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An integrated-approach-to-intermediate-japanese

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An integrated-approach-to-intermediate-japanese

  1. 1. rfifroEä=FAkirr¡ Miurn I Nqomi H¡n¡rok¡¡ lllcGloin TüËTffiI á,'äJ ..'g.- 'iitrì:af ,,,'.,:li,' :::i;::,1'ì',i ' 'l:tt'j::' ' !:r:jrii:.:.. ^& *& ,, @ n W..' å f ,...."" & & .../l'l .r,...& . r/ with ! CDs
  2. 2. Copyright @ 2008 by Akira Miwa and Naomi Hanaoka McGloin All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, sto¡ed in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. First edition: J¡ne 1994 Revised edition: July 2008 5th printing: September 2009 Recordings: Kazusa Amagai, Takaomi Ashizawa, Takeshi Maruyama and Kiyoko Nagaki Illustrations: Seiji Okada and Shizuo Okuda Layout and Cover art: Hiroshi Ueda+Z'ebra Tlpesetting: Soju Co., Ltd. Published by The Japan Times, Ltd. 5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku, Toþo 108-0023, Japan Tel: O3-3453-2013 http://bookclub japantimes.co jp/ http://ij japantimes.co jpl ISBN978-4-7890-1307 -9 Printed in Japan
  3. 3. AÉ¿*. 7994+l-HH[ð i-ul¿ FAn Integrated Approac]t to Intermediate Japanese ( F #h.Ø1ä.#)J ØWilffiîbâ" gffi. t 4 Tavvvx+íc1Æ#þffiL{r.È=m L-<ìu 4 y t*- 4 Ø . ô 7, y * "alfr.b{t ( !./¡ +#kryffit+Etrì+È,4 ø#.îfr t:ãb /J !. Øî, +1,4 ìr. t+w+ùsffi: /¿ *r ùl /ìàì. 4 Ørã. . Øffirt+ãùt_ ta Øft,Éfr_ 4 t--c. EAffi?+À+ äèÅ,,tt"t-6.{!./¿/¿ ( ¿ ¿ år-C"È/;: Lþ, #.4 ù*lFË¿:ÆL (,H:{!'6o #f+Él*ffiH[ðffu/¿ 7c0)E¿.ÈÉ( äå. ¿ À ( Ëi]d'rf !.6¿ì. * ð¿:40)ñricbâ. * l¿- : Ø+El+FåØEA#. EÆXlLøÆfL¿:¿*&)ð"* Lr,. ö Ø¿ìó=/c" ffiùr EÆ7)#E f¿t, Ø#l-frt: ùttÈ t¡rÆ4?ù:8,6 {Lâ l-, k,WøíåHIt¡ E, HßgÊøÆíV,¡¿,},t¡ ( /J !." 4.1- ìEd¿¿x-'r¡ä¿s6. Ér,.Ë#¿ËffiæÆþE€:*frL. ¿fËlH[LUtfrffiT 6 r åi:L/¿. t-ù,t-, &NÊffiñ,øxfiFaÆ.ø: { L. /J L. L. HäffiEl&ÉEe{Fùt'î å å ò ¿: Ea&â+H ØÆffiþWÐ ¡. i L 1 âþJffi1) *rò u. ù äir z { ù. /J !.o 944t:#'.¡il-I¿ffi I fiEùå. =ffi ¿ -< ìu 4 vìrt*6ELt,trJ7 4 1¡ 7 þil,lt-ã.>rftffi,Ur¿ ò ØÈ:l:. lâ#l È. EffiMÞ)NØlffia+nl ùÌ=ffiag¡qgt-I¿l>Øù:tsà.2/¿Èì. -<ìu 4 vøeffiò ,9t¡ t¡.ù,->l¿o 4 Ølþ,tJ- =.iÊÐrCulture Notes. )E,HffiË. HÈm b ffiH. Ëffi?. 4 t-"C< ìu 4 v¿rÈ#æ. xÌå,¡ - l'' NiåffiH?EE L{ !. t¿" èEø&É-*Ifffi{. Ì1. w ìu 4 ytrtt&ilffxà. .þEY L. =màì 4 {tt: H ?ET Lt- iYtt L ->t¿" i o)¿ftâIW.ØHffF¿:H L( ùt. 9 t,{ v ^ 4 àîtrffiffiÆtrØHF+ryEð 1,. lüAiIäð 1,, ¿: ô ¿ å./¿ /J È st*dË#¿: t¡.->t¿o * Ì¿. ¿fi;lffxl:g Lf ¿å- JhiEËt+ØtüFUÆÊ#{lg.ø tffih þ 1+ â . ¿ Èìr.- È r + 1. /¿' c /:. $FwI &w.t : ¿*. ts ¿: âffi þffi ^+rJÆxØ HÊL ¿: *á r,. t. EI AØÐflttl ü: Fll L /; ËÉ ä 7 t' /ì 4 7 þ t, /¿ lì r. /¡ -t ù:. cD t&ffi Ø Fã ò tä*rïttr ttr Ìà .c tc " .0)Eþffibî/$.Ðf Æ#JFLl'ùt"6 " 40)l!ù,, .ØWNæþfÈ.-c1( /;.È:{1.å es ø ftHfrù, C, 4, - a Ø#t+ãt:ffi Lr. W< ø¿'ffififf ? !./¡È!.t¡.,ù' J., tôhLþF Lf'ùÌ'/¡ r,." 2008+^6tr -< ìu 4 vTâffiÉ#. (ù ¡ z' v yyfYffiffi) =mw (ù't z'vvvf#ñëffiW)
  4. 4. l, À ã DrLì ffi'o'EäIOE+ ffi.#-'*+T tEFÉaâf lvlt4lãrøa/Ëzâl. . eE tisisal täiHEal . 101 ffiry ",,v71.7>T ffi,,,vlvl{f hffit lÈ#r*El 141
  5. 5. br Ei ffi'",ffi fr f#ifuaziñÊäH)l .... 177 ffi""f.4þ7flU-¿OFñË tiéra=¡l [õr5rõ] . 1s7 úrã Ë ffi*,ffiãJZt;tcl¿à riËüaåÊeal 217 ,!rì tttu ffi"o f äEFfßffi tÊ*øHËËËtfi*al 23s ffi*'EËOåtft Êt¡ø#Hasrar 2ss
  6. 6. a¿ú)#Í+=o)v4lb>'>>> ¿ ø#t*Ê n, _ *l J HY¡. æ|*M X t. 3 â ûËäXl* ¿ 100 +Ë.Ê.o)#AlË+ Ø Ë 1+ þ #& z, þ1ffiv *tv0)WWHV,þ-ffiHt:'cII r¿ël4-.þ<¡tâ- L U{ !' 6 " Ù 4 7 a v v vx+tt' I å . -4ø3-7 (240ffitñ) v#&i¿I¿#L r. i I å ¿:/¡ å. t ¿ za vv vt+ÙÌHJâH*d'¿ru' -C. -- =4ø EA#àriEBËFåø r -Al¡ø{'. ¿ø#NEþ-+Ø+IJÐ ù:låør. ã-#¿: z)E!FÆ¿'tl â L. Èu./c r,.-$$ (30ìE) 'eâ15ËR¿ìt, x ) EftT-r â o -- --4ø :1 -X àì ìEü5ffiFñ t-ù't¡.r.t#t¿*. ¿ ø#t*#þ -+Øî*.+tr. òlfr.orTð : { ò À ( - *.Ì¿ffi=Y 4¿:à.à.= { ð tü ?Ær¡ u. å,Hbfr,å, aEÍ=ll-2t ìt >>>>> 1. f+ÈØ##¿i. /J â': < +o)#Êø#ffit:)E < î 6 t i I:Ç=þ"c ùl l¿. tsÌ:- x*#fr, tt.- /<L+W,/ÆWÍflt¡.#cÐ,?ìtrù1. trüÉlr¡#Ðfltt:T â !' ) t:%Ðl:" âffi¿ ffi^+rJt, ñä¿ìEläØH,)tt¿ T{¿a ¿ ¿ éÌå- #ÍLr,'1-' r¡ å?ffib^i'r{Æll ffi þ #,&-r¿ " {# ¿:. ffi s ËR Ø Eä.Øâffi.+. . f++.t: H3 å idrô- H t ¿ -#Ø {{4 ù: HT å ffi8f,;=Ég¿t7tiÆ.t:-Æ.ì:l¿"(fr,ø*øoô-+Z ù. tÛE'c"¿lä !'¿ì. æ)Ht ¿ ãt>t¡t'ã¿rtùåãfE LÈ. âffi-c" tJ- ffi7#o)*#2, ffig#.Øà#L 4l-'(ffirL#Øà#z'3tÌ.ft+t:ffi L ( Ll:" ffi15#¿t. f-ì{#iL ( ËÈ ù,Ll¿o à#øffiÊ|t> l4 vB è---lâ.J ¿ t'i ÜØ('.. àffiIiF:VF,Ø4 v r' c,'-ü:Ë¡'r,.{ t''â" ffiaqrJi:ü*[Coo1r¡ EA] ltrå * b JTì È'Ùa) ãÉR¿: lâffiffiËØ,Ë4 v þI t t'iE1þffiU (IF'¡I¿" âffffiËøff4 v l'lÌ. ã-# ØàffiØffiâ?t:lÈ-> /¿ffiH Vî âT¿u)øàffiøP+ftflAþßîÙ øt'. â#?ffiHT âW0) +WJì,t LtÃâ" t¡.tô- ¿ØEEþ=-#.tf å ¿ ¿ ¿:HL{¿1. tø#î*É (tEffi)¿:#fi[U'c{F ùruT¿ÃlffiltæQ0ú+. ilÉet+g++.+v i -#Tì t:, 4 i,r 4 È>øu v l k't?tt-â Ø.r'. : : ¿:ÉÉ,L'cf-áÈ/;!.o X#t - l' å XiËffiB3tËç t. XÌ*ffiÊtí- ffiEffX t lûf-r L{frL'f Tl'} i ü:. 7 +z t ¿ ¿iEUi:=#¿l t¿y - 2 1 v 2 t:r&ffiLÈ" Xi*ffiHÌ: ùÌ. l|lr¿ J. i t¡x]fk#E- ffiJ å¿t'. f ¿ ¿ ù: tÃâ- i.iù:/¡â)lI¿Ð¿:. j ) l:1 ¡ ! i'4 i'È'l-L'l ä ¿"ØmË{¡'âÐ/:. v -2lv 2 ù:¿txËfiFHØtiå.it. ffi^WØ^äHF"I ¿. å#ØlÉ( øþH,ì¿âÊ+) þffiHT âf¿u)øtÆ#v - l. ?lIXÐl¿. J. 4. 5. vf
  7. 7. 7. ÊFffiffit*, -f -rr øÊFþffi L ( ffiËLËL. cD¿:JlxffiL{. /*z I'i:ffiff¡¡.. ã# ¿ ü. lâffii lHÈffi b ffiHl /.-ùtr-/r < lffia+nl ü JItffi u-c b â " B. ffiltl)HB+T 4 | þ=Ê9.1j -c - z øffiffiþffi.-c 1#.L â L-c'np.t:-)L->#M+.Éffi.kææ3. â " a0)+14lù'åÉ?v-lþt'ùv p-1."1å: ¿ òf. åå" (20 08 +îkfÃ#Í Ë TJ RL: http: // ij .j ap antimes. co j p / ) a¿ø#ÍÍ+=o)le5Lì >>>>> l. . Øffit+ãØ#aÉ!¡¡ EÆ¿*. +ffi.v^.)vo+8offi,. ËÉ . ffi' ão)E&ÉE ãfr:ritr,Jr=l+ rfr: ¿ t:ó â" 7cøEffit=,ñ.->Î_ *0)#É,i:if,,,¿r¿Ì¡-. a. åÉFøF,ù''¿:âffi Lffiz)+rJ ¿ ?ËÈ. * /¿å-#Øffiíþ.t:ùÈ. ìÊffiÆØffiaW {¡=#ù}/¡. b. É ( ffiË L t-ac¿i. xlåffiHU.9*¿lFX{> åÐ t:. c. åFF¿:. Ef, åmb Fåffi?Ãd'u/¿" 2. ffi- t:, . ØWt+EIå. tEæÉT/rñ*¿ffiÉË. Z LT Ê*t/r E#=aEã#,à6. L þ Elffi L. 4 Ør¿Ðr:no)#R¿:gË L/¡" a. å#f". r ì :z ='/ -/ a y ¡;,ù,4 ¿,Bird't âffiÊe, GH^-f a- #i ,/#bfLâ. r¡ t) ?€^l-l¿" 4t-t, 4Øà#ØffiH¿ìLf Tr,.À i ¿:. âffffiHØ,f,4 v l. ¿ L{. &#øffiÊâþ t, 4 ) 4 | U I¿*ffiØFåfrH&.þ >s l-T¿ " b. à#þ Éf*r¡òØ ¿T â lit: (fiU¿¿S. â#årÉÈÊ#tFtbtur¿bl,r¡t.À 7¿:)ã, þ)û /¿" *rcàffiøz/ 4 tvt¿_ lî2.-"7.1#J Øüiå.. l'"ffiltö{ffi2¡ Ð3ìËH lEìt'( ó å. c. v-rlv2ù:rEffiL/¿lXl*ffiHl l*. ËÈæå F'l yr¡.å'øffiffifrT¡¡ bØþ#ùÌ:-- É21æ266Ø3F,ù'¿ L. âffiffiËÉ'lz¡ l>Øl>ts ( âÐ/¿" d. authentic r¡ EÄffi?õf å r,. : Ëffi"c. R1þ.ø 5-#â (ffitr-#Ñ-ffiß#*) o)-ffia+nE ti+ffiM (-y + 4 - #iEf,É¿Sr¡ Ð) ?ffiÆ L/¿. e. ã#¿:. lìEÆffiËJ Ø&fcommunicative/¡ffiËþ-ttl, 4T y -? P¡J¡ì;v- z"v-, t:!. b. ++¿sæffiÉt¿:r ì ¡- =f -y = yffiÐttr:ârtn-eÈ å À i ¿: Lt¿" vil
  8. 8. J l-- 3. ffi= t-- ¿ øwt*ãÈ. ¿ tr ã.+*.c fl-E^+Ëo E Ër;f.If 6rgffiã,*,bã . ¿ v HæL L. 4 ørc Ð t:nØ#Ê,ù:iù"¿s¿1 ¡-" 4Iøø3#3hå, î*,' Ø12ËRùr. E#Hø EIA("Ø+ÉVffitù å L. ffiù:Ëîkøz #f' ùr. tñ,ft E aØlfâ . x.fhFËE þ w.-> T¿ " å#ù: 9ë#t' culture Notes þ t tr' l¿ " lËffi1 r" ùr. FFIJ ¿ L r. Ar,.Ëfficø EAyçIL (E#LØÉ ì-Ë. H{Hz¡ E) þffitt t: L /¿" d. &#o>W*> t¡ t':, :- Lb3'*öFHþ'ctItc" aË+ËHl-21,ìc >>>>> 'Æ?øffiH¿Ì. lkffiÉ'TË Éz¡ ò Ø L t-I¿" +fr#..øffiÞlÉ¿: ¿*. #ËlÊFäâ#€^T â . L þEW ¿Tå òØàsElü?åì- 7cØP bËtrÉffiÉ!¿:ìEùlr¿" &ÊÉ#LÊ'>-c ö- æÆffiF ØÉr. ò Ø¿. à{Ét. ò Ø*1bât-- ffiÊrg+þ+ffiâY¿:€Ã-f â Lu')lEþW.â L, 7c ØT¿Ð¿:ftEr¡Hffi?€^L/¿ b. THffit¡X.þ^{L'C L*rl¿ b-râWElù:ftEâ" fr,tr:- fr, æÉ'FEð f¿( t. â+#h#t+æØ+¿: tl. 4 ØFùtts < He' {Lâ " *T¿- ftë.+.o)älÉ¿:H{fiø wr.ÌË+çEäx/:L],*æÊr,r¿Ë.?t¡ à ùÌ. /¡ L ì-ffiÈl$+¿:â*dr.{t.ä ( { ö. 5f €^ T^ìå fì L4Zò{Lâ" 7c 6 4 ð EfiØlË+ttt- -.Ø+t:-'cl:}køffir}frùtb å Ør)ìg)E /¿å'È, Ê+þ t,'(:€ÃL/: å t'iëLfrtt- ó* bËffiàì/¡¡'o L/¿àì:'Gf'4 ¿1. Ë+ Øffi.Hù: H L f ùJ,. Ë-ñtr L *qXWþ ffi- L U'C. - Wt :¿læir dnr./J !' J i ¿: L /¿. * r¿. €ÃÌË #ø1':-Cåìëùl 6 I i i:F*î â Ø Ù. ft#¿.:ftËffi¿:¡lfu, L4 ì- t' {Lâ Øf . ã-#Ø€ ÃÌË?¿¡,. lË( øþH,LâH+) ¿ lffiÐi'¿ll't.r.lË+l È i:âtll¡" .o)#t+ãt*- 7, y hØX+ØEã#Ø++.ùI-+Ør-^þW., åDÐ åFå¿:. -4ÆrË= aHZ(t. åÌg+ t*tttJj,00+ÊEt" bô i å r,. ) ÈiËÌ:fr.->1-â" 4l-"C., =4ø r-ÃîÌ1. Z0)ltù.t:, EtI âË+ ¿ =*núÒ â æ+þ ã=â+700 - 800 f à t'H à { ò 6 à lå-'+â L u' i frE þfr c { !' å " a ¿ ú)#Ír+=øüELì75 >>>>> 1. Culture Notes Culture Notesù*. &#t-xa Ì:Y/¿'c-(ffi*'ì¡l*á ( " 4Øfræt:)t'{ÙÌ. #ã fHFå U"cWffiÊ.þ I t v ? I â å Ì t'" a. b. c.
  9. 9. .). ,^.4 fSEE âffi l* cD (.H¿.ìi -, I x r {> f*Ë ¡ r¡ a. }hffifrlËt¡à#ù¡sst. Ø(". âff ¿ffirE ð È å o) ttlffiL t. ¿,Ki2 it å . [ËrE ð ì] l: t,.få'âùÌ. âffi à t' ( t à. l:ø = LH, ì;- ð È 6 ù.- *æîP]:fr-È4 it¡L:ô @là¿l'. å#Øâ#ffiËø'li4 v þ ¿ Lræñètrutt,'¿ff h') þH,ì- ð ìi å d)àìì,- r,./¿'é i. 4¿i- å ) r,. iÐãt= ¿" , É i à.- fH+ù: Ð i Éiri't /¿ ò Ð )Æzâù,- ¿ r. i ¿ ¿ f"ó ->'c.- à#0)LVJL*É-ãlÉt)#Éþ-râ,È'ry-Iit¡ r,." äÉFùt#+-ØÊ#þ J ( Ëf,t,.t. #b ø /¡ t,.FR b - ã¡ âË.Ê-øvariation ft=#äT-r È/¿.ói" -ffi,^vJ Hffi#.þtfr..'(fH L{ : ð È â " 2, ^ît!ÊãñðÈ. Éffi?ilEEt. Fñä¿: l'>-c Æffiþffi#,T â " ffiffi L t- 1 2 -, i v 2 o)ñäHFå I:Æ ì-ð ì¡ 6 " 4. Bffi Hffi*¿:ù*. ã-H#¿:À b È¡'/¡¿ìrùt i-b(, - 7 2+v | öñL Abâ¿r. âffiçffiå talt=i*affi¡:- 4 .tt:H{ ( åËffiØ#ËffiH3ðì}{*á ( å } t.. 5. {Æ+V ^ t lÉ ( ø þH,26Ë+l ¿i. 2 - ? i.v ? aÊ+i - ¡-rÉ ( fiFH3ðl} å" lffie)d'Lùå-' 1.r,.ÌË?l ¿*. 4ØAØffib. ffiÐ â J i I-r¡i'u¿J'l !'o ã( ÌË+ò. ffi¿îË+ò. #ÉF ttffiEl7 7 v/t ù-l"kffi:z-cffi*l¡ä¿rÈ. ÉffiØËffiøftÊþlt.ù.6. ffiFfiø-# TFEb _ i*?rz|þTâ0)ùtÌru.o /:rìu1à t {"¿t. ,fEil.rØË+¿ìÊùTr¿bffiu)I¿D lâa ¿/ìù1?#il^ì{ò. ó* bÉffir)ì/¡¡.o w+12 l.ØFåffi¿*. lË+ØÉrqlùì/ùù'-> -c r,. å ¿. Ð i à.¿ffi^ìáF"Iffi¿: j-^ìÈ 1bâ. fiJå¿f. lx+o)ft,+_Øù 7.r x ùtooä ¿r.il Lt-)x,þ4å-. coØtrt:1ffifr1 ¿g¿.ì¡â!.iE-râ" . )t. i7ãffiþlF6 Øùt. u'c z i ffirfi¿ìå.È. 6 àì- YEJ=lj.ffir'rlrì ô i " 6. Ë+ØffiË' : ØA{. ¿t. ääÉ'!äËFË^?€^T âì,=ÆÐÌ:Ø-c'. .0) < Ù L'ùÌ+4¿:Hà ðì¡{ ð r,. !.È ô i " lll+ (:)J t r. i Ë+¿l ¿ t ëå * 1å.J å Hr,-{. ltrå" I i l: /4r^ì¿,J ¿: trl È j r'-fl ¿æLð ìi 6ËÆØffiHþT â t !.r,. å,8 i "
  10. 10. 7. Ilåu - t Xttt - l'it. ÉËÆt:lFr'dut{u'a" IF,FIJ¿ L{. 4ts¿#1âÍfr.Øà#*/¿tiffi r)+rJØffiWì,:H{ ( 6XitEH þÍHð ì} 6" * /¡. 2, ^"effily-þÊffi,ð Èr. Fñä¿: ! b +Hl)Wffiþffi.tr, Ð â,ù,W 6 b ô ) . fififfiøHlfr}.- FXI*-EE ù>f¿ b Z-t (' 6 r. ¿: g Ð /¿ Ès. 4' /¡ u. È,H b d'r, 6 Eã tt - 2 7 7 "c øffi H ø Ftr ¿: ìÉHffi o ( L. /¡ /;' È /¿ u.. XÈÅ,¿ - l. ØEEl+. ffil:69ð'tt/¿1. ò Øil. Efrø2 -, ).y ?tr=[*ttffigl ¿s qle) 6d'¿{!.6" xlåffiHIt- r ' 7f rt,ì-L/¿axØffiE¿:.âbl}{EÉffiË&ðli I¿ØL. ffiffi ¿ L "c-# L. æH ð È'å " ìgÆffiË :EÆffiË¿: l*- !. ô,. ôt¡#EtE#-¡ìfr{ ( â Øî-- 4 {Lþ+#H D B ¿: î 7ã 0) HËùt, ÆX-e ¡t,ì- L/¿l{äfffiÉV,l^ãfj'È"C.. ,t'l-T-c11i J i t=î â L À !.o u -tvz'v 4 þdtIy-z"v -2 þt âEãt:tt, *î'HFfiøffiB¡¡ åZðìi-c ù.ùo)frùt",itRàìóàì â" (FX.ò Effif.. FJLIì7.,vrì4 l. i::1,.{É¿.-r} â/Ã. à, 2 7 xÍ.'ffL.âr,. þ U'c.tì à. ffiE¿ LÍff.î" HÈM b ffiH :d"rùÌ. ffiffi¿ L{CDäHå.È'. Fñffi?ç àt'f i6 < " ,,rîtt, Æì-ãbÈþ'f âÈtl -c'l r,.o Èr.l:!.Oxfrz¡øt". Æà,È*>t ù:ÌrffiFå&ð* b ¿.ùll¡r,.1Ë{r. O x ¿: H l-"C++.ØÊ,F,*;/ùn,fut¿ffiç. ñãù:c u. {HF"I ù¡f[,l¿tãàl¡ Ð it. Z 7 zt l) i-EcD ?Hå.ì¡{ ò } ì,.¿ì. 4{t*¡lffit:r¡.â L. +äùtEf o). Lt¡ù:6. ffiffiäç oar- /¡ ( /¡-t"c.t-*iø'c" ++.þí=ffiL"c, ,, ^-e mlF.FrJLU'c.æzâbìi/a'ùl¿: ïâØùtU-t-lìôi. 10. iBffi : trrùt. ilffifpÌffi¿:Hfñz¡ ( . /¿Èffiôf"XL{r/¡r) Ø60)äØ('.. 2 , ^{'ffi*¡r. Æ i-ã b t þ T 6 " #Êfr t t++.0> Hlã t : t *Æ Z â ùt - ffiât-Ëffi ¡ È â tà å Ø,2'F Ìr /¡ r' " 11. ¿ ¿bË"¿dF€ ¿ L',ð"òf/Føü- Éffi?#,HÅlîÊffiØffiHþ ðìt. ffiIEðì¡åØ¿ìÌ !." :i'u?il ffiØffiEl¿:^tt âù. Ð ) ¿.ùå. â( EgäÉFøÉÉ/a't. ¿øÆø ¿ å bÈfflFã¿¡f¡,¿: È,r¡t.Ëù*. Ë5¡¡ ò Ø ¿ Ëåffi¿{TÈ : { {¡ } t,." B. 9.
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  12. 12. IT URE Noo o c o a Meeting Someone in Japan hen you meet someone in Japan for the first time, you bow as you say either ft UtD t U( or ¿)ê &Zt (, or both. You also exchang" ä#|J (cards) if you have them. tn Japan, everyone other than children, students or full-time housewives is expected to carry them. Sometimes even university students choose to carry them for prestige. How low you should bow depends on who you are as well as whom you meet. ln general, women tend to bow lower than men, and if you meet a person whose status is higher than yours on the Japanese social scale, you should bow lower than the other person, e.g., your teacher, a friend's parent, etc. lntroducing Oneself or Others Q elf-introductions occur quite frequently in Japan. At a reception for new students, for J example, you may be asked to introduce yourself in Japanese. State your name, the name of your home institution, your majoç and end it all with ¿iä&ôt-,( and a bow. When you introduce two people to each other, the rule of thumb is to introduce the person of lower status to the person of higher status. lt would be nice to also add a comment or two about each person, as lkeda does in âãÉ 2 of this lesson. How to Address Someone lTt he most common way to address an adult is "last name plus ûfu," but don't overuse û I Ívl To address people who have titles such .r #H (section chief), $bH {aepartment chief), iiH f.o*puny president), etc., use the titles instead of ðfu. To address teachers, always use#Eä. Above all, avoid usingõt*lc. lt could be quite insulting. The use of first names is limited in Japan: they are used within a family, by higher-status members ad- dressing lower-status members (e.9., parents addressing children, or older siblings talking to younger siblings), or they are sometimes used among close friends. o o o o a
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  14. 14. I *l 'l *,,,,, l.!.Ë 6.7>'ta n.ô < l6.F ca 2L.È À, 26.È.1 i ô' 31. Låsz 36.1- ôu- 41. L- * 46.TÈ 51. ù: ¿* À,D À, 56.16 A,rà 61. *az).ö ð ä 66.s*/i 7r.1À,8 76.<6 BT.Aâ 86.fáò i 91. t. i 96.. < 6 W.lÃl:,/IÃ, À, 2.ULc 7. i. À,,/ l. 12.lsc) 17.È¡p),/< 22. *, À, 27.T-J t d' 32. ( åsr 37. l*S ì,' 42.2 < zØ) À. 47.-tc *lÀ, 52. ù: ¿i¿,¿. 57. ¿ 62.¿i.i 67.r¡, *, ì- 72.11À,* 77 . È, t.,- tJ À' 82. J tf 87. ùt, t. 6 e2. sTte 97.l)2 I02. ¿ ò l¡"È .]. t- B. t't. ß.fÌ,ÌÃ,,/ l-t, IB.¿¿Ø2 23. LÀ, 28.ò(Ìrd' 33. fátá å t. 38. l¿å.!. 4[f,. -.sq /¡ ¿: 48.Uìt,À, 53. å L- l' 58.ËÈ 63.1ìr-ål ( 68.(6* 73. * u': å 78. lc -ì 6 83. å. ( BB. t.f¿6 93.)ù. ) eB. *, 4. À,1¿c 9.: 14.ÌÌ,/Ì.t 19. Dl9 i,z Lv 24.t:t, j i ô' 29.* À,1 i d' 34.Èr,.ð!. 39. sT L- 44. L.T o)l.I¿ 49. a-À-À, 54.LiÈ¡i 59.tô¿, )ãA, 64..ÌÀ,È ¡ l 69. à.1. L + 74. * ì..'¿ L 79. ù:ti¿,LJ ( 84. ù*/JT 89.16 e4.b ) 99.T¡, È, ) 5.ðÂ, 10. [.cc 15. ùÈË 20. ô+ ( 25.tlc J i ô' 30. ¿l i trì 35.À6 t. 40.t,4 àl L L. 45.T ¿ l- 50.bØu ¿ 55.td¿ ¿ 60. l* l* 65. ìù ¿,1¡ t- 70. taÈ.da 75. t' ( 80. Ø{-r Bs.È( g0.l- 6 95.1t ) 100. tr{,e
  15. 15. >>>>rffi 1l e H&E:+F5 E ä-.ËÈärutfi U ct+ I . ^ 2 f¿!ëþ:_2_Ø+ i, u V . ^- 7: - fii. E ä^âø/ (- 7 .r - *rutv E lI¡: 4+utv E il-¡: *r u¡v E Ú: *r uv E tl¡: *r utv E il-I: *ruv E tl.¡: *rutv E ¡I1 : *I utv E ¡I¡: *rutv bØ ). ^+L("îås. Elljftä1"u. t -> t- s l,. * Tå." i-Z- ãtlJ-eTàì. * t P )v "s-rt - ¿ + L * T. ^ì-r-ð Å,1Tå." [ ) 7c-- kô1, < " tôl- ( +áËFr'l-*.T" ft+.- u.?È.6 ¿ ¿ 1#.ì-{r.6 -:1,+âÀ,'a-Tù'. +E+Èiå.6r"TÌ" 4 0)Ê#t: BAà. à r,. à -> l- + oI¿ À,îttt." ZL- 7ci'eT" frÆ.. EIA¿* ÐÈ àà. à {"fà." RH("T" -ì-, - ð ¿,1Ì EÆnTt:/¡ ¿ å ùìbl' * TÈ.. !.!.å. *L'fT. îòg+Ltu. È.,H:{!.*1" BAffiØ+4t. TÈ." ùÌ,!.- BÄffi¿*Ë&îffitfrLl¿ øf". . . Ø- +Ø 2, A tt:x{L'cr./¿È È * L/;" .4 ) îTù." è4ø-.4ø¡ I 7.å=Wftä(" Tdâ. l*[._ 4)1T" _Þ_Q, 7 z.tJffiffi¡;?su,îT j " àr'{,ùS ot ( t'ð !.. 2 ùÌ,r.. 7)ì¿,¿sb *T"
  16. 16. *l 1*,,,,, ' Ê t#ËÊú)iüEr5T. È:E'ø ¡-¡, . )=ùvj7lãhØ^+W+l¿ffiflï<." t& Er mffi sþÀ iE El T]E ffi ¡.À Itil ffi 10 l'¿ IJN ffi h¿ fiffi tsh¿ ¡[ffiålr. :-t,t,tt, æØE:Ëø¡ ¿.17ùvE" IZVvE- :t,e, )t Hù' à : : Ø*+WîÉ,F=-LYkHt9.l-'c t.6/i[ffi* vTr]ã À," iÏm"c"f . ¿* i ?-'- !. ô t- < " ¿åDÐ* L-c. | ^ - 11 ù v(.T" +ËlJ7)=++'eT" 1, v vH- Er¿î=z¿rffiÈ/a'ùÌ Ð. ¡[ffið À,6î =¡åsffiffi/¡.à/ìj" {'ö-b+Dró b *ì¡.â,Ì" âE-Ëçb*Ljlå.o i-å. $'ÖtôÆEt.L*T. L.6î- 1rÙ vðrl,ÙtÐi L{EA#àìffiì} â A,1Tlt." -+Ë&gYU'c * L/¿ L. BAffiåìFW'alù. È, " t+'('Tdâà" !. !. å. * È* È{"1. BAt-q6þl#"> /: Ø ¿å. W+Ll¿H*È. 6 {"1å.. EØT t u.: ðìÉÅ,'ct,./¿Å,f 11. 4 {Lt BÄi:4ffiþ#._4 )_!-Ì4=Iç htTå.. 4 ) r¡À,1T" Eäffi 6Þl-W.ì-{ ð à ->l¿t-, EAø è1Ì ö /¡ ( ð.t Æ, l}l ð Èt ->l¿l-. Èà. à 1r, vË¿*. EÆx.l?¡--tu.{ öfi=;ftËËr¡Á,È. lË t È ¿i i Àl .'C.ltrlî'lù'" ¡r! rnr ôr¡ z L þNo([. 6 .r{1. i a L " 4 i1ð /Ju.¿l Ð/¡ó. t& t ib t El À EI À /ilffi Ì.À
  17. 17. ,,,,,#r ^l ov ltJ -ì7.{ - Èi Er: -174- Èi Er: -ì7Ì - Èi Er: -i¿ - Èi Er: ^i¿ - ,r ^r t r - . C- I - v yäì. E â^ft <flíí1ffieËf l¿Æ : lc E ä^É,1Ë1.tr U ä,tt õ " BA^+",lË b {"Tà." ì- L" -ì/4-îT" E)4--!ôU<" ÈiEó Èf"T. t^ i ê- t ô1,( . -ì7 4 -ðl"ùåt+Æ-CTà.. ft,H+XLr: l{-p1 þ_r"f . mHð /4,¿* ? 1 31- 3-, ù:bâ HaØârÌù:gJe)tt-â À,-aT ùl Ð. -lrElãffinïkw.t I BA^/É â L ç.â_t¡ A,'cT "5 Ba¿*ÐË òt-få." HäFt"T. ä * dr./¿ Ø ò Ë: È Ø {¡ H#Fr¡.{,{"f } "ùÈL fÅ {¡ HåF^î1< À,1T i." L ;'¿ Lo- *aft$-("Tà." z L - ËiÊß'cË# 3 - +ffi.L â i _1. !:.t+ pl_!_:_t-_T_. 6 4 i 1 -r ù. " 8-.!4ø_Ð_f _lì_I-à.. 7 Èir:-46W+U* L/¿. HäFl* 7cØW-Wl¿"ùtÌÉ* b * Ll¿ùl Ð. ¿ ( ð fi,¿:Ã b * L/¿. flrà¡u'6Fåù:. -Ëi Ë,-Ëc)ì¿:ì..6 ot-+ l..*ÈÂ,à." ffiHØffiîTùt Ð E i 4" .Ø&friJt-ñmø*.øæffiæEþÊr.{$aÈ *TÈ.6. Ði ò ã>bn: È j ¿'å"u.*T" Èi Er: d7¿ - Èi Er: ls -i¿ - Èi E: -i¿ -
  18. 18. u *Ë¿: ùå. Friends of InternationaT Students ¿Yr' 7ð À, å u. i ^¿1. rtÀ ù:Xt < {L'(, !.1¿o 7zr- ¿ x.I:tfrÐ"C ö 6 i-i_-¿--ç--/cÊ"_l_¿_" tv-h Ãð¿,Ì1. 6 å r. /¿ u. å Ë i tI {L à" {¡ . --f ð +-tØ^ä Ø(". e/tr=+tÊ(Ê). I I I *l 'l *""' , e/tr-+^E(^) È¡i ;'î u+rt) +EØ+îAZqffirôFlE&ffir. +EØ+îhEqffiré I ØffiJù:Ërì.l;. BAà. t+W. ffiffiþ,2),:ÈØù:- HA¿ r ) , rta>lã':¿tÊ?+äÉffiå r. ) öØåìó â0)t.lEDH ØldDffiFåùr/Ì.-t(L*:È. å t. i l,¡v-/øS y Å-0)¡v-fi ¡ ¿ìf;,?å. å * f". .¡v-h 7ð À,0) ã+lþ 7 7 - 7 l' jò -À r"ry¿,r" ö ¿ i ð I l. Àl ¿ ù*[rót'ù:__-(__r._. 8 Ìpi-ì¿i. ffiË'rìTî¡. ( HRfr¿Z¡ù'-tI¿o È I i trt- tv-h zðÅ,àrH('7us- l.ð 2 qò 'f" 1r( årLù:iÉl"r{!.:'c. ({vl¿" *rvÅ77ht< ù:¿1. ä( lu.¡'/rf- }.às/¡ ( (. ffiË. .ràCr tly¡ ¡i ^?¿" à ¿F r. ( - +â C å r. Øffi ù: rËY/¡ ø k F,2 ùl /¿ " Æ ffi El ¿: ã I 'r ÐT_:__å__t;_Þ_/_ç_. e/tr=+/E(t) hc'L 2 âHfr¿Ì. ¡v-)t 7ã À,Øfl)r.øXørs-7 ¿ -¿:ìBd'¿(ì..r( ò à=/;o Ël..I¿ùT {-:'¡:r- ¡rZ ¡) Sl, I . iî---- fËu-E,Efiåsff Lå.ùl{ È t. 1,") 7 ¿ + t * T. +ËFØ=FH"e- S¿tt*BÄffit' î" t^ ) ê- i. ôt- < ) /¡ å å. ¿ { {> {u.dar,./rHAffi{". ^s7^s: H¿#}ii¿'r". cì'= ( t) t,-cL*:/¿. *sEl 6#ø2 7 zcÈet;ffitò,ftfr{t.tø(-. lF.=çô. I¿ù'-tI¿Ørì 7c i Iì" Ì ð ¿ ) t¡)x,t¡øt, 7c 0) ) Ë * /;â i _ç..!=.!;_.v.(_. €ffiÉã ( t.' ,1"¿1r$ 9 þ 6 Èr: ( *a!. Ic" 4 {Lù' Èr. ++Øäfå ¿ t€#-Cffi L /¿. taEr, - Øxffit:'tr.{ff L"c t._l_ç__å_. 4 Ø Lùr "Iltavethree beautiful daughters." Lã oI¿ Ø-Aô': ( b t-l¿. 10 EAÄ¿* ifÅü:ùåËLr,.ffi¿r¡.¡41 TÃÀ,'C.- 9€#t"ò ¿{òËà/Jr,. å,H). EA# +eho ti-----"--- å 9€ffi 1*. Xi*È ùl (" /J < a - äL_fr.6 f t. À ôË i .È_.1,__!t_" 7 t y ù t :Êu- <þJ.a¡_t 12 f3 14 Ørt¡vîr-Y=y2l¿-:È.
  19. 19. ^l ,,-acceY L rli ¡,r' ffilt Ètu. IilJøT r v/¿[Ì'¿. b ! ¡-¡ "5 FT' tr il,)r otL+ * z ãtll uä¿t 3 ^TLttÈì -fL.E-L t{'¿r( tl¿+. 1 N+W+. r'[r i: ruEl ¿tù r..È Eæ ut L) 2 l.J[ffi il< æ 7 ¡. ôL ( *áÆt. L*1 fmorepolite way of saying E i 4'- l4 ¿r( ¡l 5+ffi -É â+fu,E vg1 r, ffi4 you [It is generally used by male speakers toward someone equal or lower in status.l hobby one ofthese days once <t, -Ê È{.¿r (ìr'¡, rã å :.i¿r( Êfr,Í+ 3 f+w - ..-. +f¿; i-....... , i(*þ)$&:l gí to maior (in -) a *.r9ð. lfemale given namel introduction for the frrst time have just done- [>>>E;*u-l-'r] tfamiþ namel Excuse me (,but ...) +- a [honorifrc form of {'-Tl lhumble form of É i ] graduate student tfamiþ namel friend lfamily îamef i [It is the most neutral form for male speakers.l [a form attacltedto a rrame in addressing someone. It is used Ioward someone equal or lower in status.l graduate school electrical engineering .-t; 7 W,Lâ i. I -ÎtsHur. b l! ,,r'i¡,< lt w+tâ ertl, 17 =H L qr( Èl' ls ffiffi ,1,- ô" är,. ¿sÃ,r*ra , 1-¿r;'jj$12¡¡ good (at -)¿tÀ I I+E ¡tÈ E -ÉDZ. $áÆl.L*T Please. L'¿ ô"e by the way t3 t4 È¡ri a 4 * interest *'f¿* /¿tî (I am) not good yet. ö' L(.*áfrFt.L*3.literalþ means'I request.'l to teach slnce - years ago to study abroad lfamiiy name] homework there is,/are a lot to do one's best; to try lnard fi'€.
  20. 20. 1*--' v'â t5 F¿* ÈDrirt( ++ Ltt¿, ffi ¡l e< xffi. /¿.ùl L U ¡tu' f.t+ È?¡ I ffi,¡.ù a ,1, Þ 2 'Jñâ ¿F: * 3 mEl 5 ä)'È +- rutfc 6ftH atrç* o ËilJ õav ã/' r:t * EÉ=É actually; in fact junior high school next door; next to family [male given name] lfamily name] lmale given r'a'n'ef diary 76 ËJì .R¡, ¡, 20 xlb j'u* frffi.-a- , It, 5 ËH (r¡) to play culture knowledge bountiful;plenty lu.i.l 2 ÞÌEl tcÞ o?; ¡ t ñTrffi airplane {t (- ù: ) EE å to sit (inlon -) to be born hn/at -) woman to talk to to go home lfamily name] [female given name] last month ¿ttt ffirÐ,ËÆJ togrowup (in-) [u.i.] tt -i il l:r¡ c'C.,â Ithasbeen a;rangedtlnal- [>>>E;Êz- ¡e] one night to stay (over night) [u.i.l very (much) 'rt to like -; tobe fond (of -) while; during the time when parents lkt., b o+Jt parentsJ place (name) card; business catd telephone number 15 tL ¡¡t¿-ì¡¿ -vh¿' lÉ* 6 ¿k r, att L @;,,t.ito graduate (from -) z (-t:) Wø a to work 1¡o1 -); to be employed (at -) vã¡ ¡'¡' - 7EÛ Fñ - week(s) å pri ¡' fF flF vacation t W.a to take . ¿l¿ I ,ffiâ ¿ ¿ å (Ì¿) to be returning home [>>>*itu -t's] a[.r 77 Ht: !1it-À, ffiH L-:- 4 ffi ot' u 18 AfriJ tt¡, ¡ tÌ¡,ci Ëffi#å - a-l FT 's (-t:)Ë ( Narita (International Airport) town; city to arrive (at -)
  21. 21. ^l ten plus a few hours it takes [with respect to time or moneyJ [u.l.J International Date Line same airport to welcome; to meet; to grcet W,;i,tþ.úfrü: rt to have - stay (over night) [u.r.] - ¿ i] t: /J = /¡ it has been decided/ arcanged that - [>>>*;t.u - le] ,. f-, â+ì oneself 7r-^1.i.-À firstname r'(-?"'t') EFs to call - by ... ¿'vi i 4F'h ¿'t: t -l: ('!. utÈ ffi#nZ jet lag attt HEA to sleep 7 Å- Ì' ð àlL apartmeîthunting cf rr ilEþa ¡. ç to take someone to sÇl rf( nearby; in the neighborhóod tì'ðt, ^¡, ET-}Æ *oF¡ IEI l-) .r- _ -( t;, 4# tt5. tWLa Effi vstitr tj ¡'t" + ffiffirñ n'¡tl a - a-f n ú< older somehow; no matter how hard one may try hardto -; difficult to - [>>*,*/-t-.8] to walk ¡¡le ¿ ¡ iìË4 (¡¡) appropriate; suitabie ¿ -a flcIT 6 to find - lu.t.l ¿' {ãÐ 6 ¿¡t ;. tz ïl.tffit to move to a new place of residence - ¿ E ì:î â to decide to - [>>>giÊ./- F9] 14 15 ¿- ru¡lru +W È't:¡, fr^ VÈ6 ¿51 Ët" tå.r,. HÍ+ i¡.ia,,.12¡¡ -ì-.s7 ns7 u t L¡-i¿'n ÉÉ ñËt /Þ ô'! il¡-a tonight acquainlance when V [>>>gËz-t.ro] young man;male polite fluentþ selÊintroduction to be surprised last year way (of doing something) and then; after that middle-aged to differ; to be different it seems that -; evidently [>>>g;É.2- t' t¡] W,#,ffi,-ï.,ïlg;*r:tw,,,q,i,, ,, itc< 1 zr f,l¡. t tTô. ffi 17 å :rl¡,1 å+ u 5'r. ft: rs 4'¡¿¡, t, t' vri #'lu ++ TI -6 Lt' beautiful daughter ! ( {¡ ,-/¡ ¡. can't possibly - [>>ftäl-tìr1] {t¡ri 22, XË - g¡ammar i ù,Lùt ùit: ë ì-fr way of thinking [>>>*,*z- ¡ rz] n rt'¡v1 < -Y J v, culture shock
  22. 22. * I 1 *,,,,, þ úat! ¿5Ë r)lÁ, { ,-m -aTi - E (' aot o.#.ì¿ 6 tt.&- ro.#Hl zt.*,trt zo.W.6 gr. -i, ¡,: ]',â so. BÉÉ +t.Hl} +ø.*ff z.Étlt 7. HU tz.frYWä tt.E *> zz.rFY zt.Æ.*. {L â gz. Hl sz.ÞlEl ¿z.lf [. +z.f|fr ¿. Ff g.ã4 r¿.€ftfY .tg.àÊ. z+.*'W zg.ff# z+.* sq.Ë ( +¿.trffiEl ¿q. XlË s. *affiù. to.:1ffi rs.S4 zo. ffi zs:lñ 6 so.iÉ* 6 ¡s.tÉffi.j ¿o.lEI l) +s.HlE so.4 Lfr ¡. ftlL a.B# ts.î7 9 vÊ rsr+) i zs.XlV za.frl^ zz.tî ea. FJ +s.ü ( -l( ¿4. t L t,. -,'¡l r"t'rl[--ì tJ lv '.AdH{ú48#R zg.*ffi CHto'' ø.ffi n.ËÀ (to.ÐtÐ â - r¿r{'L zt.-W zo.î'¡4, ¡r. [FÀ t4't ' tËE +r.ffi 2.ffiffi Ln är 2.ffiffi rz.tr;#ËË rz. -ìEûHl zz.ñ#, zz.fäffifË L*4 gz. ffiË rz. Bl cft&T ]f{ 42.Æ) ¡.1&Bl Eli& s.@ffi r¡.ftfiffi 3sô' re.{rF[H 5þrr tz zs.&frrJ +.8É LrÄ,, s.W tÍì tq.lÆâ rs.H# ,n.## s. l[ffi t0.&ffi, rs 4#)Yrì' / 20.Ê) zs.àE so.rtå- 61 t1' 5v( / b5ffiË l.ô' ¿0. *aãt,. ss. HE6 gg. ä1. 't M.ÉILâ eq. Ël E This radical comes from Å and is used for characters representing human conditions, activities, etc. t{ l t_{Ft fæt rd¿
  23. 23. a) b) c) | o' V (plain past) Wlrrúl ='have just done something; have just finished doing something' lãffil >¿.t >>>t#trÀ:tcøn'o] [a*r >¿.6>>>4#t lrmao] /tSl:le t¿I{lt, rr li¿. à. +^ffir" L ¡ i " (Since she hasjust entered college, she is probably 18.) Ê//¡ |ffirI) Èà. ò. þ/J7)r)ì¡'z lf t.T.-l-. (I have just eaten, so I am full.) FIA^?|:Étfá'tlo)¿ ôùt. Elaffi¿ì*rà.È r¡ ( tËb * L/¡" (When I was a newcomer to Japan,I had trouble understanding Japanese.) 2rr, öO) lãffit >t.ts>>>øo2=zt*l Both ô o) and 4 0) canbe used with the meaning 'that -' when an item you are referring to is not in sight. ó Ø is used when both the speaker and the hearer are (oi are assumed to be) ,.,:,f :*iftupeiro¡'or',ihittÉ- - - tinl"ftËh, y trp o¡_$e'fr9"g,3f.¡s.¡4¡Il4iar,, ,:"Wmun.j'.'l. 4, 2,ø.sttòùta 'usea.,ln,tllis,:passage, theuse oi,t ttø inAicat"q,¡f¡-a,ttop,A,úftì: !L and * r u ù are familiar with the class. a) A B b)A B fú¿ì4 * i¿Ì¿ Ø ùlHÛì ¿ r.- i ñít'f . (The town I was born in is calied Täkayama.) ?OtrJù* Ð.å,/¡ffiJÍ"Tå." (What kind of town is that?) È I lÂ.1 ÈØ i. *+BAffiØ2 iziJ!.r¿) 4 )vã À,1:àt.* Ll¿À. (Yesterday, I met Lyle-san, who was in our Japanese class last year.) bb- troL. ¿" 7 Lf t. * Tå." (oh, how is he [: that personl doing?) J oot V(plain) &51¿l¿â lãe;z>t.tz>>>RffiËffi2&ãrra2rcl .,. ,, s a ch3r-rge ,which has ¡akei ÈJgÞ,9,þ.i..wrill place. fusr as r,. -{je.èii¡rtr ¡' ,n9,'r,*ittt /¡å; * i,r!:,is,ins-9,$,... ',,',1 ,:. .'',,t,'.,':.t,..t'r-':..',l. ¡¡,i:;..l¡,l.tir àti a a ) Bä^ffic -C.tt, ù. Bft:@ffiþ#2 J ä E t¿ú) * I,t¿" (I came to have an interest in Japan after I went to Japan.) 'ìt'lù U l.LÀ:À, b) W+þffifrLlr ùlft¿Ì. BAffiØtrHÈì#ö 6 ea EfÍ/r t, *Ëtu" (Unless you study kanji, you won't become able to read Japanese newspapers.) 13
  24. 24. *l 1 *,,,,, c) .0)c67, yr^ù è Laç¿ iÀ?Ê^6ea|.;ftt1*.t,t¿" (These days,{mericans also eat sashimi and tofu land this is a changeJ.) {rrr, -tã,í6 : :r .. : ::':.1ìr' ..: This is a sentence-final particle of exclamation. ;,.:e-mþhæicall,y oi onè's wish èrnótivêly. " II. a) Woftt¿t>" (I don't know what to do!) b) -Êr7 Y rtnTr->1,ô.r¿!-/Jó. (I wish I could go to Africa once!) lã:lË,z > t. z s >>> z ã ?ÈãLì v eaøl geñgrall¡ us"¿'¡u',s1¿1e, one':s feéIin€, :.'... It rS This.'e¡pres.sr9¡,ha,s.'a,flavor.'of'l,mo.aologlte: - i e,, saying something.without an addres¡æ ..,. iñ..mind',.s&en.itis.said.wjth.¡ur.:intèntioi..of..gètting..a:.iesþonqé.'fr.omanaddresSee,-'jó c) d) ôð LJì b Tìt¿õ" (Long time no see!) ÈÈfl ( Sc/¿/¿ó" (You did WELL!) $ ',' V(plain) ¿¿â l ,-,tlv-(p.l preqehÐ È iåÌrneañs, som .l,-,trit:. a) t, x ) пl'rÈ. qií*zl â ¿zôrÃÅ,("Tàì- t'? L J ù: (I am aboat to eat right now, so why don't you join me?) b) 4t, ¡ i ÐËá'tt 6¿zôîÃ0)î- ø¿-eH#vL*T. (I am about to go out, so I will call you later.) [âff : >z.e >>> Ra xt zænuctl : i rr. r':., :: , ):. , ...::l l:,- :lil.r:..',:1.:rili ,i : : :. :. -: :. ),:;: .: :., :):,:.:a. ! .:.::r t:il::a _ rJ'r.r: ì.::ii,ti : . :. 1, . å: f'TÈ." c) d) z{ttt,6Ê,ã ¿zôît. (I am about to eat.) âÊ¡È ¿ Z ôl¿"à. 6 - SálJ È.llT L.( !' * riÂ," e-eKøCl lngrwcitt (I have just eaten, so I am not hungry.) âÊ¡lurã ¿Zôl¡"È. å. ò i ,)l-'Æc t ( l¿'-ð 1.. (I am lin the midst ofl eating right now, so please wait a little.) e)
  25. 25. Ê^ã ¿zôTT Ê^/c ¿ZôTt $ "' V(plain) Ztl=l¿clürä='be expected/supposed to; V(plain) ZëJ=t¿clc='it has been decided/arranged that -' ë,:.È.1:-r*.ã4tå,/;¿:tÈtl.li¡ì,;,:.,¡,i Hä"e9€ffi ¿ #, i â ¿ ¿ f: /¿ : ( l,r * T" (I am to teach English in Japan.) ã¡ U r¿ft4..ù: â ã ¿ ë l=r¿e ( rr * f " (I am supposed to meet my teacher tomorrow.) L :'¿ BäØâlf 'e ft#þ I â ¿ E I=t¿ U * 1,, t¿" ( [It has been an anged that] i will be working at a J apanese company. ) llcZh x+ffißr â z ¿Iit¿ t¡ :f L /¡" ( ltt has come about thatl I will get marned next year.) t) E#0tX.t:_L7)ì6ffiùi- ( cþb(¿ ¿ T-t¿.(ür:f r" (When you enter a Japanese house, you are supposed to take offyour shoes.) ätil,2 ffiE-e tt Bäffir*ËÉT ¿ ¿ E /¡ : ( ür !f r. (You are supposed to speak Japanese in the classroom.) it is a rule/custom that -' lãff: > t. t 3 >>> 1fr:.ã - ¿tra a zrrtË] l#aryz > ¿. z >>>iÉÞ<t 5 ã ¿ ¿ tcã a tc] ,,,,,#i ^l Ê/s?rrã ¿zôTT a) b) c) d) e) f)
  26. 26. 1,,, N (or Sentence+O) ltøla"(?"l this ex¡iession réQuües ttræ you are in say a)-B in a Japanese restaurant. Ì6-r u?ê*lc : ¿ Èìó b * TÈ.. (Have you had sushi before?) ttv !- !. .Ì-- t6t l-ItfllbT T'T " (No, this is the first time.) cannot be said" however,,when yó¡ aró diq sing.I¿þ.ansse,food'in.a..þsroqr¡ 'In.thæ you,shoùld,say b-).8. :1.,.::: -:. ì: : .,.1,,. t,:, .,:,,i,,:',:,:,-.'lr :.il- -r'r:¡Í.:1 : - :1.::. a: r'.:1.:t ::.:., .:.... *õt l,?ê-rt¿ ¿ ¿ àló b * TÈ'" (Have you ever1nad sushibefore?) !.!-å_ ôú)*Ëlv" (No, I haven't.) 8'* v(stem) E<t,r l#a*vt > t e >>> I l-.1¡l ¿ t*Frftc < ur] r-:rv(¡.'tê.' ei'.*+,'=i@t: ç,...1,ry"*s ttrat.qgme-$i1g ir gig¡ott.tó'*¡g¡¡ir-',' ¡..i.', ;i a) 7î-+ti_ *áÌÌ L-CÌtÊ,tl: < t t. (Steaks are difficult to eat w'ith chopsticks.) trfr' ù'À, V b) ffiLu.ËF¿å. E+ãE(t,t" (Difflcult ka4ji are hard to write.) _i r.:i : :j:) ,,,, ' [V{stem)t-f l.] means that somethihÈ i¡ easy to V. ',: ....i ], t ' .. . . '.: . l: c ) È ff¿u. r¡#l*_ 56¡¡pf tr-CT. (Nice handwriting is easy to read.) $ "" V (plain) ¿¿J¿tâ='decide to do -' eornpared witÏ 'i¡y6lysfl.r,, , , *l 1*,,,,, lã#.l >t.tt >>> Eât*ttJo<<î/¡'] !t is, appropriátej,, theiefore,, to, a) A B ::..t --.. ,tt,.THs, :::case, :- ,r:, b)A B :r:: ::;- .i. t : ¿ ¿: ä 6, this pattern a) *trBÄ^lr < ¿ ¿ l--l'*' I't¿" (I have decided to go to Japan next year.) æE CD þrÃ< ¿ ¿ l: l'*1.,f¿" (I have decidedto listen to cD's every day.) b)
  27. 27. 10 *'Sr/cå. Sz='when sr, 5r' 11 *' ëT *¿ - I¿ül='can't possibly' '. . : ì:'..'rir:a lr.':rr:.:r:.1. This phrase expressés a very strong form. læaø > t,t a *n r*,u nzo >>ËÉuzr,rrra] ...'I4e4:t¿6",clause,islfollowed,by,a sentence,,'(JSlin,,the.þäSiite-nse, it means lwhel.',The . ,tsé¿o¡¿ìse-¡ten¿ ùatt1'rysSes,an.lg t or stare you did -*t "@..tt:,tr,.'.rr fr ¿ l, ¡ù'lù a) È Ø i ElÉßH^lip t¿à- 184.ì:âür* L/¡" (Yesterday, when I went to the library, I saw my teacher.) ù, ë< b) E#ØXffi,.-î)xô^+tlþHct¿ò. lvtade in Japanl ¿ Êt,( t>cl¿, (I bought a present for my Japanese famþ, and I found that it was made in Japan [, and I was surprisedJ.) This should be distinguished from the case of V l¿ È followed by the present tense form, as in Eä^frc t; å. Eäffiål#rù â ¡, ) lJrà 6'e L ¡ i. Ttris is thc casã of sà-called "condi- '.. tió ?u.sç o{'ltË;,and it méanp',if tor gq.f-,qil. ,,oi,' lqÞ{,..|.!, r ,','.'.,..,,,.' lffiaø > z z t >>> eztËã.r*ur] .t::r:..:1.:;::r.r:t.::..-i,r:.!r.:ii1.:r:r:1:r1:.:r:r:r.::i,..:.-:rr:t verb is usually in þotential >>>>>ffi^ I a) b) /¿ ( Ë À,ù>.>(. ¿ (t,Ê^Ðtt*.Ë lv" (There is so much that I can't possibly eat it all.) r,¿ HÉt'¿* ET bæ.r¡ À,ù,H ã- * Ë /v" (I can't possibly buy a house in Tbkyo.) 12,*V (stem) T ='*^rof - ing' lV(stem of * i--form) +Ë] expresses 'the way of doing somèttring.' ù'À' V ltt: Ut" a) Ë?¿l- -to) ò ø¿: È¡ ffiðrã'àr/¿ ( Ë 1,,ó 6o)î- ffiLt." (Kanji are difficultbecause leven] one kanji [often] has a number ofreadings.) b) *átÌ L Ø#bXZW.Z( ( Èð t.. (Please teacTrme how to hold chopsticks.) 13 *r ^, å Lüf ='it seems that; evidently' ;.t: !,.ì,e4presses oners,couj-ectures, .qan,bÈ,,attahle fò.,¡o-u¡sr(e6:¡1á .$¡,[1,),;.s-t9rnS of r*-adjectives (e.g.,L1'å.à Lt.),piaúfonns of t.-adjectives (i..g.,ftu, à Lr..) *apfui" forms of verb s (e.g., n < q L r.'). It tends to be used when one's conjecture is based on what one has heard. læ¿¡ry¿> t.zz>>>zzÈl l#atw > t. z z >>> Ëà 5 t,tì] 17
  28. 28. 'l **-' a) b) c) Bä^tÌ. #r,-taÀ ôùtff* å L[r. (It seems that the Japanese people iike hot baths.) À2 ,' RË¿r. +rJ{ffiùtä ( (. {Ìar: ( t. å Lür" (It seems that Tbkyo is a difficult place to live in because eve4rthing is expensive.) 7 t r r-c-.|,l. +Æ.trtft+.þ7 r -z ¡. i.-À(.&Jìå Lü. (Evidently, students call teachers by their first names in America.) 14*,V<WA<ON='the first N after v-ing' l#atry¿ > ¿. z z >>> Ërru ?re)t oh w7 i, - t a,v t) a) T) y nrÉt'<WbrØrtv|-va v /l¿'a/¡. (It was my first culture shock after arriving in America.) ttu b) +&Èìlå * c T ãl d¡T o ¿ 2 :-'v 2 t'. ft4ËS ¿* à' ø+4 ù: *a Èrl'ì,'â z /¡ " (1 met many teachers and students at the first picnic of the semester.) BÄ^lia <aJu)<. *B'fiHÄffi/ìùttffiL * Ll¿. (When I went to Japan, I spent a whole day speaking only in Japanese, for the fi¡st time in my life.) lt$¿:Äe < flJb< - EäÀ¿:ât. * L/c. (When I entered coliege, I met a Japanese for the first time. li.e.,Ihad never met a Japanese until I entered college.J) G) d) 18
  29. 29. I,Àã DLì ,,,,,#r ^l 1 : fì.. È, L + t.*T7). is an hon- orific form of 'êT. This is dif- ferent from t. à c L s t.* 1¿., which is an honoriûc form of t. * TÈ'. 2:Native Japanese speakers often end a sentence with -åt (but . . . ). This suggests that some- thing more might follow and hence gives a softer tone to the conversation, thus making it more polite than a sentence without à1. 3: L ¿ ôî is used to change the topic of a conversation. 4: Ë¿t is used to bring up an impor- tant point or information. 5 : Try to use connectives such as å i¿f" and t-à'6 to get more in- formation from a conversation paÍner and in general to have a smooth conversation. a) "'ffifÌ >>>>>lâãtl >>>>>[âff2]b) 'o'UJa"Tãã^¿ffiT | "' åå#d?i: U : L: ir'l' 2l Í;ì e 2 1 70)/I:ÊÉfiË^L/J ð !'o Él Éft,Hjrrttt.. ^o) Z L þFr,,tt,t¡l. i t o hHIJ ++ a) b) :tflt,1, {"1 ¿ì. ) L<" bo) ), EtltftE.tt r å ? L Þ ür åà. E'ilJ-c"Tzï2" (ùåi.. 4 ) *r p )v..s-h-¿H U*,1" ^ì-r-ðrLt"T¿.. ¿ãZeô l'rf e6u ( *¡Furt,*1. *tv¡v: E.tlJ I *+u¡v: ÊtLt: **utv: Br+ l.À Er+ l.À Brtr ¿ZôT.3, I ù.rtTà.o Eu n. ++ØF Eã,ø7 = ) årffiÈ {", À ( F, { L. /; À"11" bb. zft(. s Eaffi þfutÃLl¿r. å E i Ì I ¿: /¡ -¡ l¿ À,tl tJ" i- L, Z ) t¿ tvTt " É&(.'ødÊ L {. *+H& Diùt < g+ð L* L/:" ã) ù) - f¿tl, å s l. ¿ ¿r E Affi¿rT 4rr ¿,-eî n" ét) 4 À ,)r ElAffi ù: @4 3 ffi: /¿ Ø t*. 19
  30. 30. *l 1*,,,,, c) ÊE^Tt-tl¡: È ùtbâà.. /Jt'à' (ó âÛ,à. !'t- E i Ulc) Èhz i d) €rt e) ffift f ) f€È?bøÊ# lrt ,t( J: tøl ¡;') 7¿+L*f" Y#ø:+äf"T" Ea^-ùt*|-Ðiùt < +-w+ L /¿ r,. å Ea { !. *'l-o €¿k¿* Eaffi{. T.¿â t)t l.ôL ( *ámt.L*T. fìTt.c/¿: à r)ró b *È¿,¿r. *16 À,ùt < ffi*l*1=z.¿Ë#r'T. Ð)4" a) ¿ ø )',ø&ffiùl'fEl-c'1à." L ;¡ b) :ø)'.øitãÌt ¿"Å,/JffH{'L r i à." c ) .Ø^Øà+!ùt Ð: ù: ó b *'îà." t/ú h tiLc, d) z ø )uøÉ,#ÉãùÌ{4É{.'Tà.. ÊF (Lrrtj) *'âil (r..ì:Lt¿{'LìP) Ë**ls (à r ,{ r ì ,ìì) *l¡É (.ì:4 r ì ) l /rrrdVv-, a) *7 t:Ì¡.->-c- *uär,.ù: ¿ i L.(n+¿:Hfrafs:I i ':r¡oI¿ù.þffiÈ/Jë !'o b) ffit.l: :- Lþ ), lo))vr¿¿ 0.ffi4 (toreport) L/Jð r,'" J "' trt-lV7'V( Ê ,{ 7 ù: t¡ b /¡Ë !." -Äù* EAffiØ+ä. ö i -^Ìl BÄffiØftäî. X#ø's-î ,t -t'ìíjø{âr. * L/¿" ¿ ø#øà#r Ø J. i t¡à#?LlJ ð !'. #4ù:ä?/¿^¿t. u ,: Lrir"' Há#!ftþ Lä¿rt,, ft,+^ø: ¿ ðt'ô'ôËf,È/Jðt,'" {,,,4V7-2 ) L:6 4t: a ) ,{71: tà ->'c., 4.*. (tI¿Ffr- È'tl¿ffit:'c t '(H È ä è !'o b) Ht,./; a Lþ2 7 ^ot)vl¿Ë¿:#åLlJðt'" $ r" dVv-, e ¿aû:bâo)IJ,-{ e)r. L &flJø*f v7"tvtt" :-ØAfrþ ( d'¿l¿z¿i. ÐÅ,r¡Ät"LJ iå'. L.Llu ¿È .(7 i: tÃ.>'C., R.øHIã¡-Æå /J È t.o =EErÊFi*aâìl È**t3gliÉ ð& ,k-Ë13 r 108-0023 Rñä3)åtråH 4-r Ê 5# 4+ TEL: (03)4567-8910 FAX: (034567-7777 E-mail hayashi@mitamachi.co.jp
  31. 31. ,rrrrffi" i ËË^+ x+st3*tf+ ä# E+ q.¡ -7 4Y,T Vtf#ft T251-0000ÌÈälttç6;¡6'&Ê t-2 TeL (0466)77-8899 Fax (0466)77-7777 â +, -'226¡0000,i*ärrtqç¡¡6ffitrËR3-zi Tel,/Fax (045)045-0450 e) H+ð ¿,¿Ì ¿ À,ÌÃlt#þ LÍ !. * Tà., cL f ) H+ð À,o)WtÐ{r.6Efùt- Ð:¿:ó D * Tå." r,i g) H+ð à"ØX,tt å: ¿: b, *.-ltr.. h) E+ ð À"ØX.o)É#Éä¿t.fEIæ{'-Tà.. X+sl3 (.ìì¿áì(,iì) &*q (É r ì D o) Ðr*#Tú ß¿L'Èå) å€ (U/:() $,,, fF* e â/ùþfrãî.-f âffX.þæâ /J ð !.o Fð ÌtÉ+ (" ò r,.. e 7 r, h L++.ùtâúrÊ/rLf !. * T" cD äEf,r. t- g.øi.nff-u lrfL¿t'o. ÈH, { t'd-tlx-'x ?^illJ ð l'" a) :Ø^¿it+ffiä{"T. b) Eä|#ZH-W.L{r.*T, c) EIA^îÎ:/¿:åÈrób*T" d) É&Øtå. Eäü:BYL*L/¿. e) ;tY¿:Ã: AzJ,e>. EA¿:Effiþffi.Ì i ù:/¡ b * L/¿. f ) +XL/¿ à EIA^lr( l"Lr i,( åã1, àr. ,r g) RIR (name ofa Japanese film director) øU4É¿ff¿ ( ð Å,F,* L/c. h) E+#þtulÃLl¿; å ùió t *ìi¿," ¡ ) B4æ¿tçð L ( z¡r. åE:{r.*T"Jd tÍ j ) BA#ùtHÌ- 6{Lâ LE: Í ì,. * 1" X K E K X @ g K u M
  32. 32. 1 (+=tttõ D ttttu" fl Srdrr+#¡Ïõ : (b. lÉLr ¡¿uråft ¡rå¡'alået3-D5. ffitu<az< r¿ðt.) I / r. ?r-lw : ùrÌ*- Baå. txÌ¿ùå-'å. b ØH++tJtTË¿s. þlø<7 / , rt LØX"'ft :/;ffiØffiîî" T 7 - Lu- i 4 Ø7 J y rt N,J- üTãø*aÎð¿,ØËìË{.. üTË ¿* *a1¿ ð .i, à. a ñË x nr¿ iffi¿ ¡Jr ð /¡ / v ì v r k ffi û cTt -; Ic Ø -a î " îL ô' 4 0)Httt- /,8ØX(*- 1u'Jì'Â,ãt'B{" L/¿" tFå' 6+tl (" È u'Ëu'(. f 7-ãÀ,Ø7,1- l'¿:ËÈ * L/¿" 1r-ðÅ,ù: lEi 4'-r6xb /¡ðu'.1 ¿ Ê*>{t'c- rtrTËÌ**Ë¿-¡rþ * L/¿. ÉlÉ#ËfåìÅbc-c- +fF¿ /vìv '-l¿ lþYÈîL- T 7-ð A,tt l=h=-r/Ãà"ù.81î17r'l ¿Ff,È* L/¿. tll Tãl*Ø Ðåså.dr r.{ !.(. {4à.Ë/; r. ð Øþffi.ô-I¿ù.'tl¿ùlit Ð. lÙ*u'- ;t: FRô,f¿u'-CTl LÆL 6 0)ttX+.LIì ô i å,Br t Ø"C. "No, thank you." t äà* L/¿. 6t'ôÀ'- f 7 -ð¿,Èìò i-EËf,t'{ < {Lârìô) tE:l¿à' å-C--T. L.ôtrt- l7 -ã à"tt. lt-T-) åã:l;ÈÙf {''. T ('LIJTãØ táÎð À,0)i- å ?u- 6',ô tËf,Èù*De)* L/¿. xfAø: åf. Hh'øfulfrø ¿ t &-ffiFåC àt'#L{å.à. illTÊmf 7-ð À'Ø7',s- l'3H* LÈ" Ø ÐùÈ. *Èà.*rt'/:* *{"Ll¿" tl-tTãtt 40)E- 7 t, rt'ettl, I ) -) üÌ l,t -) /¡øl¿'. å u') ¿ LþFúof¿ØtT" ØYlZ#,lvT' 1¿rÍ ã ÈDr iE UFNHO. F€Ë:CUINHX ËANTdËUI"'liÁ E;R K G G K K tr a) r i -¿ L. i^ùJ,- rljTãØËi#{.'î. b) ilJTËØsáÎã hTrsT 7 -è Â,¿:Ër../:f#ftÌi. ÜTãàìEAå'Èffic{ å l¿o)11, ¡ i " c ) úlTã¿ìZ / Y rt¿:Ëu'/¿ øt*,'FícU.,;" d) tllTËlx. T 1-ã À'0)æ*.-c. ¡F{..l-rÈ * L/c" e) f 1-ðÂ,¿i. l=ìtz-7tt'/¡À'zJ'Ðr{"fà'l ¿:EffiÈ* LÌ¿" f ) f r-ðrl,ùt. =lt=-1þfrL{ ( dz* Ll¿' ¿ success.) L? Ét' ltùr ¿
  33. 33. . tìttöxãelä. O ûËl,,3ib ! """"""""".'.:'. :,::.""""""""""""""""">â;E 1 ,1.: '"' " "' "" """"""">ffiAlVÅ Êú aætìeËþ" ..............."...-,..' .tTLUtr. ..................... þlvl') .#Etr¿5€
  34. 34. LT IJRE No6 o e e (' Greetings ever assume that Japanese greetings and their English "equivalents" correspond exactly to each other. For example, although ôjltÀf ðdtìtl means "Good morn- ing!," the two expressions are different in that ôlát5 ðdttl is not normally used in the late morning. ölåA) ðdtìtl also has an informal equivalent ¿JltAf , which can be used when you are talking to children or close friends, but never to u åi (= higher status) person. Another good example would be ðA())ä5. ðA(f )f4õ indeed means "Good-byl" but it is never used to people one is living with; also it is a rather informal expression and is thereforeincompatiblewith keigo(=politespeech).WhenpartingwithaEl-tperson,itis safeç and less juvenile-sounding, to sayt?LUtf. The best strategy for Japanese greetings would be to observe how native speakers use them amongst themselves and emulate them. Another thing students of Japanese should bear in mind is the fact that once a relation- ship has been established between two people in Japan, such as teacher-student, it does not break down. ln America, you might call your professor "Professor so-and-so" in the be- ginning, but as the relationship grows closer, you might start using his/her first name. That is notthe case in Japan, however. Yourteacheç even afteryou graduate, remainsftä, i.e., a Elt person, and your speech must continue to reflect that. ln other words, you cannot all of a sudden switch from ôlåAf ðdtìtlto ölt&f ! Addressing your friends J n school, classmates may call each other by last name *dfu l<fu,last name I first name *5t¡ lu lt lv I ( fu, first name by itself, etc. Oftentimes, moreover, each other by various nicknames or by shortened versíons of their names such as *ål in â-ãÉ3. by itself, they call f ) (for c ô o c o
  35. 35. rttrt6tìË?=F j € *vtrJL . ^-z]-, ÊE#r¡yltxEElã#ú)=Eftät¿âã" *rutu: *á¿åJ i ¿"ð"t.*T" = E: *ôù*Ì i ðð"r.*T" * r u.tv I !r!rttxfr,-6"Tfl. --- El : 4){-rf;'à" E EUE *tutv = El : *Iutv = H: *ruù = El : ** u¡v = El: *tptv --- El : *+utv o)+'É.. + tz y/ (Zëtfc=Eftäl-â). ¿ rå,ù: ¿ ¿È" --r-ð ¿,. 4 I z,4,ù-Ë lll o"cÊ ) Øtrt*6ù. Lr..à{"T1" ¿" , L{("Tà.. f/,ÈÈùÌ. ò i ùlð--Eâ:"cr.å{"LÌ i. 41u- iffi¿* l¿¿,¿:È¿*J o'CÊi Lt' å r åÆ.r¡À,îT" D + ð. FJ'(É ZùÌr.. l..-e t- t ) ù'" f4 {> Éb:¡-t..{"âffflTf¿lÌ'r,. r.l.'L } i.1 là L+ ( j :l Ð ) u. iËffi'cïà.. êfrRþ L{F,ì}ä¿ìù) :- ) t. )À j ü:. t" ¡-t ¿HeTùÌ"{*áDÈ"kTâ"t {r.iÉm("TJ" /ùìr,b * L/¿. D+*È" ft+LL*î. 25
  36. 36. -lz#>,,,, e +E/ E+l- trËË UE+ãtlÏ[Ëp (. # v u Jt¡ätHú)Ê[Ee H äËt E ¿. lËJËø E 6^æV+tþ D DìãÉUfiìltã. 10 r9 bi *tutv w ,: *ru¡v w b: *rutv ù9 t7: *rutv 19 : *tutv w b: *rutv 19 bi *rutv ù9 r1 *< utv 19 : *<vtv tá¿ÌÌ i" GE4 i r¡F{.) táùå, & i. HE¿ i Ldâ. i À,- ù9 i ^ì-ffi+* ("fr¿rÊ u'cfcù. È>. ð : å F ( Ëd'tl$_t_l-!-t-?-l-;-. 2 B A#øffiFEàst; ( ã À'ã> '> l¿ (Ë-#eF,-C) ù>o- /tÆÈ. + flr È) . irÀ. fl-. H,I¿? ì-- l¡À"'a" I¡FÎ. FÑZ 7c i " Là. {> -t'^-+¡'-K b " l'Ì'-'v--[ãbl o-c? /çñ:(t'i ¿ ¿" ÑàrTC(Wolâ" i--> ! u.SÈ/¡ ô" D +- ,åu.f'âù. È>fttr:Tt ( *t" ) À.,- D+. *,1¿1þ11t. t - .?&!;.ÆL ( {. _/4¿ll4¿Ì#&b6!¡__1..1__" 34 < 11ìt'/¡.t. ¿ ffiXù:E{vt' + i " 15 26
  37. 37. >>>>> õLìË?Ei* e h. Ä . ) = ü y, E+fr0)ËE-HtJt.+ r, 7/ tzctâ) " -Ê[Jtt l-. ¿ärË+lE+{v- E6g+ t, lcEtOldffiä" 5¡. t. t 10 Þ I' 15 t t 20 l. ^ Bß À Bß A Bß À Éß à Bß À Ë[ /^ HI à Ë[ ¿^ ey ! ð. Ì,/^ ! C}ð LÀb ! üiÂ, å ù:. t-'>*I¿0)" frìEüËu.tùSå.b" 4 ) zJ'" e ylrtR.6; ¿ ù1. tù À,t¿ Ì:Ëf,r.tf[ o"CI¿ ùl å'- !:?_*aþ:Èþ: Èt/¡ ( -C" :'п,. l- ^0)./ -)v7 r^ vzàlâå. å z¡ ( t_ , -)vl[ÈtÃzl.cI¿À,1ì" !.[.]- L.L.}" {.'. Ð:¡,:lÈA"tâø" /uzC-=l[.iff" bb- 2uzC-lJt*Eo{ó" ëùt7.,3- l. l:{¡¿1"5" A ) À," u.:à.ËtñÌ:ft/¡ ¡. 2 ilù" T-^4t#=-Câ? ) À," L- L. 6ä¿x 723-345-2433" lxør -, 4 o)æEtt 555-347-4167" D ç. âE€ffLt" i lu" D+. */¿. 27
  38. 38. -12#>>>>> :,:2:f i4n¡Jili:}'i1.i1jwlsgffi ü:ìi:izi';rti¡¡1?5r:r?¡5ràv.3i*tr{:? |.! ?:;.1:1 |..:.|: ;:' :: :.: :. :;:;| :::.'1. ::j.. :..j : ::. : :|.!:| EIA^åì7 ) ' rt Lr- À ( Ëf,à.i'r'cWâHPãø-'t ¿:. "FIow are yov?" tt EAffi .(..{ú ¿ É : ¿.. å u. j Ølrtb â " 6 t, ô¿,Eäffiù: ò [¡.¿.¿sa"j-¿..1 ¿ ¿. [*áñ-.{-,(. Tå.1 /¡ å" å r. i Ë#¿l b âù:- f ç.¿.¿sa"-¡¿.1 t*&ilffiTmØÅ¿:ã i øìt:À-t ) Iì L. ltÐúamî'Tþ.) ù* L ¿f 6 ( À b ícàc ÈÄl: þ_¿'_Ëà_/_4__!:_" ?_È ,., æEã1 ^ù: [¡.¿r¿;a.j¿.1 Lù. liÐüÃ,("1å.j LÊ) L- ]FHt-Ær¡þ!ll_Þ_â" EIA¿* 7cØl,bb t:'F:F.ø#þT â ¿ f ¡ìes¡-rìô ) o l!.l..*ax-xrïdal ¿ È. fær.'e T del å È.- 7c ')Eøx-x,l;4 "-Ç-r;A::?Få ùì j r... r-z ¡ñ.*ozcJ*n oo*ave anice day !" -t u.:@iríæmt"t4 ¿Ëi à.. ¿ Ëf,å.tr1ã.òù E6. ElAffi tt:tå7c {u!;Ylç,_aË#¿sz¡ r.È. à 1b â" ^ ¿ EIJ/"Lâ ffi¿: ¿*,- fË+årElt'{-. ói?,ùå" l{.. to ¿*. ftTLL*Tl- EÃ'eóþùf lDç. *l¿l z¡ÐåËi/a'ùITìô)o "IIl.ave anice ft( day!" ?Haffi¿:-mRl,'(.ÛF.-r¿erfrÆ.*'å. L!.o 7 / y r^Ù*. 4 )- i#,wþrÃ< LrÆr¡ffikî 6àì. Fù*. BA#¿:trtã>="ci€ffi¿:/Ju.ór.ðr=i#ò/¿ ( ð A,bâ0) Lr( Ù' I¿"ffilL¿f'. ê+ØÈiø lu.l;ÈÈ*Tl. ÈHø1A.ø l:t,4 ið*t'Ll¿l |rt4a) XLv^ ¡. ¡.ffJlì" EIä^àìÉ1hØxþ fr6 ffiù:É i l'{to -c È * Tl. 4lt"t:Nl,'Cxffi.a) Ê) lTt.< 6ol'ç!'l- Kn'fr:(ÈÈ,'Øãilf¿Èt'* ) ,7cØWXffiøãi l*a ,ffib /¡åu.l /¡ Ð å t,iù>ì,.ðrò j€ffi¿:¿t/J!.o ElaÅ¿*_ hnÈi¿:â:tÅü:*/¿ Èkc't *i L. iftBùi,¿i ö j t ðt.årf âa L¡tesç-o *ffit"ò. "Thankyouforthe other day." å à. "Itwasgoodto seeyouthe other day." /¡ å" åãLt¡t'¿ ¿ ù1,/J !.åì- EA;ãø lftBùÈ Ð i òl øt i r¡iF* ¡tât.ù1,/J.,l!./rr.'o .r,rf"Lzt ìï------------ xr:' -ftËÉ!¿:=r'" {. lft* bXE!:TÃ'>I¿ ô t'ð ?Æ#ùÌ. '€ffiJ b E^ffiØfr¡:þu'lì ô 1 " l:t-lrJù.btl âm. ât¿-äå*u-q-rc - EttØ+ffiøftÐ,râr /¿ffi. z Øtrlù' ¿'i r. ) ffi¿:fnJ Lã't l¿ à J u.à.ÈìlÂ*:{!.{. 4fLþH,ì-6l)lrt, X+t¡hä## t"åË:.6òlt_Iìô)" r:,'L-L{O Ü't6')åÜr- e-l-È fi ,t ¿o1. f r:r" iL aît! t' ) € t¡'tYaf t: fl', 1 tt * f
  39. 39. -t,zÞT>>>>>
  40. 40. rttrtôtìð?=Hl
  41. 41. -lz#>>>>> 32
  42. 42. ,,,,, õrìÈ2=* | There are three different types of predicate endings-tT. * j--forms, lì-forms and t ù¡ 6 - forms. So, the idea that Tanaka is a Japanese can be expressed as HFð /L¿t EA^f.¿, B1+ ð /t Ìt BA^/a' or EIF Ë ¿,li Hä^-e ð å. The styles which use f.T.* T-endings, lì- endings, and f ã> â -endings are called f T. * T{õ, lì{6, and {" ó å {ô, respectively. While -c'' b 6l# is mainly used in writing, both 'C1. * T{f and È{6 are used both in speaking and writing. In speaking, ('.T' * T{ô is used in formal situations such as any formal meetings or in addressing strangers, acquaintances or people to whom you feel respect is due. Ìì{6, on the other hand, is generally used in informal situations, such as when you are talking with your close friends or family members. È6 can also be used toward someone for whom you feel respect is not due (e.9., children, one's subordinate, etc.) In writing, lì{ð is normally used in newspapers, novels, scholarly articles and essays. Letters and memos are usually written in (.' T' * T6. îb â{16 is very formal, so it is generally used for formal writings such as public documents and scholarly articles. Traditionally, the Japanese language is known for having a distinctive difference between men's speech and women's speech. This distinction, which is mainly observed in casual conversation style, is seen in uses of pronouns (e.g, boku vs. watashi), some nouns (e.g., meshi vs. gohan, ,,a.:f ..$',f ff ,(pôlite;form) Ì;--6 (plain forúr), {.þ,6 ffi ' (exnosiøqy,form) EIAAT.l E^^/.' n#/'e b â Ea^{$H}a I *nia Bä^{E'å}n... BA,,(.t*r¡u' Íffif1-T¿ fdK/i: /¡ Í.{"dl.lù> ->t¿ rffi{f$}ó b *ÈÂ,(.1/¿ +t+{3H} rÃù"ot¿ Í{*t'l*/¡È.2l¿ È Ì¿!.(.-î Èi¿t./¿ i å fLt-:cb6 åd,¿r,.{3'å}ób*ÈÂ, å tur.r.. {3'å} nr.. ÈÌzt.'eùt/Ju. ãr--e 1 äl' ãu' *<bþ*r¿, ä ( /¡t' ä ( /¡u. ê-ì*T ê'ra ê-ra ê^ * +rT fr-r/¡ ¡. ft-i,/¡ ¡- Ê-l* Lt¿ ê-¡/¿ ê'lÈ ê-ì* ÈÅ,f L/¿ ft.iz¡¿., ¡a p-rf¡¿., ¡¿
  43. 43. .lz#,,,,, hara vs. onaka) and particularly in sentence endings. For example, sentence-final particles such as zo and ze afe typically masculine while a sentence-final particle wa is genenlly considered to be feminine. Uses of these masculine and feminine senstence-final forms have been undergoing changes, and thus, it is best to classify them into four types, as below. Strongly masculine: 4-- (ft < ê-) ü' (ñ ( ìÌ') à.t.? (fÎ ( È.t'?) - /¡ ¡- fr ? (ft¡t,t¡t . È. ?) imperative (plain form) (trùt J. ê'ìó À ) Moderately masculine: (plain form) À (õ ç ¡. ffil'l ) r¿ i.,/f¿È,¡.,/ /ìl dâ G>LT¿ïìj. âB /ii iâ) Moderatelyfeminine: (plainform) Ø (ft ( Ø-Ët'ø) Strongly feminine: h,/b J,/b*r,/b I de (ffi < b,/-EãLt¿*r/- b6b t,7) [Noun,//¡-adjectiveJ t¡ø (BAÅr¡ø. È È u'/¡ø) ù'1, t> (Tt ( l¡'|¡ Ù) Uses of both strongly masculine and strongly feminine sentence-flnal particles have been on the decline. In fact, younger men and women hardly ever use these strongly masculine and strongly feminine endings anymore. Women these days generally use moderately masculine endings in casual conversations, and thus there is not much gender difference in the use of sentence endings. Older women, however, do still use strongly feminine sentence endings. Furthermore, in comics and anime, these strongly feminine and masculine endings are used to create certain character identity, and hence it is good to be able to recognize gender character- istics of these particles.
  44. 44. ,,,,,6rìË2=* | 1 "o V/46r1¡='without V-ing; instead of V-ing' [âtr1 >2. l-: >>>Ëtrrãurc] . V lr t-Í", gne éf the negatiu" a-¡9rms of a verb, is .oftén fðllowed by another velb: *d Lr( t, ltu a) Eärtr. {EI ö Éþfrt,rêFàrâÐ 6Ø¿tft+Lt¿" (7n Japan, it is bad manners to begin amea without saying anything.) b) ffiÆþ L/¿¡,rÍYüt,..)R6Ø¿l,J ( /J!-. (It's not good to come to school without having done one's homework.) ¿ L r))'L c ) ElÉÊH^lîrt'ts,LTx.1fu,ifrt 6ä4 Ù t. å. (There are students who study atlnorne instead of going to the library.) ,, V',/J 1,. {: often c-arries ,a conno-tation,.that one didn,lt do Whatone- w4s,expæçted, fo .do. $o, fo , b), one is expected to do homework before coming to school bw helshe did nol f ,r, Vltülürø)fi='You should - Uit.,lt would be good if you did -)' lã#.z > t. z >>>EnHurrøtc] ,: ihislexpression,rsusually used to suggest the opþo.sþof.whæ, hÈ,oüeiipç ìslg¡qg or h a) ù -r åF( Ëftlt'trl,rc)[;. (You should go to bed earlier.) Ì) b) tllr.t, /Ju. å ¿ ôt|ftæ.t:ËI[tlt'trtø)Í:" (You should ask your teacher about things that you don't understand. lSaid to someone who is hesitant about asking the teacher some questions.l ) J 'ot t*LlZ='moreover; besides' lemz >¿.a] HÉt*. )¡þìþt"-t-. Znt;WlffiùÉr.ØT-_ ÍÈ.a¿ ( !.{.1. (tUkyo has a huge population, and, moreover, prices arehiglr' Therefore, Tbkyo is a difficult place to live.) A: +H¿*ñfiàräå a i t¿ia" (You don't look well today.) ô':l t.È h2 B : i À,- EÈìtË ( (. zirE#tò Ë ¡ a Lb6 À,î" (Yes, I have aheadache, and I also have a slight fever.) A: D+. + 1,ffi-tcffiÀ,ÈlÈ¡U-U.ca" (In that case, you should go home earþ and rest.) a) b) 35
  45. 45. .lz*>>>>> ,..,O!heqgonjunctions,which,areoflen,usedinclûde Z,fuf" 1the.ré.f,orç;'1u,,,kLt* iand;,and..thên;, and also,' 4 ùt lt, b 'after that.' 4 L'C. is the most general conjunction meaning 'and.' 4 ÌLlr, ù emphasizes that an event follows another event in time, and 4 fLî emphasizes "causal" relation between two sentences. c) ÈØ? t*Hr-þt,,rftÈ* Lrr" IÍt+:' XæøXØÅ-î¿ _,nft-ct. ä+rc¡ ô*n'lfr'tfÈ*LÈ. (I went shopping yesterday. After that I went to apar!y at a friend's house and came home about ten at night.) In c), both 4 ùLlt, ì, and 4 l-î arcfine. Howev er, 4 lt'ìt à emphasizes the fact that it was after the shopping that the speaker went to the party. In some cases, therefore, 4 trù, Ù and 4 l,'C. arenot interchangeable. d) È Ø i ùÌ. EAf{ËE^Tt-rI¿" Z l,T ( 4lt ¡t'È,) þ-f L ?ê-rÌ¿. (Yesterday I went to a Japanese restaurant and ate sushi.) [* mark means that it is ungrammatical.] e) ÊìË¿lAffi¡ôãn*.1¿" ZVT (41¿ù'à) /ffiðóffi->lc" (My friend came to my home about six, and left about eight.) 4 tL'C'presents a reason or cause. |9å À +r( f ) gÈìKb * LTc" ? fr?'. ftõffiàrìEi¿/c À'-et" (It was snowing. The flight was delayed because of that.) 4rrrlålrl8,lDr^,/Cüf ='not easily' lã*i2>¿.8>>>ã/rìfr/r,Kt¡aaczl :::: ¡ ,, /f'È.i¡¿:, when used with a negative, means that somethiniis noüeasily'$ne.,r,orftat,ittakes ù,tvu åtd ;* a) Ë?¿rr¿Ðâ,h'Ha-ànl¿( (- W-t.C L'*T. (Ifs terrible because it takes a long time for me to memorízekanji.) b) =- E, -þffi.À,ìØ(". /J?)'/c?)'ËË*ù:f {f ¿t(" L/¡. (I had coffee, and so I couldn't fall asleep easily [i.e., ITtad a hard time falling asleepJ.) ! >>t QUeStiOn WOrd +-ùtïïùtå/¡ür [âã:>¿.g>>>ur2r*ãt]ìâaaa<<l F'orembedding.awh-question!nanothersentence,simplych4n.gè'.fiè.,.eldjnÌg.:Ófitie.èm- U9é ¿ qu.estion into the plain fonn. The copula ld'is optional::Bê, tòt!(.e-.êþ.,tha'qú¿q{gf 36 partidle à. at the end of the clause.
  46. 46. ,,,,, õrìÈ2=*l a ) urP Elä¡li < n'i¡n'q *Ë h" (I don't know when I will be going to Japan.) b) +x L ltt'È¡FtãT ã å' * ÈJlzJ' r) *Ë lv" (I don't know yet what I will be doing after graduation.) c ) =4ønã¡#Ørí+.ùÌËft (Ë) ?:'* /ìJùrt'ú) *,Ë/ù" (I don't know yet who will be teaching third year Japanese.) d) t.îlv z ì. 7 vàlr- u-á¡ * ÈrÌzt úJ *Ë /1," (I can't tell yet which restaurant.is good.) Also note that a yes-no question can be embedded in another sentence by putting the ,,,p¡9{þate.intotheplainfqqn,and,byadding,àr,È",iÐì,.,,1 ,,::', 1.r:-,,:, ,r.i , (I don't know whether I will be going to Japan next year or not.) I' Ù¡l ûTr' f ) +Ê.Ø#,W,*HË L r,-l¡' ¿ a ñ,tTù, ú) *Ë 1L" (I don't know whether the next test will be difficult or not.) t¡'r' lt 6 Ë.ll g) = C-ft?fÄ -t l¿ ltt ¿ ) ù'H,n-( t,r :Ë {f ¿{," (I don't remember whether I paid the copying charge or not.) h) Bä^?t' ¿ Ò rr'Æe) *Ë /v" (I don't know if he is Japanese or not.) $ rot [¿Z]^,/¡t,r='only; no more than' lnatw > t. t >>> ui5,E;.Eur] Là'always occurs with a negative. The implied meaning is that the amounlitem mentioned is not,enóugh or, less,than eXpected. a) fi. Ì.".ry LlÎt¿ürå. à. uEÉ^lÍùl * riÂ,. (Because I only have five doilars, I can't go to the movie.) b) * o) ) ØWr. ãffifñ vn #t¿n,ct¿ù.6. âBÌ*,HE!.. (I only slept for five hours last night. So, I am sleepy today.) c ) * Å,àì Uù'lñ,*,t¿tr+&trsþt",0)¿*. Ëa. (Ifs too badthat there are so many children who read only comic books.) 37
  47. 47. -lz#>,>,> | >r> C*,U ='in other words; that is; namely; in short' læaryz>¿.¿l a) A : : ;' -- =+tt. -ìC- ì-¿^'effi&4aTi¡. (number) ¡tþ¡'4 i-et i" (I hear that because of the Baby Boom there will be more high school students for the next two, three years.) B: ?f u/t+ù:^ âØùtffiL!. t !.7 ¿ ¿f*fcâ. (In other words, it is more difficult to get into coilege, right?) lr¿.1 b) Ë¿*-r*¡v=É^Ä*El/i-2/¿l å *rb6z)ì- â¿l--r*2z65gf àu'/d. ?:f;rJ. Ì'^.'v þffic-c t. å ¿. EIA("ù* #Ø=tì0)*(" å l'ØH u'þüU¡'tÈ /J t,'Øl¿'. (In the old days, there was a time when a dollar was worth 360 yen, but now it is worth about 105 yen. In other words, nowadays, with dollars in Japan you can buy only one third of what you used to be able to.) 8 "" SentenCe+Þút?T='That is to say; lt follows that; That means ...' l#aw>t.s>>>uanv<øal a) A B b)A B c) A A :. 7 È /4,11BA¿:*S ö {ÌÂ,tt,'l¡Â,(.'T i. (Miss Smith has lived in Japan for as long as ten years.) /ià. 6 - Eläffiår-s r.< 7 r¡t>ll TT tt" (Thafs why she speaks fluent Japanese, right?) ù> o) )'ì*9*'.-ü fr È. ùt /J l-îrumtl'È' b L f u' * T" (He studies all the time without even going out.) j(-eÈ6þtt<'ltr" (No wonder he is good.) : * Ø i v ù ìnT]..l¿ Â,îTÈs- L t" w i tLfu.ct"l- Xþ= ffiÙ:frÌ¿rì,tT¿ì. Ë !'l¿Ø¿ttHîót Ll¿" (We went to Chicago yesterday. Tlaffic was so heavy on the way that, although we left home at three, we didn t get there until around seven.) (That means it took you as much as four hours, doesn't it?) 38
  48. 48. I I I I >>>>> õLìÈ?ÉlÊ I i,i l i"-- ì i t' $ t't NEå:T='depending on' [æary)r>r.7>>*ñtr&:<] a) þ[-ãrÉ#¿å 4ØEØXF,r&cT !-ô!- ôÊZùf'J t-" (What greeting you use may vary depending on the weather of the day.) b) ^E å cTë ì-ùtÉ!'* T. (Opinions vary from person to person.) +r.+å V Ùh È c ) =-zØÞÌffiùi. ilffiØÞÌffir:*c(l** b *î. (A course grade depends on the exam grades.) 10 *t ruf&/cã=,correspond to -, lffiaa>¿.e>>>?fit¡*r¿õeêâÌl a) Bäffiø l¿Å,¿:Ëùrl ùÌ. Fffiø oorrello" t;ÉÈð. (Japanese "konnichiwa" corresponds to English "he11o.") b) - i.^.¡vll- ,fEfFlEH/: U *ttt'" (How many yen is a dollar?) f f *' ^, (ø)) ååäN='N, like -; N such as -' lffia¡u¡ > ¿. t s >>> rñE B¿à €l øeããxã bEËJl 41" t) a) I Ð t {,.] ø)J à t¿MfiJr¡7 v-Àìtt - 9€ffi¿: llär. Tìô i " (I don't think English has a convenient phrase l1ke "daomo.") rÞlv l: ùlù b) &ffiØæ+ìr. BAz¿: üffiÐ/Jr'J af¿#,âËìrtù>6ù' å- ffiLr,-" (Characters for names are difficultbecause there are readings such as those that even Japanese can't read.) 39
  49. 49. -lz#>>>>> a) "o EL¿,Aãffi >>>>>[âtr2] ¡pb: HE¿ila'Èr, * < v tv : i A'- lp i -ì--Ë+* f'ø! U"C.T:.ìr' Ù " @b : ù : åF< Ê¿'rlt'tttrol; 1o *+vtv: È Ø, ¿lË)Ér)ìËeI't:41 I¿lr, ?tt.tzz ù¡Uf¿Hïffiffiò/¿ ( ð À'ù>'>1." È t'^À r9 b : 7c {Lì,tjÑ;Ærì ->l¿tt" ,r" E!-lVJVl ^.7 ù: r¡ b . -ÄlÌ BA#Ø+4.. ð i -^¿l EÆ#Øft+J: t¡ b /J ð l,'o +IJ.++0) Mø-e , Yä¿*Lls.å ( Àb ¿:frä¿=Éårt (frâ 1:tobumpinto) L.ô-c'T" ft1¡2 ãÈ.Ð iìr,- HffiaH,¿ i /ì=/¿å.. ft4.1:Ëf,åäð ,o 4l-'(ãttØHÍtat:?!.( ft4.1=#L/JðL'o Jó zc {LtrtKbot¿ 6- ++.2 PoÌ¿)x,ùtftäù: ä b. tÈ+.V P':> l¿ÅÈìYå.,t:t¡cL- ö t *ËlEl Dâtr?ffiË L/r ð L'" f ,,, EI-IVJV< e ":7ù:r¡ b. -ÂütEAffiØ+ä- ò i-^ùÌEã/øts.Ét:t¡ b /J ð !'o Q t-a- L Ø1 LlEltiâff?. ( Ètll:EAffi (informalJapanese) t.L/Jðt'. 3,'* trL.-rVJVl e ,{7¿:r¡Ì¡ð!.. tÂt*Ë7g.c"j-. */ùtfiax-,ùl/Jð¿ it¡ø'c- ò i-^r)ì¿.i L {à,HÈ/¡a -o 4l-'c., 71."rì4 à þUr¡ðì,.. [-¿¡ì,.t.Øl:) þtfr.o'c._ ( /¿'ùl/¿ EA#f#L/JèI.O i 1 : This expression is used to sug- gest to the addressee that helshe should have done something. 2:- 1,, ? {LI= is used to give an additional reason. 1 à -
  50. 50. ttrt' õtìÊ?=g€ I {rr,dVv-, e "{7¿: t¡b, T-t 4 i:rt.'C.0)f 4 7ùy/ =yþt,t¡ð,,.. fiø ¡ir^EffiZtâ L l. L.o a) T-^ 4 þt#c{1.åà.. fSr(!./¡¡.fro b) Ð i L{ffi.o 1 t- âØlt,- I#o{!./JL.ØÐ.o c) ,-r4¿rffiÈà.. È6!.å.o d) E i U{ffå TÃo)tt,- È à r,.t¡.o)ù,o e) T-, 4 þ{fr.i ØÌ1. Ê#þù.tl âffi/ìùtà.- üJ,Ð.0). Lù:ffi.i ¿ ¿ ò ù:âù," Þi¿¿*'. ù ) 7 {úÈ t -,4 ùt ¿¿,4. ¿ ¿:ffà âÌ¿ô itr." (ffi!: *á!. L ¡..rzqÉ?'¡¿Ét:&. k6o) !,,, fFI e 'Éma¿: r l. {Élî++ (' à t,. ØlFxþE* /J ð !.o *É*a 4) l- ôù.->l¿: ¿ /¿" ùlËùï It"Ì t"" räir lfr ØHl arJ frtÀùrE;ffir>i:-ift!ffi=-z-á -)"'TtÈ * L/¡o : z--a-rî¿*. Èiü:{È¿,-cì,./¿ a ¿ Ø Þ â a B v ¿ 7x+ùt ( nrf-tr 4*. L t:. tytÌÈi ¿ lEl D j i r" L/¿¿ì. t+Ø ¿ ¿f øË¿*. ai.t¡Éirå¿: rÃoÍ!./¿ø)t-'. cÀc ( b L* L/¿" -ìEFÆ@E. Ë)s Lt.ôt-ô t¡FfrþF,I¿ b - vz | 7 vîiôu,t-u-PVlþÈ^l/¿ b -6'È{. ¿ { ò }å.c/¿îf" € *t p/v' ^ì-r-àì. *r v ^ A:cÊtlJftä¿:âr,.* L/¿. cD zEf,r. r- jÃ.øxn; Èt' * Ërt E L ttÌ'rùr-'o. FÆË." { r.trL¿å-'x ?Ãful¡ ð u." 0 Õ X @ K E:IJJt+.å * t rr,,yt*. IEI Ciéiü^ft < À,1 t- ¡ i " âEûtËl-t-4 )î'1.ùa ò tED+/¡ù.d)ù1. */ìãr.6 Lr.("-f. È Ø i ò *á ¿ ¿ r,. ò, iÉt-zï.-cf¿ ù U!.Í.--fo a) b) c) d) e) *t p tvlt1Æffi0)ffi#^f-r < L.tt" õ2 41
  51. 51. -lz#>>>>> lt) I w t¡' za¿-a-2 ù:lÈ{-r+¡7 ¿*. EÆØÊ.Løð Ëfå. t'- Hlfrat-tÃ.'tI¿Ù=-- e-7^-ffô-ù:fiått't u'I J-tvþ ö à:t" ðËf¿Ì7, y ùþ*'t'F,l¿ : å¿¡/¡1. È, ì.. i" +litrt=z-3-r+^*.þ. = z-a-rãt'tÃ0)î- i¿- a -2 0) a L r¡ 6Í¡!'eö j ( îno|-L.6o ð Èf¿¡= t--a-V "'ftï: t'. EH t¡ffiþuìéuì 6F,Èr óül'J ) L7"1vþ(FoI¿" +T, It - ð ËÍàìË u,IciÃ.øEØÉE+ ( È. à - ? v,' v I v þÆl]L{Ët'l¡. *f p v 2 7 -7 -'+v l -- , 4 ¿^À'7r Ù -7 - rYÅy' 7'71- l" C,'v t¡EþF,'C. {¡ 6cl¿" 4{t'þ,à. 2001 +9H 11 BØtrl-C.+È'þ'f¿Z-¡vi'^'l' r,,- 1.".+vl -åìlE:f !.tDtr'-ìBfutu'( å. ðËfÌÌz,&'U7€ )l¡ffikF'ÈI¿. ð Èfàr-#F=7'f¿Ø¿t, 'L v | 7 )v't*-rî, zþF'f¿ffiÈ:t. lbb, 7):þ¡.¡'J LÉo'C.- y 7Ø4^ÊþÈ ( ð À'L l il DÐl¿. 4l-r lRËc¿*- ¿ z L ò = l-ù.F,È, {t t¡!.à. à : * å /¡ t,..l ffi oI:" Ø'¿ã¿#,tu:c. ff UUnHO. råË:Curnldx €^nHÈuì. a) ðËfÙ*. Èiü:= z-3-2 Ù:*/¿. Lùtbâ" b) +)^, I*- .13- = -21Æ.*.{tl¿" c ) ð È+lå. Hifraøffit:*'T7 t=) -)vþ#.2l¿Ølìô i " d) ðËÍ¿f. +v | 7 )v'tï-/lrt.-&Ã,t:),.o1¿" e ) RË¿: {¡ '/ x ¿s/; ( ð ¿,1,'å " aln M u E D K I t) Z squirrel : ¡{t¡ /"h L t,. sad ¡E¿' ÉS to show joY ¿.þ¡J¡. cute t- +rv À, 4H pictuer;photogfagh ¿t¿atl. #;ñ-f a to show someone around È' Êc1.- â to be standing Ëü {(oË I
  52. 52. ¡1jii!11: ilirl lrili1,1¡ì tilt) rl rìi¡r lìljii iliiltilittr iitli,t !,1 I l tlllrir Ft¡f¿ø) . €,5-?Ðffi_LlÞ_løãfo: ã :il . ËiøElrÉlfêtf?ttfclÊ TLtttutiÀå r iÉ'#itt erì ( r r tefÉ If r{ r q. " "" """"""'>Ê#2 :.::"""" """" " " """""""'>Ê# 3 . Ð5:(ËE(
  53. 53. URE Noa c o o o Asking Favors T ust as you would try to speak very politely when you ask a favor in English (e.9., Would J yo, ... please?, Would you mind ...?, etc.), one should be extra polite when asking a favor in Japanese. Japanese speakers often deliberately start out hesitantly by saying Ë *: ¿tiffitìi5ìõ âfu7c| û ¿....'- (tit.,l have a small request but ...) instead of a more direct 5*: ¿öffit7:TõDt3-. Negative forms such as ttfclÊlJtttfuD and UlclilJtdUìC U t f 75 also occur frequently. ln more informal speech (e.g., when asking a favor of a family membeL a friend, etc.), one would say Ð òì-fåV?, <Í'ItdU?, etc., instead. Another formula one should remember is &ô1.<ômtl l,t?-, used as you part with the addressee, of whom you have just asked a favor. lt literally means "l ask for your good favor," and is a standard ending to a request- making situation. (Remember this same expression was also used in Lesson 1 at the end of a self-introduction.) Going to Japan for a Year's StudY >>>>> T;.t or American students who have taken only one or two years of Japanese, it is virtually I impossible to attend lectures for native speakers and expect to understand the content. Much as one might wish to experience authentic college life in Japan, that would most likely be beyond one's reach. lt would be more reasonable, therefore, to attend a university that has an international division geared to foreign students. Toward the end of the year there, when one's proficiency in the language has improved considerably, one can perhaps receive permission to visit classes for Japanese students a few times to "get the general idea" about Japanese college courses. c c o o o
  54. 54. 10 I I I I I I trrtt Eäro)El# I € *vn *r uP = El: 4Iutv = El: *Iutv = El: *tutv = E: *rutv = E: *+utv *+utv *rutv = Bt: *rutv = El: *ru¡v lL . ^-¡-. EÄ#ø=frft#ØffinEÈa.ll(" -ffift+., L¡-> ¿sáD+*L*T" ùå t .. fn¡a"-¡¿.. ùt ð Øæ#-effiffiþ u. t /¡" < Ø k,=:,{11 L * r l¿,t{"T È¡. 4 )fTìt'" L ¡= Li#o.( ( /ìð l,.o I {L-eTtJ" âB¿x aØ-tftícL/¡&. T a*,-ri.{,-C" L È" D +. ù> t- l¿# -> "C. < â Ø þË,¿,{Lt-Ì,__!_._Í-da" 1 fiu-_ l¡r¿. b * LÈ" ó. 4{tlt'tr.l*, i-?táFF!.trtbâ.4,f1üt Ð. frj("L¡ i" zL" BAffiØilffiØ B ü:- liå.Øilmår-: t> ã>o{......o -B ù:ilffiàì=:{"-f È." ì- Z - 4 i t¡ À,îT " BÄ#Øilffi þ 4 Øffi Ø Ft ù: É ùt_ð_g I ! :I-; Iq !l /r r,. l:1,-+ 2{:o ' * ð. 4 1 u- ) . Lt¡ t,tlfrã>b *ìi À,tr. ffiØB å u. 7 ¿. ls Eløz_Kffi El"C'-f dâ" l*[.- 7c 111" D +. 4 ØEØ+0þ-W¿: ¿ : ^*( ( /¿"ð r,.. ¿i,t.. -ffia"Tfi" !. !.1."Tà.o åi-. Èr.D* iÀ-eT" Dç. zjrffiElØ--ffi¿: ià.¿ì!.*T. Ðt ò ô b ål¿ i ¿'ð"!.* Lt" [. ì.. åo = Et : 45
  55. 55. .l¡ #o,,,, e h'/¡ l.À Éü l.À EilI l.À ñ IIJ tÀ EilJ l.À E.ilJ l.À Éü l.À Eil] l.À E ¡II ) = ù v . E ä#0)Eü ftf.ØffinÊ¡ffiffi,ÞtäfF atEß < " ft+.- +. -. =âJ ôt-t-'Al- t )1t." !.!.{"T1. {qlÍ"T¿." b0) ). Fl*,. X+H+ L /¿ u'ø'eF#êù: F L¿ál¡ t 'Â,t'-f È¡. ?Ét.f [./;Èùt /J !.{" L I i à.o zì-. ì..!.("f jo ¿ ùtåìffiffi{,tØÆ#E{" 1" bb- 4 ilTù," br.ri,ry? 7 f" v z.("-d-à.. ì_2" tlþ'b * L/¿. ffiÐtl b ùÌu':1"1à'" b0) ). lffie)ú/l b -l o'Cfúî1- i. i tt'" L.? * (.. ¿:Ëfu¿S!ì [z)), ( !' ] : ¿ {'.T J. ã>o- Jltt b * tl¿. xìEøêEEl(.'T" D ç ó. â¿E_Él; U t,"c t6 È * T. 3 'f 7)*.Èlù" !ôl- ( $áFFt'L*f. ùt, !. o ffiËtr 46
  56. 56. ttt t Eä^øg+l ' Ê H#Ëi. l.À Ëß l'¿ s _ Ë[ l.À BI l'¿ I e+"8)b *r uP w b: *r uP w b: *r uP w b2 *t utv t9 b: *r vtv lrp : 4rutv 19 b: *+utv r9 b: *+utv l'./À ¿-Êß. #EeftÈhÄ: C ( 6 0)ã4t cTt'á " ù>o ! {4. ^.yËtrrÈs:l¿" D +. L À,ü'>[frÌ- ¿Ì ? ì- l"e¡:c ð ËùrË r ." È ô/a'" -aÊ.t-'c ( Ù¿l¡ r,. ? l.-U.Jo brùtL)" t0 ¿tþD. FåF<Ho)Ê[Ee. 19b" ,fEf" ît^. +E öfg#fFò i ¿,8:(. *Èffið âØ? ) À"" 4 {Lt:BÂð rÉt' L" 4)"Iìt,D¡)À? i À,.----." gir,. ül å. -:fF¿{'ð L.!. ? /J ó Ù:. +EØ+'&.- =Wft+å' 6 BÄ#Øffiffit> t c( È { ( f¿l¡ t,' ? [.[.} " -mft+ØffiÉot ¿¿ tt:bâo)" .,,t) A. rt-tv1)523" 523 tJ" =ffirå D + /¡ r. ¿ ätrrä ì.. ùÌ Ð. =ffi¿*t, s. ) ¿^ft+.ø* 7 4 77 7 -lìh'6- l¿'u. D * ) Jl. D+. l> È'-c-C < âtJ" brù:Li"
  57. 57. .13 #>>>>> h' ¿i fL f À II t ò È, / -(' 7c I¿ rl f ¿ ä â Èq i: {L+ ä /ì + rl fu,Ø t, I ¿ + À, W " E + üSio¿: W !r +. I ãÊ tä ' , o) b Ð / Èì Utt Å / /¿ Èr 7 îâ 4 À:t¡FJ rr j ¿!. -) r1 !r æa â 't þ ô tù ö I ( {.P¿*i 1l lÉ+ ¿:ffiffi. !rf T {LVJ, ¿ Ði Ë i D = I ¿ X ) ->./ ùÌ tT L. ffi r¡'c D/is + É ìE ¿ì û: Ø Ë'c. D ¿* l1 !r rt Ê' <Ni EffiùS ìæ+È, lÂîTlâo)Ì¡ {L øi É! rE {L ¿Ì +. {L * b ./, Ffr È !r /¡ X Ø ë â fiË {L Èì -C 2 â, ^ z)ì t¡o L. + ùi ¿ o) É! â Tt ( f " rt þ tt ^w È: ¿-: -) H äì ¿: o) < â !r,"8 o) ñu ì.. + +È,W Èæ ffiËås /¡ â+ tÆ.tår + bÈìt-LffiLb'ä+-r Eùå tr&^ l- UTt ( ür-'U L FtlW i: â A b + l; -c b /¡' L. ) 7 L È fÅ Ø ù: B . F !t r {L â F þt o) ./ üå-' {L ) åì W ^'cU!ä â6 l- f åìy âo) +a) 'lñ ì^-â +.'äì^ð9rt B+'c6U tEI b ¿å +. Fl ffi {-î u E o) ^ Æ^' Æ t¿ +u ù* ¿ìffi/ +LÈ"to)Ø7 ñlJ!r t 1ât @ f rl+.ù.ô +tW., /¡'¿äþt ËF + ft 'l'41 I Èì Ìl ) ìt + ¿l y ô,K ffiÈ, É 7)ì ð ffi i & o È, å. fi ) -t7 Èi L H ¿ È fi z)ì lÉ + Ð{ ^ È, D I¿ ö "c" o) F¿ì â lg ÐJ+^{LØ{LHW.ti ¿* {" -C: (" o À + {4 þ lfrTa X â + Ø {L B /¡ fu, å * 7+. f:t å.i '+ "+^ Hüå-'A Lr ,+ EÊ â /¡ 7 ü* o) â bi U - 7c ùå li a) o luþt 4 +¡o) t.þt Æ: 'àìtX ^ t t' 'h þ B lÈìlr. l, Ê.-C"B ò+# ^ z)ì - 7T A, tì È, ¿å^ b ¿'C 16 â l. d'L{" )v r 7€þÉ B Ø i- äR i Ê tr 7 ü*' ùt, ù: o B t rÊ a t 6 rB -) js i)r ö 7 /¡i8à 7 a ! ' # + ¿i L t¿ 'í e Í ì B ât {L ,li ^ i frgl 0) -c r,.l /¡ H í- rr + ,) Æ -ìi ùf I + , lâüffi ùt ii ù lt'; ¿ì ù: I Ø (i E y +_ , '. Få H bi {L þ ,'_ r¡ Ø X,h A (" ù: Â_ f;þ¿s + tùi ùÌ É ï H 6 ^ Æ I ^ ö â (:)W.t,- +. {"1 /¡ h ,1 H " /¿ þ a + !r [ H /J" É EIJ$'{,t å a) :' lÌ H Ë + 7 + rr /: â ¿" e f{o'r¡l r¡ ^! ++ + å ¿. I L u tl + o) L þt r.i ! + ï ¿: ñ H È' 4 E- 'fL+. r åì EX o U {" _¿{È*Æ aF,þ )€Ë¿l'ù* I ffi --#, T +, # # â -f û: # /:" 7 4 + ù,i6ø,-1,. S Ø {" : ,ti'¡¡ f" +f !r ål Ø # ît 'C. {L 'fË tr É=É ¿ åi ft ò I t Ë ii i: L.i ð â,^ùt t: 1 åì È" 6 !r , ! ffi þt Ãr. òi t, -ìi'H ¿å ; {" o o [r )v W (" B {L lE !r
  58. 58. :.. I I t2HIJ #""' 50
  59. 59. ,tttt Eô^.øg#l 2sV¿¿Èìt"È6 canV È [r, 3t ñ9. wish;hope È [*'i Lç ñg# one who wishes to do - l:ftÆ.î â/l ttto- 32 # person l:Âl ¿-( 32 ffil: particularly upriÈ( uru¡i {l äìF tË housing conditions , a,f þ6 Ht' bad
  60. 60. .l¡ #>>>,> þ .*.E ¿* j"t -tz6') ., l.*F{.r .r.,' !' ( o.rIJ# ,r.Ë(tr) 16.Ë ? ¡--6¡flt"( zt.X# zo.Ê# s.1t*. e.flE r¡.-# 'uÉÉõ zs.l&b a za.âffi 2 a.*.IT 6 q.IÉ!. r¿. ÆfU tg.DlN ,n.hÉ' Lo) zs.# .€; -- ffisF LìL{,rz.Fu,{Lâ 6L z.$.â rr #uH t/s- t7.TÍ ) to.H!. r*t ffi:ft^irJr zo."EÅv a +riç zs.,Z'T L ò ro.ffit:] zz.èffi zz.EÉ a:.. .t.ffiÆE o.ñfi L"*ì tÍ) n. FW z.Hl*ffiffi ,.h*h,, :ì 0'L w^w** Lot' rz.ìEÀ ,r.F=HË N'? à zt.EtJl{ utãJrr zz.ffi#, du'dÂL'iì ryffiffi)t e.ËT tf 'bç' ß.rãã tr 1e 'ü¿-: i ra.#ÆìEã ôâ üL 22.ffift l( t. za.Elffi#tr ÐrÐi es.lÉ91 dù, o#t u,, tìì')rì r+.ffiHffJ rq.HË f: Lt' z+.H.ffi kìL s.Ìfl#E to.ã 6 fitf' ts.W. t_*.. S4 zo.ifi#F ètV zs.ffiùt 6 r.tut t"t ¡0.ffiffi Lr, zs.ñÆ# i. SË zt.tIffi :ã Lr.ì 26.'ÈIry .{tt t" sr.DIlÊ ¡0.{läs,H-F C¡ì L( c' ì:'Èå åe # iôt ( 4. ÆÊ 'þt {r æÆ 29. This radical stands for water and is basically used for characters repre- senting water-related conditions, activities, etc. trül [,Éj fËl rd¿
  61. 61. I I I I I >>r>r EôrOEl# I f ott VtCül? l*#1>t.z>>>ËnãrìEl . hqu*¿conversation,Vät,.-e ( ÈË¡.isoftencontractedtoV/Ât,'-e. ,,',"',, . a) ù¡Ur¿ffioc < âøþ,E,nâürfde. (Please don't forget to bring [it] tomorrow, OK?) f ,,, V (causative) Tltï¿låll /¡ür? l¿ xöltt lâ#l > t. t q >>>EtJËtt(trtctittrdtr-ë t r à är] "itié,it'a¿,r;Cô¡ldl¡o¡rcg'.e.!þ,árravor of your retting *é,. ,1,: ¡.ã,,v.¿ú;jplite a ) ÈiØ B ¿=#r#¿Élf ð rf ( ür/¡ Ë tt /c rru. t, ¿ ) tt," (Would you please let me take the exam one day earþ?) zÀ'À:¿' b) ft+.ØffiX.þffñ* Ëf ür/: Ë tf /J trr U * Ò tt, " ( lspeaking to a professor] Would you mind letting me read your paper?) ftæ.. ffi#þ{t * {f ( tt/¡ /c tt /J t,r ?. l, ¿ Ò lt' " (Sensei, would you please iet me be absent from class?) # ftæ., ffi#þfrlvT' tr È Ë tt /J tr (. l, ¿ Ò lt'" (Sensei, would you be absent from class?) c) d) Sentence c) is the correct request. nòìtus¡rry'ap,prgiiatè. . :, .'. : e) ftä. t€ffif* En'ÈT tt/¡Ëlt/Jtr( l, ¿ )lt'. (Sensei, would you 1et me say it in English?) ,b4Ê. t€ffit"Ec( tt/cËtt/ctr(" l. ¿ )h," (Sensei, would you say it in Engiish?) f) 53
  62. 62. .l¡ ËÊ,"" 9Etrr t -pþ L( ( Èð t.. (Please e-mail sometime today.) +ÈÀ XÊ.å - 9Æ + {:fÄi, r¡ ll È¿lf'¡¡ å /J !'. ( [I] have to pay the rent by t]re end of this month.) 4rr, -t{-l*Ë='The more/less -, th€ more/less -' lffiuv¿ > ¿. t t >>> ãttnHårìE¿] il,rg,sn: +.V..é,i,6l" dl.tg4 HAffi¿å. ffi#t nl;{tuffiï 6lf ¿ *á 6 l' ô ( tÌ â L.BL- * f. (I think that the more you study Japanese the more interesting you will find it.) b) ++.trtt| n$g;tril ¿. ¡É¿*'f¿ 6 ø) àìffi L t -" (The more students there are lwho applyJ, the more difficult it is to be selected.) c) !.!.vz l-TvTttnibãÍf ¿Ët'. (Better restaurants ate more expensive.) d) #,ïÃIt lt'Ì"t¿lvt 6nlìt, ã fÍ E !'!." (Simpler explanations are better.) e) BÄffil*- ffirÂu/cttftrt'L /Jtrlf ¿+ìtr. à /¡ ( /¡ b *'f . (The less you study Japanese, the less you will begin to understand it.) Lr tfür 5 "o Nl;JrþA,/t)lft fi='other than -; besides -' lffiaø > ¿.t s >>>ffial =¿'l.Y*ø] Ittc ã ttu È¡i å¡ Ll tr ártt a ) #ffiøUlø t*. äñ+Ët:tflE u' ôu- ôHi l> Øtrtb â " (at ttre beginning of the semester, there are so many things to buy besides textbooks.) ù¿t, À à' ,r( L¡i L¡iåt( å¿, b) ÍtrÊt+€rr+oæ+#ö ó b * T" (There are otlter scholarships than that from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Tbchnology.) _ ütå $ "' ülVþ-El,tÖ*ltl?f*t¡t,t='it does not necessarily mean that...' lffiañ¡ > t. t s >>> ütt €EuäøH{ütlr€52ã¿uìãþlttËãtr] a ) 'x,T v €' B;6^lÍùt ll'Eäffià¡.h.f ¿: rà 6 ¿tr ä btt?'f *öt) *Ë lù" (It is not necessarily the case that one's Japanese improves once one goes to Japan.) ; by the end of a) b) 54
  63. 63. ,,,,, Eä^øE#l b) c) ù'll, úËl- ö Øàlr,.L.¿ur ar.ltlclf át,ì. (It is not necessarily the case that expensive things are good.) út t €, Elä^rra ¿,dÃ,ßÏs-¡t¡WÈ (/¿) ¿ ür i t,ttrtttru *Ë Á.. (It is not necessarily the case that a77 Japanese like natto.) l r> NI{'}U='nothing but -' l#úvt > t.zs >>>E+ËtáDþl ].::r:],.,]):.:,.::::.:.]:...:..':::. :., '[,X.l$¿¡lb æl expless"s the,idea that there are so muctr'X that¡ráþþ'eæi:a¡ ii ànill x "*iuÀ, a) 1 w èØ= z- 7llt.f/¡ =z-Zlt'rt'úJ1*- t..ç t'at¡.â "(TV news is nothing but bad news, and it's terrible.) b) Bä^fjo ll,lJÐo) a ô ¿i- *ô l, L ô !. I å lÍ'7t'U Ìi: /¿" (When I went to Japan, in the beginning I had nothing but interesting experiences.) ..Iná),thereisofcou,r¡,e ei'f!, onif,,,g.b eié.i!'s.òm,uc.$ l:ü_-fui1r""-saiifthere were nothing but bad news. .:,, 1,;ittìì : àiso¡e used in combinarion wiúriri¿:t:i!id1¿f1.¿.+È¡ii.:':',],ìi.. ..'', ,:-,¡i' .1, ¡'.,:''" c) î v ¿'þ F,'c tlfii tl !' 6 ¿ fú,Ífrc È * rù.1,. (If you watch TV all the time, you can't study.) $ rt t¿ã^( ='as - as possible' læatø>t.zal #æl)rl--e ù. /Jãc< HÆffiþfficl¿ãàrl-!.t..Lr r. (It 4¡i11 be better if you speak Japanese as much as possible even outside of the classroom.) zl ffiE¿x. /r õ^ ( h.øB ¿:t Lf ( /¿"Ë r." (If possible, please hand in homework the next day.) 9 -' V (plain) ^(ä ='shoutd; ought to' lffiatvl > ¿. z e >>> iF- Lzi- 1 èr ^& Ë t. 3 3 >>>Ën õ xËe f *r¿ur] i ''T:þis,,is,afÒrrn,deriyed..fr.orn$e1âssical.,ãuxi1iery.,t'.'ê *Utrft'¡@ws.theplaþ pre¡ent tg4¡e form of verbs and caries the meaning 'one should do i.'When the verb is Tå, both T-rÈ and T a À * are used. Thé negæive form of ,s È is .ì È f tl t i. rathèr tnan * A r,. -r È f¿- t,À,Åtù ù,L t: a ) B ä#Ø#H ù;-#,ô.tc ìt, -; rc r, . Æ# þ fuiñr Ø) d ã t¿" (Ifone wants to read Japanese newspapers, one should study kanji.) L. ttÀ b) ¿i¿.Ø^ØÉE(opinion) ö Ë:< ¡tã/¿". (One should listen to the opinions of others.) h4 c ) ffit,.ËËøËE ùÌfå < ^ Ë (" ùt /J !'. (One should not listen to the opinions ofbad friends.) a) b) 55
  64. 64. .l¡=#,,,,, +*. ft+. ++. ft+. ++. ft+. ++. ftæ. fÊ,+., b * c¿ +JFttrÏó â ll,acttt ¿ t. t*t.. {4f'L¡ l" L ITI" trøÒ. .r*XìEØmt#ø z¿r¿lv<"ïtt¿ 2" 4 ØEt,-ffiwt:ftù. /¡ ( ( ¿Ì /J â /¡ ( /¡ -c"c l, *. ) lo IE] DffiFå¿:f-Tå.. .!a Z ì-" TA*ìlÂ,àì. e Ø^0)B ù:EttË Ë(tr ÉÊLit¿ur?'L & Ò 1t,3" * ó- 41-1: L/¡Ùftfrb b *ì¡.Lde" 1¿O a) ,,, frfrL=ffiü(1) b) '* ftltt;Fü(2) c) "'ËiËEffiü >>>>>[âffi1] >>>>>[âBÉz] >>>>>[âffi+] 1:When you have something to ask your superior, you begin the conversation with expressions such as È ¡ -r å f"-EFL'åló 6 rt 'eTLlÐ oràt"xoLtôl't' ("LÌ iÈ.. 2: You introduce the topic by *lÌ -o)¿ LÌÌ,À,ícît1 Ð or *lt,- Èi.Å,1TÈ¡. 3 : You ask permission by V (caus- ative) t t./¡ /dùt tJ t-'c l. s I lt,, V (causative) ( t' lc t¿ ùt * 'ti À,å' or V (causative) f u- lc li'È È t,' Â,'cf år. 4:You ask your superior to do something for you by -t I't¡ ti [l tJ t. t. L S i lt,. No causative form is used here. 5: In informal conversation, a re- quest can be introduced bY ex- pressions such as #t'tt Ð,-? *rÆr. L"c({, )r.t,. ? or È } -¡ ¿#ÎAl3I'¿ ¿tr;bA Â,/¿"ll å. 6:An informal request can be made by -f ( þ/¡t. ?, -f t¡ å å r¡ l. ?, etc. Y4-: ftE.: Y4.: ftE.: lÈ+. èb e c 2 å ô I't,rT L & a ù' 1 " ì,. t. T j- À. 'íFJ-C' l, ¡ i "Ltiùr<â¿ú ; ü, o ), ær*F+ä t:F l'iZ.aÌ¿t' ¿, ?' T t$ 2. f L'ù/,U¡ i åËXåiûtagr- ( ür/¡ titr t¿trr L &, Ò h'4" !. !.{"T i. *'tVlv: wb I *<vtv: r9b: **v.¡v: @b: *'rvlv: 19b: *tvtv: re b. fÁ. âE òFËHmü i å,8:r" ¿* i l-I¿o)" t.r¡ t" ¡'c ¿ ffiàrrÉ ( {" Èì,.Dt iJì?b4 i A,...... " äÊr,tlt ¿. -?*JF¡r ¡ 1'ürür ? 5 äó¿:" tt À'to) L2 +E Øffiffi' ft*'øffifr'ái:ffi ' { t' z I ( ft/¿lr ? 6 i.{,_ !.!.Jo :'e) 'tda" 56
  65. 65. 1 A - ,> El-rv7"v1 ,{7r: r¡ b _ -Ä¿lBa#Øftä. ù i-^¿åEa¿:g+L/¿ r,.y+.t: t¡ b t¡ ð r.. #ä trTÌ. ct;tÌ. 4.ø ¿ ¿ ? BA#Í-Ëi!. /J ð r,.o a) lå D e) ØÉ#" b) You are applying to the Rotary Club for a scholarshíp. c ) You ask that the professor write a letter of recommendation for you. d) The deadline is January 15. e) You brought a stamp and you have also written the address on a sheet of paper. f ) fi$irþØÉ#. 4 lLtrtKb o l¿ t - ++.þ þ = f¿ )tttfi¡ä.ù: /J b . ft,+.þ +c /¿Ått#äit /J : {. , -ÆffiH L /J è !.. f,,,1-wJV( e ,{7ù:ä b. -^¿i. BA¿:BYT â. LtrrÌÌ..c/¿#ä. ò i-^ùÌ. Eaffiøft4¿: t¡ b /¡ ð r.. Y4.t!., ^0) a L þ BAffif Éì,./J ð !.o a) Ìt D e) ØÊR" b) You are going to the University of Tbkyo on a Monbukagakusho Scholarship. c ) You ask that the professor write a Ietter of introduction to Prof. Yoshioka of the University of Tbkyo, afuiend of his/hers. d) w¡'', ØÉ#. 4 {LìrtKf'' -> t e'. +ä 3 ç -> f¿ )r,Itlt¡Æ.¿: /J b, ft,+k +,c Tc ),,tt#+.it /J a {. ò , -ÆffiH L /r ð r,'" 3,,, trt-rVJvl e ,{7¿:ä r_ -^trEä.#þffitfrLf !. â7 / y ùL++., ù i-^¿ÌEa^Ø+äù:t b /Jè ù.o _^¿*lElDEäXíV7)2I7ù:Hf !.*_l-" 7 ' y r^ll. #ä¿:Ëu./¿ffi_èri ,' L¡ ffif+ã (textbook) þt.,,{¿T¿: ¿ i:fràì? È (to notice). Wt:p.Î. t, â EIA^ØË)É¿: Æþ HÈ -c ð à r,. /¿ r,. È'ÃÊa *. -t " ( /ì ¿l /¿ E äffi (informal Japanese) Í. ffiî ¿ L " z 57
  66. 66. .l¡ #>>>>, l'rÈìftKb ->l¿ù- 7 ) y rtL++.þ{c zl¡uà¡EÄ^+äl:/¡ b. E#L++-þ {¡ =/¿ )trt7 ) y rtÅYä¿: tÃ'>1., ò t -EffiË L /J Ë !'. Q,,,, iV-rZ þ-ì77 e = )tø/. y-7"þlFor- W+t-l¿t.Yäàsft+¿-ffi#¡ þåffi. e* lut¡¿ ¿ ?HFËð trL6tr.ëì-lJÈ !.o ìp-/ícärñþ=)lF]| /Jè !.o E{FË¿ìf È/¿ à, ' 12ø)'.1¿ ttctJ¡i t' r,=ry¡¿ (to present) L A ð !'o J,., =<ffiËTù,l¿.,1,U j j tr t"Èq) L? e tÈrÉ'¡xvxaa¿: BaffiØrt+-øm'Æat:x* L T¿ù¡, !tî-ìtìt'* t. À'" ft+-¡¿ ¡ +þã å* L ¡i" J +¿:ã( ¿ ¿¿i. 1 ¿lElDù:L/Jðl'o O ++.rJìft,+.t:,fElå.m¿,f.'r.*T. CD 3Hr.f . ELt. ö Øt:Oþc ùTlJð !'. a) : Ø+41È. dlv .li ù' Jtt<L¡i ( ) xtrf++€ (,/ ) u-iy-r7ì ØFYê¿: Fl-¿.ô-f¿ l' È ,Ho { [' * T" b) ¿ Ø+4.ùr. ftÆl: ç,/¡ ffiffi{ ( ) fiH^)tr ?ër.{ü åt.t!.Ø-CT. c) :Ø+4¿*. d) ffie>blll' tt (()-+rå ( )-++ EA^1ÎÈ /¿ t' å Écl !'* 1o (,/ ) )1,H+EE l rru r.u"( ) fE:+ãE I ( )+ä (,/ ) %,+. 58 e) ftä¿ìÉt./¿ ò Ø¿Ì- àsHT(" l- ¡ i.
  67. 67. l;:i, l^>), tlã'l 6Á, À à'àr( L¡) W I a -tü*- xffñ++å'ØilffiùI,,s¡ ¿"- Elal:-4w+î â:- Lttrri.-t /¡" EYårltr* : tffi, ttffi kp.ti å Èi¿-ffiËjJt? *aÆr.- ur¿ãüttr#^ù:. T CffàÈt:Tto|¿" ft+.tr*7cØa ¿ ?Ëf,( ¿. lÌà.:/¿îTda. trÐ{"¿ iJ å ^ÉeNÈ' : /;. 4 Ø'Iþ1, ft+.ttg+ù:, !.'c Ø 7 þ"u ì 4 z þ t'- ô t'- ô l-"c ( dzl¡ås. 4 0>4t: l,'y rt IþlrJ&ù,Ël¿Tü:fS:I!-: tÌi ) Èì1.!.'Cj- Àl å u. j Z 1.",ì 4 lùtã>->T¿" I ¿ i L({"Tà.. fÁ¿lÈffii ¿ v / -þLfr. t,.*Tüf àl È)=-tåìË) L- tr+.åK,o'C- l4)Df /Jt.'À,11 i." Eä'c"¿*,. )r#ø14 vùtùt---,,{-ìùtv ö 1.."7 4<- ò/Ju.ØàìËE/ià. 6. #ktft,oI¿?þ'e - tr/ù1ù;Ì¡t'¿ El âà"îT t) LÈLf¿" 9 = -)¿*BA^Ttol- Elllft+.øZ l."rs4 x¿ìIEt-ù"ol: ¿ å lrtT,)lÐT fu'ù,oÌ¿. 7 t y h'c¿*.,bfrø | 4 vcòt#ø | 4 vcð. /'1 r" Z ¿ <- È.-(-zt- Å Ã tvù;-c !.-C [. âù'b - 7c {Lkt,HTfruùf t . u." l-h'l- HAf"¿*. +Ëf ¡FltvØl4 vz¡ à t" r 4 < -f-{.-,,r-À ùtvùtrt..{!.( ò. t+ â e' l4 È¡ : t.' { !' /J t' Ø ÈìÉËl¿'. +ä ¿t #þffi: /¿ ó å -C". I - v 1{"À t,' T¿b t-Au'åÈì. y' = -y''ù1. u. vhlþt#o{È{Àà.:/¿ å,8,:È. 4{Lìdù.b"ct*,/¡ ( . ËEØFñ{"tt. +kffii ù: ð, ffit < â0)¿*íir¿¿1r". *uha[< ¿ /Jr,.o ElÄt"t*. {trJr'ò ffiM,liù.re¿,{"r.{- ^ , v-+Ëø l" 7 /J ÐâffÉÉ1=l¡¡ø¿:. t^ i t_-c. | 4 vØ%âållt,-c. ( {vr¡l,'Øà. å. t = - 9 tt: ttt 4Èr ò õ,8-#t': /¿ "
  68. 68. .13 #,,,,, ¿-t¡,-l ¿ ¿ fÉ¿Jr hti Ël'¿.l l: .F. x,i af, ffi) ÈrÈ' - ÉLt" great joy :Ëtrrä t,.{- to laugh; to smile to wash correct [tE ¿' f. ¡ 5'r. ¿' tffiffi,4v *tr* Ë{.r u -äi uÈ Égrfr , F, õ,8-# without fail rnecltanization to advance automatic mystery 2t trt: t 5àr o ;RØEãffi,tuE. iE U ltflldo. F€Ë : (t rl'l.ld x ä^nfdêuì. ffi a ) v'= -r¿t- {s6¡gE'¿ilffi¿:,sx I,-cù. È,, Elttft+l:ffiËÐt?*áFFr. L /¿" Q U I ãrllft4.¿*. ElAt.'tå,. v rt 1þ{í'c-c. ù. /J r,. ¿ ñfË (inconvenient) /ì å - ¡- n J tço ftä¿*. EAØ7t#¿: ¿l þ'7 -^ l-E J tto y' = -y'tÌ, EA¿:Ët.t. y' = -9tt. EAØ*EØ Þ '>1.1'- 6 o E K 0.) d) e) 4 I - {¡ ,{-,, s-¡ ù tvb /J r. þ 4 y¡:þr.- L ãlJJft+.Øã o l¿ r- L¿ìÈË, f l' l¿ å,8,: /¿" 4 vî*arÈù¡Hl¡ r,-ø¿ÌflËàrä r. a ¿ L'¿,H
  69. 69. #fiä,trÒ2ÉrD
  70. 70. IJRE Noc o o a c Homestays >>>>> hen you are doing a homestay, ask questions whenever you don't understand something, e.g., how to use the toilet, the bath, the washing machine, etc. Japanese people love electric appliances, many of which are quite different from, and frequently more complicated than, their American counterparts. The bath water might scald you unless you know how to regulate its temperature. Modern toilets, so-called "wash-lets," might completely puzzle you. Also, never assume it is all right to do something without asking permission. Eating things in the refrigerato4 bringing a friend home, coming home late, etc., might all upset the family's plans. The safest thing would be to ask permission. More will be said on this topic in Lesson 1 1. Talking About One's Family 1 n âËÉ 1, Jason talks about his family. Although Jason doesn't do it here, when Americans I talt about their family members, they often "brag" about them, as the woman mentioned in ffia*r) in Lesson 1 did, saying, "l have three beautiful daughters." Japanese don't do this because they consider their family members as extensions of themselves, r.e., just as it is in bad taste to brag about themselves, it would be in poor taste to brag about their family members. Writing E-mails and Letters hen you are writing e-mails and letters, first write about the recenVcurrent weatheL inquire about the addressee's health, and touch upon your own health. Then pro- ceed to the main body of the text. lf you are making a request, explain the nature of the request here. lf the purpose of the e-mail or letter is merely to talk about your current activities, describe them here. Lastly, in the concluding portion, write Clt. ¿iZ &ô L < ôßH UUtl if it is an e-mail/letter of request. O,therwise, just write so-and-so f-&ã tJ<, ¿)Uô 7lÃac, etc. Remember that, in Japan, even in a business-type letter, such as a letter of request, one should take time first to talk about the weatheç health, etc., and should not rush into the business at hand. lf it is a formal e-mail or letteç you begin your e-mail or ItLìltL lJLr < letter by FÉ (a formal salutation) and you close it by ffiF. lf you are writing to a friend, howeveL you normally leave out allthese formal salutations. a o a o o
  71. 71. t5 >>>>>'¡F- l:771 ev /u'?^ *aËð Â, : Ð-4Yv *áËð ¿, : 9-4/Y *á&ð ¿, : ìt4)Y táËð 'l, : ì-4/Y JóËð 'l, : 924/Y S'á&ã.ì, : Ðt4)Y JáËå ¿, : 9-4)Y táËð Â, : 9-'l/Y È&È.1,: !'-4 Y v *a&ð Å, : ù-4Yv *aEð Â, : lz4/Y JáËË '{, : E#*9 11 v !, jF- Å,77 1 ftØðÊlðtu¿# t CUlõ. )-4Yv- æffi.ØEHffi-c'Câ? zì-- ð b *T" L ¡o åEttð 6r{ò!.1.? ì-À:-" (4HþWfiù, òHL¡¡¿,-t) --.ffi.b b * Tùl ¿" ¿ d't¿l*ó1ã À,? àÀ. Î-c"T" Tu.sôÉØÉr,.äda. l4l,-c tol-+60). )+îffi.ì-{ t,. * i-" 4 i " ltrJØftH" 7trùøÆF"el" 7 t y h*-¡a"......*ôËðôðËÈìHt.de" å å. Èå. 61Xò ÉÈìÉ ( /¡-IT¿ À.Tì å,8 t,. * T. 4 {11- táË ð À, fr lrl?r,tt$ L f t -c t- + 6 0) ? Ëù*f#+("T" .', Z o 7, y z, I: ti.f1[*.Øft#tn¡sa,- 0) ? ì- i-" E!l_t!::.ÞU < Þ_ Þ å_gô. 1 7c ) " 4 {L'f- : d'tåìtárilð ¿, ¿ffið A,tJ" þnð.t,ò X 4,t Z i-- nttlËJ b -?t.l¿"È. à. ü , X++#{*îùl ¿" ffið Â,¿Ì ? ffi¿rëJ b =:Tr. ãffi.ØW+4r"î. *áËð A't:lÞ)Î6 *t" 7c )'CllJ." L o'C ö È.d2 !'L.o 63
  72. 72. 15 ev lu *ó1ð Â, 7-ìv idlð l', z-+lv JdlÈ.1 7-+)ìv *á1È ¿l, 7.-4lv ÌdÎð ¿, 7-1ìv *r1ð ¿, 7-ìv tdlð ¿, 7-qìv *áJèã ¿, 7-+ìv Sá1Ë.â, 7-+ìv jdlË Â, 7-+ìY $á1ð Å, 7-+)ìv h L&#frl-+ì v. fr- /J,77 1 ftøô1Îë tv¿ËÉ UCLìã " 7-Tvù;ä*dr./¿ØùlÐ:. 4.*ù¿l¡Øüi,: z-3-21ìoI¿À,î-f tl Ð. âf^H,Lt r.*ì+.å," åi L{. =:Øffiù:, 4øù ¿ zr v v v tt-tloø^l,Ë ç : T¿A""fT " bbTc i" +lÈ.A,îr.åEtrÌÌ. <1¿ y vtr.:tu!_Ìf_{_. ZL. ù ¿ zsvvvØ,Itläßî'î" ,rn¿X ÐØ (' å t... I_¿_-._ù'__220 + f å t. È ¿,Hu. * T. 3 1220+) alFI" 22nØ. L ? b- -f r)*È¿,. FåËà* L/¿. 22nîî" D +. b À"*. b xÈ t.FJD ç /J L.dâ" -r" ð. ù .t z = y !y'cùÈ-ÉElù:tå r.¿,fTÌ. ,"-å. *ËÅÈ u'Øå? tvù t-*-'Cf" bb, ltvù ¡.-*-È.. è-¡vtH&t¡" ï------------- î. -"14 y vl ÐÂ,/¡trJ. tIrØTto"C.âù 4 73vvvft#ùrðå L. 4{vt:'l'lläßTìå.à. f;[sò !.*To å d'¿u. l¡Ffr? àå. lffåìÈ ( ð À,ã>-ct_ t..¡.Ef(,.T .k" {¿tær-trT/"Lå". æå.åÐt*-e ùl ¿ { ò Ètr1r.'cf ¿Sà L!. ¿,8t. *i-" -^ ) À," -F.11 c'c. ¿.Ì¿u' /J óo l,.:å.ÞÉð .4,1t,. et -c l- p -c"C. ( È"ð u." 64
  73. 73. a7-+l>. 7-tÌv *r&Ë Â, z-qìv SáËå rt, z-+)ìv >>>>> ¡F- L7- .( iF- /77 1 ft 0) A)ËÈ tu l¿ ã+EI ä *Þ â . if',- i¡.77 4 ftØ#..ltERr)r 5 5 * : ë Ëu t. rrËÈ ¿,. ! r : ¿,ERÈi* îEâ-+'ntt:lrå l¡ r.¿,f"T üt ¿. ÉffiÉffi b ( ò L. [.("Tå.o !. !.-C-l- j o 4 {Lù.6......o {4" 7 r ' ùØx+ØËì€-e. âHHît€#þw.ì-(r.6^ù:. *0)i{Effiâ, I¿ À,1T " [.?È. r r. ,:ìEdz{ È /¿ t. Â,-cf üt ¿". [. Ì,.'c- L ] ) È.. !. [.{"1}. {4{ L. i Ä" - ì Ì/ -'c"Cu, ) À,f,'1. BAÂøKl:-pl>Tr-cl¿: å àì/Jt.'r¡À,-Cã-t -C * L/¡. Dtó. ù>l,I¿9È.ù:*{ò 6:/¿à Ð )" ^LÀb ù:Tåf Èl;l=zÀ i ¿ ,B={u.i?å aôlì7r.6" AY¿: !. !.{*1å.o 6 t, ô.4," Affi¿:X( ò 6 ->I¿ c, E i " r ì I - ù*^ffi * fft$/¿':'C.ã ={ L.l¿È. à. ^H+#t" t, þr } [. * rl.{,à.. t..r.("T J" D ç. Äffi#-t-;--Þ_-{-1. ¿ 2. brtrt å ):ð"u.*T" rá&ð ¿, to X-clv táËä À, z-+lv ts JdËð ¿, z-+lv $áËË ¿, z-+T'v
  74. 74. 10 *t,4u,,.,, t O ! - 4 v v. V )r U h Ø^VeEä#ääi^. Tþ 5 =f¿=EftËl-X- lbã.ï 6 " =frîà+. ò t+E ø*.t:z¡ b * Lt¿È;. RH¿**ÈFF¿. <1. W4H-Ø__å_i__ù_;_ãu.Elðåó b *i-. 4t'òtt, ò rfit#òf*b'cI¿iôîttl¡u-{- l- ¡ in'Z 7 - ¡t Hò È:"c L* u.* L/¿" €ElffiÉr,.ffiffi? L{r. â0)î. wØr¿;Ø¿ìffiu.{.T. 4t, È, ùl ¿'i Í*TÈ." âYffi¿* ¿* A,t¡r-7þ#.L{u'à -¡l-+ ['*TÈ.o fÅtå ò j È-r,.:¡ Eføftffi_¿:-/.4&f È å _Þ_l_ç_" Z t, t þ fr âÈi¿:. ftä{. EA^ØË ìËr È à. 6. BAØäIÉSXþ¿: :lo- { !- 4 ¡- zrffir"--cta L. /¿ o)trt, )Æ1g.rf.o 1 t, *T" 6t'ôÀ,+lJÐØ)L. lttvl< -v a y I þì/¡þ,->Tcþ_!l__!-LåÞ_l åg_iiår- ù) * b ôÐt,.y = y I ù*Éùtl_l__r_'{"-ËåÈ L_lç" ¿t, t Ølt+-c¿ÈY$t'å ¡:aÀ,Ì¡ffiffiËtr?++:Íl.. âØ-a- fÁ{¡ : t' t't:*al *a¿Tf ¡ -¡vþffi,ù,ù:fTrlt-6Øù:¿tô': ( b L* Lt. ,$x l. 7 r I t) -0))"1¿LùtóÀ,t¡1.[.ÅÈÈ/¡øt. a5¿:Ef¿.:-c[.*f. *áË ð ¿,ùif+4àr-h+{". --æE*at'Ut''WþÈ.-ìð r}-¡ ( þ* T" -¡" ð - EIAñ*E¿*6¿: u' u._4__?_-'(:_lda. îu.À.å,ê-ì{ t- â Ø ù:- 6ÉùÌ & L À, ¿*Æ.b b *'ì}/4,. h+r"¿x. BAffi. HAÊ. BAffiË. {l>#t¡ t^ kw-o{ u. * 1. HAffiø ' ' ^'c'¿i. *fËf,É:il#z¡ Ðffit-t-+-nþt ( ð À,ffiÀ,"eu, *1. Ë+17 | ¿ìæB bâØ'e - ffiU r.lE+&ît.À,.tHà* LÌ;. 7 tv¡t 4 l. ò -rEFËù-=ffiFË (' à r.f : { !- * T. =^ølut-',-ætB-ffiFåî:Eâff þw.Lâ7tv.,s4l'{"T¿r- -E=+FJò ö 6 à*-l-" 7 ' y rtØ7vÅ¿"¡ r b1'-t ¿ r.!.f'T. Í'-ò- 7tv.,s4 l. ?-Þ_lÈ_â L- ffitfrffifËàì,E br¡(Ì¡âù.e>. :i}}l-h ii----- ¿i+à/JL.: ¿ ü:L j i t,BrÍlo.*T" îtå. âHft t* r È¿È" È, E^#Øffiffiþ U/¡ ¿lfu¿Ì/¡ 6 /J t,. Ø{"- . tL-cX7LL * T" 4 t, È, ù* J.l'uà. åK ( z¡ å ¿,8 t. * 1. ¿^ ) 7€'-t6trt:taÃ,þ'c ùt ( Èð l,'. ËÜi¿Æ,t: $tôl-<*68,2(Èèu'" I -4 / v . I vz"Y v 66
  75. 75. >>>>> jß-L771 Êf trJ permission . Èå 7 'fi- ^7î 4 ft :g+4¿ì,ñ -^77 4 þ l-Lt- 6æ. picture; photograph wallet one's height American history lawyer not particularly [>>>EiÊl- F.1] TATE îiI. *ár¿È rL (someone else's) older brother r[i¿ ffiã À, (someone else's) younger sister ôt,. n (one's own) older brother t:- (- ù: ) FÀl t' 6 to resemble (-) ¿.þ¡J¡. cute; lovely 16 18 L +'L lu 4H ¡[. ¡ Wfr ù'Je! EI t tL 7'yùF. n'ru t- r, +æt ^ta f[f;-/¡¡. ttlt, - b |.u' {¿;e¡, : fft-/¡ ¡. not at all o -lt'X I wonder lgenerally used by male speakersl [>>>*Ë,¡- ¡.2] t- v1i ¿ ? ,rÍl ffi state capital v'/u t i s ^t] population g l¿-luì1, if I remember correctly [>>>*;tz- t.¡] * tÈ¿? tr fñËà 6 to make a mist¿ke ¡: [r¿ ó' 16r' t3 -æEl¿: (tÈ l') second (largest) a t+'x./ Really?; Gee!;You're kidding. ,9ti ó ¡ rc frft(t¡) famous [>>>*Ë./-t'4] 23 üt L: ßm+ {f¡a 21 ltr ¡.,p. & ¡l¿ æ ,ì, f ,, T'lr-'à L,-r,- út 24 Êã À, governor lake winter spring fall wonderful; terrific al1of you

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