)1’I5'l, lC9l. ’('(°"9"a - - ~ « « eonlllnctlons This report IS aboutlapanese history. [between “muses! llmuxmmm 1:195 coniunctirro Adverbs ii‘ “ AME In am" to [start a sentence] wag A, but); lclé/ a.lZl, <7’: é7>l: ‘"50: m’_La{’ "9" ""’”9h A'B izimz-E«*; oae. :5t, zt%a. 7"c7b‘b Therefore (50), 03% even though A, B In orderto go to Japan, L,7f) L, However (but), 75“: because of A, B I am studying Japanese. Ins However (but), (7)3: because om’); ~T: tV)-- lii Adverb form TEHE However (but), 7315 ifA, B ~7": ¢V) -- (DI Adjective form 7': 73 L, However (but), & ifA, (U"3V°ldablY) B E : fat 5 (today), 35 L7’: (tomorrow), 3(7) 5 (yesterday), etc. do not take ll. E 1* (,5 W6 can sound patronizing; Fl’) 72:? ’ (to hand over) is a safe alternative. © Nihonshock. com, 2012. All rights reserved.