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E2AGP - Country Portfolio


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E2AGP - Country Portfolio

  1. 1. UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio Population (millions) Gini Coefficient (2% increase) 1 Egypt  0.341 $405B1 GDP (at PPP) 1200 1000 9 $5,0001  GDP per capita 800 600 ___  71.91 Life Expectancy Your Name 400 Mohammed Al-Shawaf and 200  9.1%1 Unemployment 81,7 Ami Yoon 0 BREAD & POVERTY Size of 2 BOP/MOP The word for bread in Egypt is “aish,” which also means “life.quot; Baladi bread is one of four foodstuffs subsidized by the government and at less than 1 cent, the poor rely on it for their sustenance. In early 2008 when the prices of global commodities soared, long bread lines, rioting and deaths *Poverty line as defined by Egyptian government occurred throughout Egypt.3 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Egypt’s HDI value (.71) ranks 112th out of 177 countries, a figure that is made more troubling by comparing it with countries at the same value but with much lower GDP per capita (see graph).4 ENERGY  99%1 Electrification Egypt’s energy demand grows 3% a year but is expected to decline over  .07%10 Forest Cover the next 3 decades. Egypt’s primary export is crude oil, but its production has peaked and by 2010 it will be a net oil importer. Its 2.0 tons4  CO2/capita importance as a strategic energy area will remain as it boasts significant natural gas reserves and is a key transit route for oil and gas from the  13.4%1 GDP from agr. Middle East to Europe.5 DEMOGRAPHICS & OCCUPATIONS Egypt is the most populous 13 Arab country and second- Median Salary by Job most populous country in Mechanical Engineer (28) Africa. The Nile River basin, Projet Manager, IT (36) accounting for 3% of Egypt’s land, is one of the most IT Manager (42) densely populated areas in Software Engineer (54) the world and is home to 90% of Egyptians.6 0 200,000 Currency: EGP, As of 2009, reporting 2,217 individuals LANDSCAPE % Urban11 Egypt is a presidential democracy and an ally of the U.S., but the ruling party headed by Hosni ‘75 42.9% Mubarak has been consistently accused of ‘05 42.6% human rights abuses and authoritative measures to curtail dissent and opposition. The country has ‘15 43.6% been under a state of emergency since 1981.1 Sources: Sources: Sources: 1. CIA World Factbook 4. UNDP Human Development Report 9. Earth Trends WRI 2. Nawar, Abdel-Hameed (2007). quot;quot;From 5. International Energy Agency 10. Marina to Kom-Ombo: A Note on 6. 11. Population Reference Bureau Poverty in Egyptquot;quot;. river.htm/printable 12. 3. quot;Bread Lines Symbolize Egyptians' 7. 13. Financial Woes.quot; 17 Apr. 2008. NPR. 8.
  2. 2. UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio Gini Coefficient1 Population 6.8 (millions) (2.39% increase)1 0.57  $29.1B1 GDP (at PPP) Paraguay 1200 1000  $4,3001 GDP per capita 800 % of P opulation at 600  75.561 Life Expectancy Less than BOP 400 $ 3000 Dai Tran  5.4%1 Unemployment 200 M o re than Miriam Alvarado 6.8 $ 3000 0 GOVERNMENT & RELIGIONS •Democratization began in 1989 •90% Catholic . •The national government control 97% of the state budget. •Paraguay ranked 3rd most corrupt– drug trafficking is a big part of this. ECONOMY •Inflation rate is moderate 11%1. Wate r (x) •Informal labor accounts for half of the •30% population live below $2/day. workforce L ife Expe c tanc y S anitation (x) (x) •GDP comes mostly from exporting E conomic S ectors1 agriculture, electricity and services. S ervice A tte nde d births Hung e r (x) Agriculture (x) Indus try 4 •Lack of natural resources/fossil fuels Other 7 220V ENVIRONMENT & ENERGY  86%4 Electrification •Hydro-electricity producer with 2 largest plants in the world, exporting 64 Billion Kwh/ year, but  46.5%4 Forest Cover depends on foreign oil and gas 0.7 tons4  CO2/capita 9 Itaipú: world •Forrest occupies almost 50% the total area, but it’s biggest declining at a fast rate.  23.1%1 GDP from agr. hydroelectric plant. •No coastline. HEALTH •Distribution of health, and health access is L ite rac y (x) unequal –rural infant mortality is 2.5 times higher than urban Educ ation Mobile 8 S pe nding (x) P hone s (x) •HIV= 0.5%, Tuberculosis= 33%. *Abortions: illegal except as life Girls in Inte rne t (x) S c hool (x) threatening. 4 •*Major infectious diseases: bacterial *Major drug traficking country in diarrhea, Hepatitis A, Typhoid fever. South America. EDUCATION & TECHNOLOGY % Urban4 R elig ions P rac tic ed 1 •Literacy rate is high in both female and *Low ICT: only 34 internet, 54 1975 39 % male (93% and 96%). landline, and 320 cellular users per 1000 people. 2005 58.5 % Protestant •Half of paraguayan children drop out *Low Tech: Import all vehicles and Catholic Christian before 8th grade because of financial industrial machineries. 2015 64.4% None impediments5 *Only 79 researchers per million. 6 Sources: Sources: Sources: 1.CIA World Factbook 5. Paraguay: Social Issues Development Report, 2004 8. www.photiuscom 2.The Next Four Billion 9. UNESCO: 3.Chapter 11: Appendix 6. 4.UNDP Human Development Report 7.MSN Encarta
  3. 3. UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio Population (millions) Gini Coefficient1 Tanzania (X% increase)9 0.35 $56.2B1  GDP (at PPP) 1200 1000 $1,4005  GDP per capita 800 % of Population at BOP Name: Takeru Asakawa 600 Less than$3000 SID# 17452276  471 Life Expectancy 400 Name: Joe Mazzella Morethan 200  12.7%8 Unemployment $3000 38 SID# 18814170 0 POVERTY Size and spending of BOP (No MOP exists) Around 36% of Jamaicans live More than 40% of GDP comes from below the poverty line1, and agriculture, which provides more than the country depends on the 85% of exports, 80% of workforce. outside world Poverty is mainly due to outdated economic infrastructure(1). HEALTH ABORTIONS(10) Water (4) Yes = abortion permitted Life Expectancy To save the life of the woman Yes AIDS9 Sanitation (4) To preserve physical health Yes (1) 6.2% Population HIV+ To preserve mental health Yes Rape or incest No 2ndleading cause of deaths for youth Foetal impairment No Attended births Nutrition (4) ages 15-24 Economic or social reasons No (4) Available on request No 230Volts 50 Hertz ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT  11%4 Electrification Lack of overall development however has  40%4 Forest Cover hampered the extraction of these various resources, and even up to the present 0.1 tons4  CO2/capita there has been action on their part to develop the natural resource sector but no  27%1 GDP from agr. major quantifiable results9. ED & TECH Literacy (4) Education Spending (4) Mobile Phones (4) Girls in School (4) Internet (4) LANDSCAPE % Urban4 Religions Practiced1 1975 11% Tanzania is now a democratic, as the president and National Assembly members are voted for 5 year terms. British rule came to 2005 24% end in 1961, which right afterwards started on to become Islam democratic. 9 Indigeneous 2015 29% Christian None Sources: 8. BBC World Poverty 2008 Sources: Sources: 1.CIA World Factbook 5. UNDP Human Development Report 6. Jamaica Observer, January 29th _yourstory_povertyuk.shtml 2.The Next Four Billion 9. 3.Earth Trends WRI 7. 4.UNDP Human Development Report es/lac/jamaica.html ?collID=11&id=1329&malID=1330&tbID=1331&hivIC=1323&m
  4. 4. UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio Gini Coefficient5 Population (millions) (1.29% increase)1 0.46 Peru $249.5 B1  GDP (at PPP) 1200 1000  % of Population at BOP $8,5001 GDP per capita 800 Less than $3000 600  70.41 Life Expectancy 400 More than $3000 200 Monisha Ashok, Jean Lee  8.3%1 Unemployment 29.2 0 POVERTY Size and Spending of BOP/MOP National poverty rate 49.0%5 Population living on less than $1 a day 15.5%5 Population living on less than $ 2 a day 41.4%5 Poverty rate in the urban population 40.4%5 Peru’s rapid expansion has lead to a decrease in poverty by 15% since 2002. Growth has been especially high due to high world prices of minerals and metals and recent trade liberalization policies1. HEALTH Major infectious diseases1: Food/water borne: typhoid, Public expenditures on health (% of GDP)4: 1.9 Water3 Hepatitis A Health expenditures per capita (PPP US$)4: 235 Vector borne: malaria, yellow Physicians (per 100,000)4: 117 fever, dengue fever Life Expectancy4 Sanitation3 Under 5 mortality rate (per 1000 live births)4: 27 Children underweight for age (% under age 5)4: 8 Total Fertility Rate: 2.42 (close to replacement level fertility of 2) 1 Nutrition6 Attended births4 HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate: 0.5% Contraceptive prevalence rate 82,000 people living with HIV/AIDS1 (% of married women 15-49)4: 71 4,200 deaths from HIV/AIDS1 ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT  72%4 Electrification Population without electricity4: 7.7 million Mostly 220 V, Energy consumption per capita (kW hours)4: 924 some 110 V  54%4 Forest Cover As % of total primary energy supply4 Current environmental Coal: 6.7  1.1 tons4  CO2/capita problems include deforestation, Oil: 53.5  desertification, pollution of Gas: 10.6   8.4%1 GDP from agr. rivers and coastal waters from Hydro, solar, wind and geothermal power: 12. 8  municipal and mining wastes. Bio mass and waste: 16.4  EDUCATION Literacy4 Public expenditures on education (as % of GDP)4: 2.4 Education Combined gross enrollment ratio for primary, Mobile Phones1 Spending4 secondary, and tertiary education: 85.8%4 Expected number of years spent in school1: 14 Girls in School4 Internet1 LANDSCAPE AND HISTORY % Urban4 Religions Practiced1 Peru was the center of the Incan Empire until 1975 61.5% Spanish colonization in 1533. Peru declared its Catholic independence from Spain in 1821. After years of 2005 73% military rule, Peru adopted democracy in 1980.1 Christian The 25 regions and 1 province have a varied geography allowing it to shape the economy Other 2015 75% by providing mineral resources, agricultural products, metals and fishing grounds. Unspecified/None Sources: Sources: 1.CIA World Factbook 5. World Bank Earth Trends – Economic Indicators 2.The Next Four Billion 6. MDG indicators 3.WHO Joint Monitoring program - water supply and 7. National Economies Encyclopedia – Americas – Peru sanitation 8. Living in Peru 4.UNDP Human Development Report
  5. 5. UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio Population (millions) Gini Coefficient1 (2.025% increase)1  B1 GDP (at PPP) $317 0.44 Nigeria 1200 1000  Distribution of Income2 $2,142 1 GDP per capita 800 % of Population at BOP 600  472 Life Expectancy 400 Less than $3000 More than $3000 200  N/A2 Unemployment 146,255,312 0 POVERTY3 Size and spending of •92% of the population is living on less than $2 a day. BOP/MOP •Percent of total income earned by the richest 20% of the population: 55.7% •Percent of total income earned by the poorest 20% of the population: 4.4% •National Poverty Rate 34.1% •Poverty Rate, Urban Population 30.4% HEALTH4 Water (3) •Healthcare system consists of primary, secondary and tertiary facilities. Life Expectancy (5) Sanitation (3) •48% 1year olds were immunized against TB in 2005 Nutrition (5) Attended births (2) •13% contraceptive prevalence rate (women 15-49) •28 physicians per 100,000 people ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT (4,1)  46%4 Electrification •Current issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and  12.2%4 Forest Cover water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid 0.9 tons4  CO2/capita urbanization •They neither import and export electricity.  33%3 GDP from agr. •In 2005 Biomass/waste was 78% of total primary energy •supply ED & TECH (4) •56.2% of population is enrolled in education (2005) Literacy (4) •61% male, 51% female Education Spending (4) Mobile Phones (4) •0.9% GDP is spent of Education •38 internet users per 1000 in 2005 Girls in School (4) Internet (4) •1.7% of exports=high tech LANDSCAPE (4,1) % Urban4 1975 23.4% •12.2% of land=forest area •Slightly more than twice the size of 2005 48.2% •CA 2015 55.9% •equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north Sources: Sources: Sources: 1.CIA World Factbook 5. 8. BBC World Poverty 2008 6. Jamaica Observer, January 29th 2.The Next Four Billion 3.Earth Trends WRI 7. _yourstory_povertyuk.shtml 4.UNDP Human Development Report es/lac/jamaica.html 9.
  6. 6. UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio Population (millions) Gini Coefficient (1.3% increase)4 El Salvador 0.52  $45.3B1 GDP (at PPP) 1200 1000 Distribution of Income $6,4004  GDP per capita 800 600  721 Life Expectancy 400 Felix Boehme 20788990 200  6.4%1 Unemployment 7.1 Sean Gossage 18137719 0 POVERTY Per capita income is the fifth Size and spending of lowest in the Western 2.5 mm Salvadorians live in the BOP/MOP Hemisphere.6 US. Remittances from these Central American Free Trade 4.5mm $6bn emigrants make up 17% of total Agreement (CAFTA) between GDP ($3.7bn). For 2 out of 10 70% 25.8% the US and four C.A. countries Salvadorans remittances are expected to be key to their main source of income.5 economic growth and prosperity.7 HEALTH Malnutrition persisted in an estimated 23% of children under The principal causes of death five as of 2000. However, remain gastroenteritis, immunization rates for children up influenza, malaria, measles, to one year old were quite high in pneumonia, and bronchitis, 1997: tuberculosis, 93%; caused or complicated by diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, malnutrition, bad sanitation, 97%; polio, 96%; and measles, and poor housing. 97%.9 ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT 115V  80%4 Electrification El Salvador is highly polluted and Recent studies have shown that suffers from severe  14.4%4 Forest Cover the Lempa river, the country's environmental degradation. By main potable water source, is some estimates, only 59 percent 0.9 tons4  CO2/capita contaminated with dangerously of the population has access to high levels of mercury and other  safe drinking water. That figure is 11.1%1 GDP from agr. heavy metals.6 likely optimistic. ED & TECH educational level among the The education system in El rural population is 3.4 years.7 Salvador is weak; only 1 out of Most wealthy Salvadorans 3 complete the ninth grade, send their children to private only 1 out of 5 complete high schools or to schools school (1998). abroad.There is only one Almost 17% of the population is public university in the illiterate; the average country1 LANDSCAPE % Urban Religions Practiced1 El Salvador remains one of the The effect and threat of violent ‘75 41.5% five most violent countries in the crime have led to increased Protestant 18% 22% world. There is an average of ten isolation and the curtailment of Catholic 5% ‘05 59.8% murders and a number of car- recreational opportunities, Other jackings reported daily to the including popular beach None ‘15 63.2% 55% Police. destinations. Sources: 5. 1.CIA World Factbook 8 6. 2.The Next Four Billion 9. Americas/El-Salvador-POVERTY-AND-WEALTH.html 3.Earth Trends WRI Salvador-HEALTH.html 7. 4.UNDP Human Development Report v.html
  7. 7. UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio Population (millions) Gini Coefficient2 (1.8% increase) 1 Mozambique 0.47  $20B1 GDP (at PPP) 1200 1000  Distribution of Income3 $9001 GDP per capita 800 600  41.041 Life Expectancy 400 MOP/TOP 28.9% Katie Borofka 18737639 200  21%1 Unemployment 21.284 BOP 71.1% Elisa Tonfack 19871623 0 POVERTY Extremely high food prices have Size and spending of negatively affected BOP/MOP3 the poorest (and the most) of Mozambique’s population, forcing 69% of the population lives below the many to resort to poverty line. cutting back the The majority live in rural populations.11 quality and quantity of food consumed.13 HEALTH Monday, June 11, 2007 : In Malaria is Water(10) order to improve the health and the primary safety of women, policymakers cause of in Mozambique have mortality Life announced that they will Sanitation(10) consider lifting the country's among Expectancy(1) ban on abortion.12 children. 11 On average, 500 new HIV infections occur every day. Attended Hunger(16) Approximately 1.6 million Mozambicans are Births(17) living with HIV.10 220 Volts @ 50 Hertz7 ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT  18%4 Electrification Currently, “Major projects in the pipeline include a $5 billion oil The country is extremely  24.6%5 Forest Cover refinery in Nacala and a second vulnerable to major hydro-electric project on floods, droughts, and 0.1 tons6  CO2/capita the Zambezi River.”8 cyclones, which has led to  the displacement of 23.4%1 GDP from agr. thousands of people. 11 Zambezi River Radio Mocambique: state- ED & TECH Primary Literacy(1) run, operates national school AntenaNacional network and children provincial and local channels in Education Mobile painted Portuguese, English and many Spending(1) Phones(1) their indigenous languages.14 New cashew processing dreams for technology, introduced in better 2002 by a local education entrepreneur and funded Girls in Internet(1) last July.10 by USAID.15 School(10) 2 LANDSCAPE % Urban Politics… Catholic Religions Practiced1 Mozambique gained Prime Minister Luisa Diogo insists that perceptions of Muslim independence in 1975 ‘75 4.32% Africa should change “because today's Africa is a new from Portugal, but it Zionist Africa, where business opportunities are flourishing, wasn’t until 1990 that Christian ‘05 32% where investments are being made in education, other it instituted a health and infrastructures, and where there is democratic ‘15 70% permanent accountability before the African Union.”9 none government.1 1. CIA World Factbook 7. Treehouse 12. Mozambique Considers Lifting Abortion Ban to Protect Women's Lives 2. Nation Master 8. Farming to bolster Mozambique GDP in 2009 3. The Next Four Billion 13. UN Mozambique 4. Electricity sector reform in Mozambique 9. Mozambique: Diogo criticizes poor perceptions of Africa 14. BBC News 15. USAID 5. 10. UNICEF 16. World Food Programme Mongabay 11. WHO que.htm 17. Population Reference Bureau
  8. 8. Gini Coefficient Population (millions) UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio (0.6% increase)9 .47 China  $7.8T1 GDP (at PPP) 1.3B 1300 1200 $6,1003  % of Population at GDP per capita 1000 Less than BOP 800  $3000 72/757 Central Life Expectancy 600 More than Alean Daniel 400  4.2%1 $3000 Unemployment Michelle Wu 200 0 POVERTY Spending of BOP/MOP Resource prices have been consistently rising, imposing pressure on farmers and people. Gas on average increased 11%. Jiangxi and 5 Henan’s farming resources increased around 65%. 6 HEALTH Water Pressing diseases: Life China ranks first for Sanitation 1. Food and waterborne 2. 3. 30 million out of Expectancy percentage of adult disease such as 340 million under population that bacterial diarrhea, 17 suffer from Attended smokes with 67% hepatitis A and typhoid mental and or Nutrition of adults smoking.9 fever1 births behavioral 1. H5N1 problems. 10 2. Bird Flu 220 – 240 Volts ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT  99%2 Electrification In 2006, central China’s industrial work growth was China is predicted to be the  21.2%2 Forest Cover 21.41%, $9169.55 world’s largest emitter of billion, leading all parts of greenhouse gases by 2010 China. Electronic resources affecting climate change. 3.8 tons2  are becoming The authorities show no CO2/capita scarce, putting a constraint concern for mitigating this on its economic growth. 6 pollution. 11  10.6%1 GDP from agr. ED & TECH 1/6 of the population student 300m internet users aged. 20m students alone are according to CNNIC. China in higher education. There is monitors internet usage and stiff competition for entrance silences critics of the into universities, a national government. Google provides exam is required.10 a separate censored search engine. LANDSCAPE % Urban Situated between resource-rich western regions and booming ‘75 17.4% eastern regions, it is poised to become a manufacturing base for both finished goods and raw materials. It is also being developed ‘05 40.4% to be a transportation hub and major grain producer. ‘15 49.2% Sources: Sources: Sources: 5. 中部地区各省宏观税负差异的实证分析[1].pdf 9. 1.CIA World Factbook 6. 当前中部地区经济发展的问题与建议[1].pdf 10. 2.UNDP Human Development Report 7. World Health Organization (WHO) 6.php 3.CIA World Factbook 8. 11. BBC World Poverty 2008 4.
  9. 9. UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio  Distribution of Income GDP (at PPP) $34.23B Uganda % of Population at BOP  Gini GDP per capita $1,100 Coefficient Less than $3000 0.46 minu  49.71 Life Expectancy More than $3000 Brittany Deyan, David Dinh  Unemployment 3.2% Poverty Size and spending of Income: BOP/MOP Around 37.7% of Ugandans live below the poverty line and the country, being land locked, depends on the outside world. Dependency: 31.8% of Uganda’s imports are from Kenya, Uganda’s largest import partner Water Health AIDS Access: 4.1% HIV/AIDS prevalence rate Sanitation: 42% Life Expectancy Sanitation 1.7% of the population has Drugs: 50% AIDS Physicians: .8/1000 78,000 deaths from HIV in 2003 Abortion:Illegal under the following conditions: 1. If women is raped or incest 2. Economic or social Hunger Attended births reasons Children & Education  9%4 Electrification School Orphans:  18.4%4 Forest Cover Primary level enrollment: 56% Nearly half of the 2 million orphans are due Secondary level enrollment:  to AIDS. .1 tons4 CO2/capita 12% Tertiary level enrollment: 3% Night Commuters:  29%1 GDP from agr. Around 40,000 unaccompanied children “night commute” Youth Literacy: 76.6% each night to escape the LRA. Literacy Landscape and Environment Physical Landscape: The Nile River starts at the base of Uganda and flows Education Spending Mobile Phones north to the mediterranean sea. Political Environment: Uganda’s current President, Yoweri Museveni, came into power in 1986. The country has been in a civil war for the last 22 years between the Lord’s Resistance Army and the Ugandan government.The war has been named the worst humanitarian crisis in the Girls in School Internet world today. Uganda Today % Urban 1 Religions Practiced Displacement: 1.8 million Internally Displaced ‘75 7% Persons (IDPs) Roman Catholic Water & Sanitation: access to as little as 4.6 Protestant ‘05 12.6% liters of water per day. Toilet facilities are also over Muslim capacity or non-existent other ‘15 14.5% Aid & Development: When peace comes, the challenge for development begins. Sources: Sources: Sources: 1.CIA World Factbook 5. UNDP Human Development Report 8. BBC World Poverty 2008 2.The Next Four Billion 6. Vanguard- 9. Resolve Uganda 3.Earth Trends WRI 7. Invisible Children- 10. Unicef 4.UNDP Human Development Report
  10. 10. UGBA-196 Spring 2009: Country Focus Research Portfolio Population (millions) Gini Coefficient1 (1.6% increase)4 Bangladesh $228.4B1  0.33 GDP (at PPP) 1200 1000 $1,5001  GDP per capita 800 600  63.11 Life Expectancy 400  200 Nicole Ferris 2.5%1 Unemployment 3.7 0 POVERTY Size and spending of BOP/MOP 45% live below the poverty line2 30% live on less than US$1 per day2 •½ of GDP is generated through the service sector yet 2/3 of population is employed in agriculture. •Rice is the single-most-important product.1 98.2% kids-under- 5 vaccinated HEALTH for polio in ’07to keep country Morbidity Rates7: polio free.7 1.Diarrhea 15.9% 95% pop. received Vitamin A 2.Intestinal Worm 7.38% Supplements7 3.Skin Diseases 9.3% Tobacco control in textbooks in 4.Anemia 9.92% 20107 220V ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT Banned plastic  32%4 Electrification bags2 80% of country’s electricity is produced using gas8  6.7%4 Forest Cover Shortage of over 250 mil. cubic feet of gas per day8 Only 500,000 internet users in ’071 0.3 tons4  CO2/capita $100 million loan from World Bank8 for solar plant and  19.1%1 GDP from agr. other renewable energy. (June 2009) PEOPLE & CULTURE LANDSCAPE % Urban4 Obstacles to growth12: Natural Hazards10: mismanaged ports, labor 1975 9.9% Droughts, Cyclones & Floods. force > # of jobs, inefficient use of energy, political 2005 25.1% Limited access to potable water. corruption & weak Water pollution from pesticides.10 2015 29.9% governance. Sources: Sources: Sources: 1.CIA World Factbook 5. 9. 2. 6. MDG Indicators 10. 3.Earth Trends WRI 7.Country Health System Profile-WHO 11. Bangla 2000 4.UNDP Human Development Report 8. Planet Ark 12. World Bank