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A simple formula
                 for becoming Lean, Agile and unlocking high
                            performance teams




                                                              Rowan Bunning, CST
              @rowanb
                                                              scrumwithstyle.com
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.      © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Rowan Bunning
• Background in object oriented & web dev. with
  vendors, start-ups & consultancies
• Introduced to Agile practices over 10 years
  ago as: “the way good Smalltalkers develop software”
• Pioneer of Scrum in Australia
• Worked as an Agile Coach / ScrumMaster
  at a leading Agile consultancy in the U.K.
  (Conchango)
• Agile Coach in Australia
• I also help with training including...
  •    Certified ScrumMaster
  •    Certified Scrum Product Owner
  •    Effective User Stories
  •    Agile Estimating and Planning
  •    Agile for Teams
   Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.     © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Session Outline

 1. How conferences changed my life
 2. A simple formula (very, very quick intro to Scrum)
 3. Lean knobs (how you can implement Lean using Scrum)
 4. ‘Half-baked’ Agile and what you can do about it
 5. Ingredients in the formula (particularly interesting to the academically inclined)


Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.       © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
How conferences
                       changed my life
                                                              A personal journey




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Conferences that changed my career




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Organisers of Scrum Australia 2013



  Rowan Bunning                                         Ilan Goldstein                             Martin Kearns
                                                                             Colin Tan
 CST, Agile Coach:                                         CST, Author
                                                                         Agile UX: AxisAgile National Capability
  Scrum WithStyle                                                                             Lead at SMS MT




                                                    Stuart Bargon         Dave Bales
                                          Agile Coach ex-Atlassian CSC, Agile Coach
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                              © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
A couple of the
                             International Speakers




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•   In-depth Seminars - for all adoption levels from the swimming pool to
    the open ocean

•   Experience Reports - real implementation experiences from a ‘sage of
    the waves’

•   Hands-on Workshops - learn by doing

•   Scrum Clinic – one-on-one coaching with some of Australia’s most
    experienced Scrum Coaches

•   Open Space – every topic you want will be in the programme because
    in Open Space, you put it there!

•   Extensive Networking Opportunities - connect with the thriving
    regional Scrum community

                                                                  scrum.com.au
    Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                  © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
A Simple Formula
                             Simple doesn’t mean it’s easy though!




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Simple Scrum Flow
                                                                                        Daily Scrum
                                                                                        2
                                                                                            Day
                                                                    1


  Product Backlog                                              Sprint
                                                              Planning

                                                                         Sprint
                                                                4

                                                         Sprint                     3
                                                                                                           Potentially Shippable
                                                      Retrospective                                         Product Increment
                                                                                  Sprint
                                                                                  Review




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                       © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Scrum: a simple formula
             Roles                                             Artefacts                       Activities
1. Product Owner 4. Product Increment 9. Backlog Refinement

2. Team                                              5. Product Backlog                10.Sprint Planning

3. ScrumMaster                                       6. Sprint Backlog                 11. Daily Scrum

                                                                                       12.Sprint Review
                                                     7. Visible Progress
                                                                                       13.Sprint Retrospective
                                                     8. Done
                                                                                       14.Development

Principles Iterative Incremental Time-boxing Empirical Self-organisation

   Values                           Openness                   Focus       Commitment      Respect                 Courage
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
                                                                 See: agileatlas.org
Usage of Agile methods
                  “overall Agile adoption now approaches
                        45%, up from 39% in 2010”

81.5%                        Scrum
                                                                                                                                                100




                                                                                                                                            75


58.5% Iterative                                                                                                                            50




44.4% Waterfall                                                                                                                            25


                                                                        2010

37.1%                       Kanban
                                                                                                                                       0
                                                                           Agile
                                                                                                           2011
                                                                           Non-Agile



35.6% eXtreme Programming (XP)
32.7% Lean
                            References: Forrester Research, "Rightsource Your Agile-Lean Ecosystem" by Diego lo Giudice, September 4, 2012.
                                   Forrester Research, "Survey Results: How Agile Is Your Organization?" by Diego lo Giudice, November 2011.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                                 © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Lean Knobs
                        Being Lean by turning the knobs in Scrum




                                                              0   11


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eXtreme Programming was about
       turning it up to 10

                       When I first articulated XP, I had the mental
                       image of knobs on a control board. Each
                       knob was a practice that from experience I
                       knew worked well. I would turn all the knobs
                       up to 10 and see what happened. I was a
                       little surprised to find that the whole
                       package of practices was stable,
                       predictable, and flexible.
                                                                                  - Kent Beck
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Can we take it to 11?



      See Spinal Tap video at:
youtube.com/watch?v=EbVKWCpNFhY
Rowan’s toy...
Lean Software Development
             thought leaders on Scrum




                  “Scrum is a fine example of a Lean environment. Scrum is a
                  set of practices; this is how you do things. Lean would be
                  the principles behind those practices. Lean is the general
                  principles that encourage you to use something like Scrum.”
                                   - Interview with Mary and Tom Poppendieck on using Lean for Competitive
                             Advantage, InfoQ, 2007: http://www.infoq.com/interviews/poppendieck-lean-2007



Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                               © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Lean Knobs we’ll look at
               • Plan Do Check Act - The PDCA cycle
               • Batch Size (multiple levels)
               • Limit WIP (multiple levels)
               • Managing Queues
               • Pull (multiple levels)
               • Seeing Waste
               • Eliminating Waste
               • Amplifying Learning
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
The PDCA Cycle in Scrum
                                                                                                                     Daily Work
                                                                                                                     - Execute.... learning by
                           Sprint Planning                                                                           Do-ing!
                           - Plan the new cycle
                                                                                        Daily Scrum
                                                                                        2
                                                                                            Day
                                                                    1


  Product Backlog                                              Sprint
                                                              Planning

                                                                         Sprint
                                                                4

                                                         Sprint                     3
                                                                                                               Potentially Shippable
                                                      Retrospective                                             Product Increment
                                                                                  Sprint          Sprint Review
                                                                                  Review          - Check Product Increment against
                                                                                                  latest understanding of the customer
                                          Sprint Retrospective                                    need and the right product
                                          - Act on what was learned to
                                          improve future cycles




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                           © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Batch size at release level


                                                        0                11

                                              Release Size
                                                                                   Go Live #1                                      Go Live #2
                                            Go/No Go?               Go/No Go?                    Go/No Go?    Go/No Go?



     Envisioning +
    Release Planning              Sprint 1                    Sprint 2        Sprint 3     Sprint 4      Sprint 5           Sprint 6


                 Cycle time of Requirement
                   to releasable software


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Batch Sizing knob for
                        Interaction & Adaptation
                                                              Sprint N                              Sprint N+1



                                                        Sprint work




                                                                          How long to create a Product
                                                                          Increment of sufficient value
                                                                          for meaningful feedback from
                                                                          stakeholders?
                                                              0      11

                                               Sprint Length
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Limit WIP

          “Do your job. Focus all of your efforts and skills
          on doing the work that you’ve committed to
          doing. Don’t worry about anything else.”




                                                                                Stop starting,
                                                               0           11
                                                                   Focus        start finishing!
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                     © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Limit WIP within Sprints by
                          ‘Swarming’
                                 Not Started                  WIP     Completed




                                  PBI 1                                   Sprint
                                                              PBI 2


                                             WIP                      PBI 3


                                                                                  PBI 4

          0                     11
                                                                                          PBI 5

Degree of Swarming
                                                                                                     PBI 6

Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                       © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Manage Queue Size by only
disaggregating the tip of the iceberg
                         Pull Items into Sprints


                         Ready items
                                                      The ‘Waterline’

   The current Release




                                  © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Pull Backlog into stable Teams


                                                                                   Push
     0         11
  Degree to which
Portfolio Management                                                                                                  ‘Resources’
 uses Pull scheduling
                                                               Project
                                              Rather than seeking ‘resources’ to fit the work

            ...construct pipelines of value to be pulled into stable teams based
            on current capacity
                                                                         Pull




                                      Portfolio                 Product Backlog                                          Team
                              Source: Serge Beaumont, Practical tools for the Product Owner: Focus, Value, Flow, Munich Scrum Gathering October 2009.
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                                      © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Pulling from the Sprint Backlog
  Product
                                                                 WIP
Backlog Item Not Started                                                 Completed
                                                                        Task A   Task B
As a user, I...                                                         0h       0h
                    3


                                 Task D              Task E              Now C
                                                                           Task that
As a user, I...                  4h                  4h                    0h
                    8
                                                                 I have capacity, what’s the
                                 Task F              Task G     next most urgent task that I
                                 6h                  4h
                                                                     can PULL across?
                                 Task H
                                 6h

Migrate...                       Task I               Task L
                                 8h                   4h
                                                                                                     0         11
                    5
                                 Task K               Task L                                     Inclination of team
                                 4h                   4h                                       members to Pull tasks
                                                                                              and use all of their skills
                                                                                              to level work to capacity
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Seeing the Biggest Waste in
                     Software
           Always or often
             used 20%
                                                              13%   16%
                                                                                                    0          11
                                                7%                                            Degree to which Sprint
                                                                                                 Reviews are used
                                                                          19%                   effectively with the
                                                                                              right people giving the
                                      Features in software systems                            right feedback and the
                                                                                              Product Owner taking
                                                                                                 the right Backlog
                                                        45%                                      adjustment action

      Always                                                                          Seldom or
      Often
      Sometimes                                                                     never used 64%
      Seldom
      Never
                                                                           Reference: CHAOS Report, Standish Group.
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Eliminate waste
                   Release Burndown




      Sprint



                        Importance: What is the benefit?                    11
                                                                0
                        Urgency: What is the Cost of Delay?
                                                              Focus on Backlog
                                  Backlog Ordering            ordering by Value


                                             “Do it sooner”        Feedback



                                              “Do it later”


                                       “Drop it”




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.        © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Exchanging items to increase value


                                                           To add a new item...

                                                                   ...drop an item of equal or
      Value                                                        greater effort.




                                                                            Time
                              Source: Serge Beaumont, Practical tools for the Product Owner: Focus, Value, Flow, Munich Scrum Gathering October 2009.
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                                      © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Amplify Learning


                                                                  0         11
                                                              Pairing and Sharing




                                                                                            Photo: Calqui
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Complex                                                   The applicability of a given
Pattern-based leadership                                       management approach is
 Probe, sense, respond                                                 bounded
 Set boundaries
 Create environments and
                                                                 Fact-based management
 experiments that allow
 patterns to emerge                                               Sense, analyse, respond
 Increase levels of interaction                                    Create panels of experts
 and communication
 Use methods that can help                                          Listen to conflicting
 generate ideas                                                     advice
 Stimulate attractors
                                                                                       Complicated
 Monitor for emergence
 Encourage dissent

       Chaotic
                                                                       Thanks to: Dave Snowden cognitive-edge.com
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                    © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Scrum knobs for complexity
Complexity approach                                           Scrum Knobs
Managing starting conditions                                  Vision, Agile team formation
Probe, sense, respond                                         Apply, Inspect, Adapt*
Set containing boundaries                                     Sprints, team, committed work...
Safe-fail environments                                        Timeboxing and iteration...
Experiments, pattern emergence                                Self-organisation, retro. actions
Increase levels of interaction and                            Colocation, collaboration...
communication
Generate ideas                                                Ideation, collaborative design...
Open up discussions                                           Well facilitated workshops...
Use distributed cognition                                     Self-organisation
Stimulate attractors                                          ScrumMaster interventions...
Encourage dissent and diversity                               Cross-functional teams...
Monitor for emergence                                         ScrumMaster activity, retros...
                                                                                    Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                    © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Take-away:

             From a practitioner’s point of view...
             Lean is a set of thinking tools to better
             understand how to get the most out of
             Agile application frameworks such as
             Scrum.

Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
A previous session... London, 2007




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The taste of
                           half-baked Agile

            Fragile                                                  Cargo cult Agile

                                                    Scrummerfall
    Waterscrum                                                                   Scrumbut(t)
                                                              RUP-tured Scrum
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Beware ‘cargo cult’ Agile




          The term “cargo cult” is used as an English
          language idiom for referring to any group of
          people who imitate the superficial exterior
          of a process or system without having any
          understanding of the underlying substance.
                                                              Reference: http://theresilientearth.com/?q=content/cargo-cult-climate-science
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It’s not just about going faster...
                       When the authors of the Agile Manifesto began
                       talking about what was important to each of us,
                       way back in 2001, we clearly agreed on two
                       broad goals:
                           improving software development performance
                           (striving for software excellence) and
                           creating exciting, collaborative, fun work
                           environments.
                       The latter - better working environments - was
                       just as important as the former, but in the
                       intervening years it often became sidetracked...
                                  - Jim Highsmith in his forward to The Human Side of Agile by Gil Broza
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Losing the definition of ‘Agile’
                         “Semantic diffusion occurs when you have a word that is coined a
                         person or group, often with a pretty good definition, but then gets
                         spread through the wider community in a way that weakens that
                         definition. This weakening risks losing the definition entirely - and
                         with it any usefulness to the term.

                         I see this semantic diffusion happening very publicly to two terms
                         at the moment: 'agile' and 'Web2.0'.

                         ...both of these face a lot of corruption in the field. I've run into
                         people who think agile methods mean you shouldn't do any
                         planning ”
                                                                                                                      - Martin Fowler




                                                              Reference: http://martinfowler.com/bliki/SemanticDiffusion.html
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“Agile” and                                                   Agile methods

Be...
                                           “Agile Software Development”
                                                        is an umbrella term defined by...
                                                               Values & Principles




Do 1...n                                Scrum                                    eXtreme Programming
                                                               Agile methods*                    Feature Driven
                                 Dynamic Systems                                                  Development
                                Development Method                                  Adaptive
                                                                   Crystal
                                                                                                                            ...to be agile
                                                   Time-boxing                   Visual
Use n...N                                                                                         Continuous
                                       User Stories                            Management
                                                                                                  Integration
                           Daily Scrums                             Practices        Test Driven Development
                                            Reviews            Acceptance Test Driven
                                                                   Development             etc...        * the key ones represented at the
                                                                                                                 Agile Manifesto gathering in Feb 2001.
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                             © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Agile is an Abstraction over more
       concrete frameworks
          What happens when you try to instantiate
          an abstract class?




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
A few things to keep in mind...

• There is no such thing as “the Agile Methodology”...
   which one?

• You cannot “do Agile”... see: tinyurl.com/nodoagile
   (unless the term is being overloaded to mean someone’s
   custom/proprietary method that is being called ‘Agile’).

• You can however, do an Agile method and Agile
   practices as a means of living the Agile values,
   following the principles and creating an Agile culture.

 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Multiple-choice Question


                           Does Scrum have rules, or just
                           guidelines?
                           A) Scrum has a few rules.
                           B) Scrum has guidelines, not rules.



                                                                     Thanks to: Michael James
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
“What rules? I thought Agile meant
      there were no rules!”
                 Framework rules define the environment
                     in which process details emerge




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Building a competency is a
                      gradual process

                                                              Shu   internalise and abide by
                                                                    all the rules


                                                              Ha    self-reflect to find
                                                                    alternatives to the rules


                                                              Ri    transcend the rules




                                                                         Reference: http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?ShuHaRi
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                       © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
XP Practices are Interdependent
                            “No single practice works well by itself, each needs the other
                            practices to keep them in balance.”

                            “If you follow 80% of the process you get 20% of the benefits.”
                                                                                                    - Kent Beck




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.              © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Scrum is a mirror




                                                                 Quoted from: Alistair Cockburn.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Scrum exposes issues to be fixed
“Scrum is a very simple framework within which the
‘game’ of complex product development is played.
Scrum exposes every inadequacy or dysfunction
within an organisation’s product and system
development practices. The intention of Scrum is to
make them transparent so the organisation can fix
them. Unfortunately, many organisations change
Scrum to accommodate the inadequacies or
dysfunctions instead of solving them.”
                                                                                 - Ken Schwaber

“The mistake we made was to change Scrum to fit our
current environment, rather than use Scrum to improve
our current environment.”
                                                                       - a recent client
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
“Scrum is like chess. You either
                                                              play it as its rules state, or you
                                                              don’t. Scrum and chess do not
                                                              fail or succeed. They are either
                                                              played, or not.”        - Ken Schwaber




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.
Beware the Pit!                                                         High Performance
                                                                                                                               Agile Teams and
                                                                                                                                 Transformed
                                                                                                                                 Organisation
 High Capability

                      “Let’s get rid of our old
                                                                   “This isn’t really working so well...”
                     approach and just do the
                     bits of Agile that suit us!”


                                             Traditional Predictive            No fully functional
                                             Project Management                 system of Agile
                                             has been disbanded                management and
                                                                               delivery has been
                                                          Neither robust            achieved
Traditional Predictive
  Waterfall Process

                                                                              Nor resilient


                                                                      Worst of both worlds


                                                                           The Pit of
                                                                          Dysfunction


 Low Capability
     Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                            © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
"It seems today that some ‘Agile’ teams are
                                      practicing nothing more than ‘air guitar and
                                      attitude’ (to quote Alan Kay)."
                                           - Joseph Pelrine, On Understanding Software Agility - A Social
                                                                              Complexity Point of View




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                             © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Don’t just play air guitar,
     pick up a real instrument...
   it’s infinitely more rewarding!

And now, just for some light entertainment...

           an Air Guitar video:
    youtube.com/watch?v=q_3oaTH1PII
Things you can do about half-baked Agile...
 1. Get someone in to talk to your leadership team
 2. Become a change agent / ScrumMaster
        Manns, M. L. and Rising, L. Fearless Change: Patterns for
        Introducing New Ideas. Addison-Wesley, 2004.

                                  Cohn, M. Succeeding with Agile: Software Development Using
                                  Scrum. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2009.


 3. Do ScrumMaster or advanced Agile Leadership
    training
 4. Get an external Agile Coach in
 5. Connect with people at other organisations who
    have overcome similar issues... at Meetups...
    perhaps at a conference...
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.               © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Ingredients in the
                              formula
                                                              
                                                              




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.       © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Multiple-choice Question


                           Today, and increasingly in the future,
                           product development is mostly
                           A) a form of manufacturing
                           B) a form of construction
                           C) a form of knowledge creation


                                                                     Thanks to: Michael James
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
How Development is Different
                                                                  MANUFACTURING                            DEVELOPMENT
                     Tasks are...                                        Repetitive                          Non-repetitive
                     Tasks are...                                       Predictable                          Unpredictable
             Requirements are...                                       A Constraint                    A Degree of Freedom
             Requirements are...                                            Fixed                                Evolving
                        Work is...                                       Bounded                              Unbounded
               Cost of Delay is...                                   Homogeneous                         Non-homogeneous
            Task Durations are...                                    Homogeneous                         Non-homogeneous
                   Variability is...                                 Always harmful                      Sometime Required
                   Inventory is...                                         Visible                                Invisible
                   Inventory is...                                  Physical Objects                           Information


      In Product Development, “you always have to change the recipe to add value.”

                                                       Reference: Donald G. Reinertsen, Workshop: The Science of Lean Product Development, 2012.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                                   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Efficiency vs Creativity
Efficiency programs such as Six Sigma are designed
to identify problems in work processes—and then use
rigorous measurement to reduce variation and
eliminate defects. When these types of initiatives
become ingrained in a company's culture, as they did
at 3M, creativity can easily get squelched. After all, a
breakthrough innovation is something that challenges
existing procedures and norms. "Invention is by its
very nature a disorderly process," says current CEO
George Buckley, who has dialled back many of
McNerney's initiatives.
                            Reference: http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2007-06-10/at-3m-a-struggle-between-efficiency-and-creativity
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                        © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Product Development considered
more relevant than Manufacturing
                                                              Take-away:

           Manufacturing and New Product
           Development are very different in nature.
           They are best served by very different
           management approaches.
           Be careful about copying too much from
           Manufacturing. Try looking at how the most
           innovative companies design new products.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Study how Lean companies invent
         New Products
   W. Edwards
    Deming




                                             Decades of ‘Lean’ Manufacturing and
                                             Product Development in Japan



1950                   1960                        1970             1980   1990    2000                2010
                                                           A new                        Describes Product
                                                          Product                       Development as a form
                                                     Development                        of Knowledge
                                                        Paradigm                        Creation


 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                         © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Point 9 for Management from
                     Deming
                                 “Break down barriers between
                                 departments. People in research, design,
                                 sales, and production must work as a
                                 team, in order to foresee problems of
                                 production and usage that may be
                                 encountered with the product or service.”
                                                                                              - W. Edwards Deming




                                                              Reference: http://deming.org/index.cfm?content=66

Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                    © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
The New Paradigm is All-at-once
   Type A (e.g. at NASA)
                              1                                   2              3                              4


     Type B (e.g. at Fuji-Xerox)

                              1                               2       3          4


       Type C (e.g. at Honda, Canon)


               1           2          3            4

                                  Source: Hirotaka Takeuchi, Ikujiro Nonaka, The New New Product Development
                                                       Game, Harvard Business Review, January-February 1986.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                    © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Products developed using Type C
            Scrum

                                                               Remember... this was
                                                                 in the early 80’s!




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A new management paradigm
                                          “This new emphasis on speed and flexibility calls
                                          for a different approach for managing new
                                          product development.
                                          The traditional sequential or “relay race” approach
                                          to product development... may conflict with the
                                          goals of maximum speed and flexibility.
                                                                  rugby
                                          Instead, a holistic or “______” approach – where
                                          the team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing
                                          the ball back and forth - may better serve today’s
                                          competitive requirements.”

                                                              Source: Hirotaka Takeuchi, Ikujiro Nonaka, The New New Product Development
                                                                                   Game, Harvard Business Review, January-February 1986.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                                 © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Self-organising Teams are key




             Although project teams are largely on their own,
             they are not uncontrolled. Management establishes
             enough checkpoints to prevent instability, ambiguity,
             and tension from turning into chaos. At the same
             time, management avoids the kind of rigid control
             that impairs creativity and spontaneity.
                                                              - Takeuchi & Nonaka

Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.      © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
New, New Product Development
  Game influenced XP as well
                 From: Kent Beck
                 To: Jeff Sutherland <jsutherland>
                 Reply: 70761.1216@compuserve.com
                 Date: Mon, 15 May 1995 18:01:15 -0400
                 (EDT)
                 Subj: HBR paper
                 _________________________
                 Is there a good place to get reprints of the
                 SCRUM paper from HBR? I've written
                 patterns for something very similar and I
                 want to make sure I steal as many ideas as
                 possible.
                 Kent
                                                                  Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine.

Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Take-away:
              Superior speed and flexibility can be
              achieved through disintermediation of silos
              of specialists and using cross-functional
              teams.



Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Ingredients in the Formula
                                                                    Lean
                                                                            Iterative, Incremental
    The New, New Product                                                        Development
     Development Game                                                            Time-boxes



                                                                  Smalltalk
                                                              Engineering Tools


                                                                   Scrum
                                                                                             Source: Ken Schwaber.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                         © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Additional Ingredients


       Empirical Process Control theory                        Complexity and Management
         - Babatunde A. Ogunnaike                                - Prof. Ralph D. Stacey




High Perf Software Dev research                                                    Team Leadership
 - AT&T Bell Labs, Jim Coplien                                             - Prof. J. Richard Hackman (RIP)



                                                               Scrum
 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                     © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Reference: Harrison, Neil B., and James O. Coplien. "Patterns of Productive Software Organizations." Bell Labs Technical
                                                                                                  Journal 1.1 (1996): 138-45
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Minimise roles for performance




Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.   © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Reference: Coplien, J., Borland Software Craftsmanship: A New Look at Process, Quality and Productivity, Proceedings of the 5th
                                                                  Annual Borland International Conference, Orlando, FL., 1994.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                    © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Process control paradigm shift
                                 The reaction upon Ken Schwaber showing widely
                                 used software development methods to
                                 Ogunnaike and other process control experts...


“They inspected the systems development processes that
I brought them. I have rarely provided a group with so
much laughter. They were amazed and appalled that my
industry, systems development, was trying to do its work
using a completely inappropriate process control model.”


                    Reference: Ken Schwaber, Mike Beedle, Agile Software Development with Scrum, Prentice Hall, 2002.


 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                       © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
The emergence of a formula
                                                                       First book                The word
                                                                       describing OOPSLA paper   “Agile” is
   W. Edwards                                                          Scrum for   on Scrum     coined as an
    Deming                                                              software    projects   umbrella term



                                                                                                    Agile Manifesto


                                              Decades of ‘Lean’
                                           Manufacturing and Product
                                             Development in Japan


1950                   1960                        1970             1980      1990       2000                2010
                                                           A new                              Describes Product
                                                          Product                             Development as a form
                                                     Development                              of Knowledge
                                                        Paradigm                              Creation


 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                               © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
*




                                                      * The original metaphor of dwarfs on the shoulders of giants has been attributed to Bernard of Chartres in 1159.
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                                                                    © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Creating the Scrum formula



See Jeff Sutherland explain the creation of Scrum at:
      youtube.com/watch?v=O7cA1q0XwhE




          If you missed this session/section, this is a good
           summary of what was discussed in this section.
Take-away:
              The Scrum formula incorporates patterns
              from advanced product development and
              high performance software development
              so that you don’t have to re-invent it all to
              get going. You do need Agile and Lean
              principles to get the most out of it however.


Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.                © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
Please join us!




      Rowan Bunning                                                                                         @rowanb
         rowan@scrumwithstyle.com
Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.
                                                                                au.linkedin.com/in/rowanbunning
                                                                                     © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com

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A simple formula for becoming Lean, Agile and unlocking high performance teams

  • 1. A simple formula for becoming Lean, Agile and unlocking high performance teams Rowan Bunning, CST @rowanb scrumwithstyle.com Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 2. Rowan Bunning • Background in object oriented & web dev. with vendors, start-ups & consultancies • Introduced to Agile practices over 10 years ago as: “the way good Smalltalkers develop software” • Pioneer of Scrum in Australia • Worked as an Agile Coach / ScrumMaster at a leading Agile consultancy in the U.K. (Conchango) • Agile Coach in Australia • I also help with training including... • Certified ScrumMaster • Certified Scrum Product Owner • Effective User Stories • Agile Estimating and Planning • Agile for Teams Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 3. Session Outline 1. How conferences changed my life 2. A simple formula (very, very quick intro to Scrum) 3. Lean knobs (how you can implement Lean using Scrum) 4. ‘Half-baked’ Agile and what you can do about it 5. Ingredients in the formula (particularly interesting to the academically inclined) Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 4. How conferences changed my life A personal journey Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 5. Conferences that changed my career Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 6. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 7. Organisers of Scrum Australia 2013 Rowan Bunning Ilan Goldstein Martin Kearns Colin Tan CST, Agile Coach: CST, Author Agile UX: AxisAgile National Capability Scrum WithStyle Lead at SMS MT Stuart Bargon Dave Bales Agile Coach ex-Atlassian CSC, Agile Coach Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 8. A couple of the International Speakers Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 9. In-depth Seminars - for all adoption levels from the swimming pool to the open ocean • Experience Reports - real implementation experiences from a ‘sage of the waves’ • Hands-on Workshops - learn by doing • Scrum Clinic – one-on-one coaching with some of Australia’s most experienced Scrum Coaches • Open Space – every topic you want will be in the programme because in Open Space, you put it there! • Extensive Networking Opportunities - connect with the thriving regional Scrum community scrum.com.au Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 10. A Simple Formula Simple doesn’t mean it’s easy though! Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 11. Simple Scrum Flow Daily Scrum 2 Day 1 Product Backlog Sprint Planning Sprint 4 Sprint 3 Potentially Shippable Retrospective Product Increment Sprint Review Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 12. Scrum: a simple formula Roles Artefacts Activities 1. Product Owner 4. Product Increment 9. Backlog Refinement 2. Team 5. Product Backlog 10.Sprint Planning 3. ScrumMaster 6. Sprint Backlog 11. Daily Scrum 12.Sprint Review 7. Visible Progress 13.Sprint Retrospective 8. Done 14.Development Principles Iterative Incremental Time-boxing Empirical Self-organisation Values Openness Focus Commitment Respect Courage Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com See: agileatlas.org
  • 13. Usage of Agile methods “overall Agile adoption now approaches 45%, up from 39% in 2010” 81.5% Scrum 100 75 58.5% Iterative 50 44.4% Waterfall 25 2010 37.1% Kanban 0 Agile 2011 Non-Agile 35.6% eXtreme Programming (XP) 32.7% Lean References: Forrester Research, "Rightsource Your Agile-Lean Ecosystem" by Diego lo Giudice, September 4, 2012. Forrester Research, "Survey Results: How Agile Is Your Organization?" by Diego lo Giudice, November 2011. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 14. Lean Knobs Being Lean by turning the knobs in Scrum 0 11 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 15. eXtreme Programming was about turning it up to 10 When I first articulated XP, I had the mental image of knobs on a control board. Each knob was a practice that from experience I knew worked well. I would turn all the knobs up to 10 and see what happened. I was a little surprised to find that the whole package of practices was stable, predictable, and flexible. - Kent Beck Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 16. Can we take it to 11? See Spinal Tap video at: youtube.com/watch?v=EbVKWCpNFhY
  • 18. Lean Software Development thought leaders on Scrum “Scrum is a fine example of a Lean environment. Scrum is a set of practices; this is how you do things. Lean would be the principles behind those practices. Lean is the general principles that encourage you to use something like Scrum.” - Interview with Mary and Tom Poppendieck on using Lean for Competitive Advantage, InfoQ, 2007: http://www.infoq.com/interviews/poppendieck-lean-2007 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 19. Lean Knobs we’ll look at • Plan Do Check Act - The PDCA cycle • Batch Size (multiple levels) • Limit WIP (multiple levels) • Managing Queues • Pull (multiple levels) • Seeing Waste • Eliminating Waste • Amplifying Learning Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 20. The PDCA Cycle in Scrum Daily Work - Execute.... learning by Sprint Planning Do-ing! - Plan the new cycle Daily Scrum 2 Day 1 Product Backlog Sprint Planning Sprint 4 Sprint 3 Potentially Shippable Retrospective Product Increment Sprint Sprint Review Review - Check Product Increment against latest understanding of the customer Sprint Retrospective need and the right product - Act on what was learned to improve future cycles Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 21. Batch size at release level 0 11 Release Size Go Live #1 Go Live #2 Go/No Go? Go/No Go? Go/No Go? Go/No Go? Envisioning + Release Planning Sprint 1 Sprint 2 Sprint 3 Sprint 4 Sprint 5 Sprint 6 Cycle time of Requirement to releasable software Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 22. Batch Sizing knob for Interaction & Adaptation Sprint N Sprint N+1 Sprint work How long to create a Product Increment of sufficient value for meaningful feedback from stakeholders? 0 11 Sprint Length Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 23. Limit WIP “Do your job. Focus all of your efforts and skills on doing the work that you’ve committed to doing. Don’t worry about anything else.” Stop starting, 0 11 Focus start finishing! Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 24. Limit WIP within Sprints by ‘Swarming’ Not Started WIP Completed PBI 1 Sprint PBI 2 WIP PBI 3 PBI 4 0 11 PBI 5 Degree of Swarming PBI 6 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 25. Manage Queue Size by only disaggregating the tip of the iceberg Pull Items into Sprints Ready items The ‘Waterline’ The current Release © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 26. Pull Backlog into stable Teams Push 0 11 Degree to which Portfolio Management ‘Resources’ uses Pull scheduling Project Rather than seeking ‘resources’ to fit the work ...construct pipelines of value to be pulled into stable teams based on current capacity Pull Portfolio Product Backlog Team Source: Serge Beaumont, Practical tools for the Product Owner: Focus, Value, Flow, Munich Scrum Gathering October 2009. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 27. Pulling from the Sprint Backlog Product WIP Backlog Item Not Started Completed Task A Task B As a user, I... 0h 0h 3 Task D Task E Now C Task that As a user, I... 4h 4h 0h 8 I have capacity, what’s the Task F Task G next most urgent task that I 6h 4h can PULL across? Task H 6h Migrate... Task I Task L 8h 4h 0 11 5 Task K Task L Inclination of team 4h 4h members to Pull tasks and use all of their skills to level work to capacity Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 28. Seeing the Biggest Waste in Software Always or often used 20% 13% 16% 0 11 7% Degree to which Sprint Reviews are used 19% effectively with the right people giving the Features in software systems right feedback and the Product Owner taking the right Backlog 45% adjustment action Always Seldom or Often Sometimes never used 64% Seldom Never Reference: CHAOS Report, Standish Group. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 29. Eliminate waste Release Burndown Sprint Importance: What is the benefit? 11 0 Urgency: What is the Cost of Delay? Focus on Backlog Backlog Ordering ordering by Value “Do it sooner” Feedback “Do it later” “Drop it” Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 30. Exchanging items to increase value To add a new item... ...drop an item of equal or Value greater effort. Time Source: Serge Beaumont, Practical tools for the Product Owner: Focus, Value, Flow, Munich Scrum Gathering October 2009. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 31. Amplify Learning 0 11 Pairing and Sharing Photo: Calqui Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 32. Complex The applicability of a given Pattern-based leadership management approach is Probe, sense, respond bounded Set boundaries Create environments and Fact-based management experiments that allow patterns to emerge Sense, analyse, respond Increase levels of interaction Create panels of experts and communication Use methods that can help Listen to conflicting generate ideas advice Stimulate attractors Complicated Monitor for emergence Encourage dissent Chaotic Thanks to: Dave Snowden cognitive-edge.com Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 33. Scrum knobs for complexity Complexity approach Scrum Knobs Managing starting conditions Vision, Agile team formation Probe, sense, respond Apply, Inspect, Adapt* Set containing boundaries Sprints, team, committed work... Safe-fail environments Timeboxing and iteration... Experiments, pattern emergence Self-organisation, retro. actions Increase levels of interaction and Colocation, collaboration... communication Generate ideas Ideation, collaborative design... Open up discussions Well facilitated workshops... Use distributed cognition Self-organisation Stimulate attractors ScrumMaster interventions... Encourage dissent and diversity Cross-functional teams... Monitor for emergence ScrumMaster activity, retros... Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 34. Take-away: From a practitioner’s point of view... Lean is a set of thinking tools to better understand how to get the most out of Agile application frameworks such as Scrum. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 35. A previous session... London, 2007 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 36. The taste of half-baked Agile Fragile Cargo cult Agile Scrummerfall Waterscrum Scrumbut(t) RUP-tured Scrum Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 37. Beware ‘cargo cult’ Agile The term “cargo cult” is used as an English language idiom for referring to any group of people who imitate the superficial exterior of a process or system without having any understanding of the underlying substance. Reference: http://theresilientearth.com/?q=content/cargo-cult-climate-science Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 38. It’s not just about going faster... When the authors of the Agile Manifesto began talking about what was important to each of us, way back in 2001, we clearly agreed on two broad goals: improving software development performance (striving for software excellence) and creating exciting, collaborative, fun work environments. The latter - better working environments - was just as important as the former, but in the intervening years it often became sidetracked... - Jim Highsmith in his forward to The Human Side of Agile by Gil Broza Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 39. Losing the definition of ‘Agile’ “Semantic diffusion occurs when you have a word that is coined a person or group, often with a pretty good definition, but then gets spread through the wider community in a way that weakens that definition. This weakening risks losing the definition entirely - and with it any usefulness to the term. I see this semantic diffusion happening very publicly to two terms at the moment: 'agile' and 'Web2.0'. ...both of these face a lot of corruption in the field. I've run into people who think agile methods mean you shouldn't do any planning ” - Martin Fowler Reference: http://martinfowler.com/bliki/SemanticDiffusion.html Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 40. “Agile” and Agile methods Be... “Agile Software Development” is an umbrella term defined by... Values & Principles Do 1...n Scrum eXtreme Programming Agile methods* Feature Driven Dynamic Systems Development Development Method Adaptive Crystal ...to be agile Time-boxing Visual Use n...N Continuous User Stories Management Integration Daily Scrums Practices Test Driven Development Reviews Acceptance Test Driven Development etc... * the key ones represented at the Agile Manifesto gathering in Feb 2001. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 41. Agile is an Abstraction over more concrete frameworks What happens when you try to instantiate an abstract class? Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 42. A few things to keep in mind... • There is no such thing as “the Agile Methodology”... which one? • You cannot “do Agile”... see: tinyurl.com/nodoagile (unless the term is being overloaded to mean someone’s custom/proprietary method that is being called ‘Agile’). • You can however, do an Agile method and Agile practices as a means of living the Agile values, following the principles and creating an Agile culture. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 43. Multiple-choice Question Does Scrum have rules, or just guidelines? A) Scrum has a few rules. B) Scrum has guidelines, not rules. Thanks to: Michael James Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 44. “What rules? I thought Agile meant there were no rules!” Framework rules define the environment in which process details emerge Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 45. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 46. Building a competency is a gradual process Shu internalise and abide by all the rules Ha self-reflect to find alternatives to the rules Ri transcend the rules Reference: http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?ShuHaRi Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 47. XP Practices are Interdependent “No single practice works well by itself, each needs the other practices to keep them in balance.” “If you follow 80% of the process you get 20% of the benefits.” - Kent Beck Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 48. Scrum is a mirror Quoted from: Alistair Cockburn. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 49. Scrum exposes issues to be fixed “Scrum is a very simple framework within which the ‘game’ of complex product development is played. Scrum exposes every inadequacy or dysfunction within an organisation’s product and system development practices. The intention of Scrum is to make them transparent so the organisation can fix them. Unfortunately, many organisations change Scrum to accommodate the inadequacies or dysfunctions instead of solving them.” - Ken Schwaber “The mistake we made was to change Scrum to fit our current environment, rather than use Scrum to improve our current environment.” - a recent client Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 50. “Scrum is like chess. You either play it as its rules state, or you don’t. Scrum and chess do not fail or succeed. They are either played, or not.” - Ken Schwaber Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission.
  • 51. Beware the Pit! High Performance Agile Teams and Transformed Organisation High Capability “Let’s get rid of our old “This isn’t really working so well...” approach and just do the bits of Agile that suit us!” Traditional Predictive No fully functional Project Management system of Agile has been disbanded management and delivery has been Neither robust achieved Traditional Predictive Waterfall Process Nor resilient Worst of both worlds The Pit of Dysfunction Low Capability Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 52. "It seems today that some ‘Agile’ teams are practicing nothing more than ‘air guitar and attitude’ (to quote Alan Kay)." - Joseph Pelrine, On Understanding Software Agility - A Social Complexity Point of View Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 53. Don’t just play air guitar, pick up a real instrument... it’s infinitely more rewarding! And now, just for some light entertainment... an Air Guitar video: youtube.com/watch?v=q_3oaTH1PII
  • 54. Things you can do about half-baked Agile... 1. Get someone in to talk to your leadership team 2. Become a change agent / ScrumMaster Manns, M. L. and Rising, L. Fearless Change: Patterns for Introducing New Ideas. Addison-Wesley, 2004. Cohn, M. Succeeding with Agile: Software Development Using Scrum. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2009. 3. Do ScrumMaster or advanced Agile Leadership training 4. Get an external Agile Coach in 5. Connect with people at other organisations who have overcome similar issues... at Meetups... perhaps at a conference... Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 55. Ingredients in the formula Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 56. Multiple-choice Question Today, and increasingly in the future, product development is mostly A) a form of manufacturing B) a form of construction C) a form of knowledge creation Thanks to: Michael James Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 57. How Development is Different MANUFACTURING DEVELOPMENT Tasks are... Repetitive Non-repetitive Tasks are... Predictable Unpredictable Requirements are... A Constraint A Degree of Freedom Requirements are... Fixed Evolving Work is... Bounded Unbounded Cost of Delay is... Homogeneous Non-homogeneous Task Durations are... Homogeneous Non-homogeneous Variability is... Always harmful Sometime Required Inventory is... Visible Invisible Inventory is... Physical Objects Information In Product Development, “you always have to change the recipe to add value.” Reference: Donald G. Reinertsen, Workshop: The Science of Lean Product Development, 2012. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 58. Efficiency vs Creativity Efficiency programs such as Six Sigma are designed to identify problems in work processes—and then use rigorous measurement to reduce variation and eliminate defects. When these types of initiatives become ingrained in a company's culture, as they did at 3M, creativity can easily get squelched. After all, a breakthrough innovation is something that challenges existing procedures and norms. "Invention is by its very nature a disorderly process," says current CEO George Buckley, who has dialled back many of McNerney's initiatives. Reference: http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2007-06-10/at-3m-a-struggle-between-efficiency-and-creativity Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 59. Product Development considered more relevant than Manufacturing Take-away: Manufacturing and New Product Development are very different in nature. They are best served by very different management approaches. Be careful about copying too much from Manufacturing. Try looking at how the most innovative companies design new products. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 60. Study how Lean companies invent New Products W. Edwards Deming Decades of ‘Lean’ Manufacturing and Product Development in Japan 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 A new Describes Product Product Development as a form Development of Knowledge Paradigm Creation Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 61. Point 9 for Management from Deming “Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, in order to foresee problems of production and usage that may be encountered with the product or service.” - W. Edwards Deming Reference: http://deming.org/index.cfm?content=66 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 62. The New Paradigm is All-at-once Type A (e.g. at NASA) 1 2 3 4 Type B (e.g. at Fuji-Xerox) 1 2 3 4 Type C (e.g. at Honda, Canon) 1 2 3 4 Source: Hirotaka Takeuchi, Ikujiro Nonaka, The New New Product Development Game, Harvard Business Review, January-February 1986. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 63. Products developed using Type C Scrum Remember... this was in the early 80’s! Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 64. A new management paradigm “This new emphasis on speed and flexibility calls for a different approach for managing new product development. The traditional sequential or “relay race” approach to product development... may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. rugby Instead, a holistic or “______” approach – where the team tries to go the distance as a unit, passing the ball back and forth - may better serve today’s competitive requirements.” Source: Hirotaka Takeuchi, Ikujiro Nonaka, The New New Product Development Game, Harvard Business Review, January-February 1986. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 65. Self-organising Teams are key Although project teams are largely on their own, they are not uncontrolled. Management establishes enough checkpoints to prevent instability, ambiguity, and tension from turning into chaos. At the same time, management avoids the kind of rigid control that impairs creativity and spontaneity. - Takeuchi & Nonaka Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 66. New, New Product Development Game influenced XP as well From: Kent Beck To: Jeff Sutherland <jsutherland> Reply: 70761.1216@compuserve.com Date: Mon, 15 May 1995 18:01:15 -0400 (EDT) Subj: HBR paper _________________________ Is there a good place to get reprints of the SCRUM paper from HBR? I've written patterns for something very similar and I want to make sure I steal as many ideas as possible. Kent Thanks to: Joseph Pelrine. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 67. Take-away: Superior speed and flexibility can be achieved through disintermediation of silos of specialists and using cross-functional teams. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 68. Ingredients in the Formula Lean Iterative, Incremental The New, New Product Development Development Game Time-boxes Smalltalk Engineering Tools Scrum Source: Ken Schwaber. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 69. Additional Ingredients Empirical Process Control theory Complexity and Management - Babatunde A. Ogunnaike - Prof. Ralph D. Stacey High Perf Software Dev research Team Leadership - AT&T Bell Labs, Jim Coplien - Prof. J. Richard Hackman (RIP) Scrum Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 70. Reference: Harrison, Neil B., and James O. Coplien. "Patterns of Productive Software Organizations." Bell Labs Technical Journal 1.1 (1996): 138-45 Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 71. Minimise roles for performance Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 72. Reference: Coplien, J., Borland Software Craftsmanship: A New Look at Process, Quality and Productivity, Proceedings of the 5th Annual Borland International Conference, Orlando, FL., 1994. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 73. Process control paradigm shift The reaction upon Ken Schwaber showing widely used software development methods to Ogunnaike and other process control experts... “They inspected the systems development processes that I brought them. I have rarely provided a group with so much laughter. They were amazed and appalled that my industry, systems development, was trying to do its work using a completely inappropriate process control model.” Reference: Ken Schwaber, Mike Beedle, Agile Software Development with Scrum, Prentice Hall, 2002. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 74. The emergence of a formula First book The word describing OOPSLA paper “Agile” is W. Edwards Scrum for on Scrum coined as an Deming software projects umbrella term Agile Manifesto Decades of ‘Lean’ Manufacturing and Product Development in Japan 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 A new Describes Product Product Development as a form Development of Knowledge Paradigm Creation Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 75. * * The original metaphor of dwarfs on the shoulders of giants has been attributed to Bernard of Chartres in 1159. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 76. Creating the Scrum formula See Jeff Sutherland explain the creation of Scrum at: youtube.com/watch?v=O7cA1q0XwhE If you missed this session/section, this is a good summary of what was discussed in this section.
  • 77. Take-away: The Scrum formula incorporates patterns from advanced product development and high performance software development so that you don’t have to re-invent it all to get going. You do need Agile and Lean principles to get the most out of it however. Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com
  • 78. Please join us! Rowan Bunning @rowanb rowan@scrumwithstyle.com Please do not redistribute without the author’s permission. au.linkedin.com/in/rowanbunning © 2013 Scrum WithStyle scrumwithstyle.com