~ 3200 BC<br />Egyptian History Class 3. 2009<br />Discussion of Ancient Writing (Cursive Form) and Monumental<br />The Beginnings ??<br />
Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions: Upper and Lower Egypt<br />Note : <br />Upper Egypt<br />Is the Oldest Part <br />Of Egypt<br />Lower (northern) Egypt consisted of the Nile River's delta made by the river as it empties into the Mediterranean. <br />Upper Egypt was the long, narrow strip of ancient Egypt located south of the Delta.<br /> For much of Egypt's<br /> history Lower Egypt<br />(lower) was thinly <br />settled<br />
The History of Hieroglyphic Writing<br /><ul><li>Hieroglyphic writing first began around 5000 years ago??
Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphs up to about 400 AD, after that they wrote in a short-hand cursive style called demotic.
Eventually everyone forgot how to write in hieroglyphs.</li></ul>The Rosetta Stone Gave Us Information how to Translate Hieroglyphic<br /><ul><li>But now we are able to decipher hieroglyphs thanks to a special chunk of rock and a determined Egyptologist in Napoleon's Army.
In 1799, a soldier digging a fort in Rosetta, Egypt found a large black stone with three different types of writing on it.</li></li></ul><li>Rosetta Stone<br />
Ancient Egyptian Writing Kit<br />The Palette (pen holder) and the reeds (pens) and the ink wells.<br />1.) The tools used for writing held in a Palette (pen holder) composed of a wooden block having a slim rectangular groove to partially accommodate the reeds (pens) made of the Juncus Maritimus plant that was growing on the banks of the river Nile<br />2.) Two circular indentations to house the powdered ink, one for red ink and the other for black ink. <br />
Ancient Egyptian Writing Kit<br />The Inks for Writing<br />The red ink was prepared by mixing ochre with gelatin, gum and bee wax<br />The black ink was prepared by mixing carbon or soot with the same materials to make it in a form of cake and then use water and write with it.<br />
Elite developed the hieroglyphic system <br />In order to insure their advantaged position, the members of the elite developed the hieroglyphic system of writing around the year 3200 B.C.<br />At the time of its introduction, scholars estimate that fewer than 20 people per mile's length of the River Nile were literate. <br />It is from the ranks of these members of the elite, who controlled knowledge in the form of the hieroglyphs and who co-opted craftsmen to give visual expression to their cultural ideals that the position of pharaoh emerged.<br />
The ALPHABET<br />Alphabet characters were the basis for hieroglyphic writings. <br />The basic hieroglyph characters are referred to as. They 'spell out' names or anything which can't be represented by other characters. The alphabet characters are read as the sound of the object they represented.<br />Although vowels were used in the spoken language, they were not usually written unless a word begins with a vowel or where it might be confusing if left out…like with names.<br />
Ancient Egyptian Writing – <br />Hieroglyphs<br />
Hieroglyphic writing is like a picture puzzle.<br />English is based on 26 characters--letters. Letters that are combined into words...and then into sentences...which tell a story.<br />Ancient Egyptian writing uses more than 2,000 hieroglyphic characters. Each hieroglyph represents a common object in ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs could represent the sound of the object or they could represent an idea associated with the object.<br />A modern type of hieroglyphic writings would be a rebus. A rebus is a picture puzzle that can be "sounded out" by reading the sounds symbolized by the pictures. When these sounds are read aloud together, the statements often becomes obvious. <br />Try solving the rebus below:<br />Hieroglyphic writing is like a picture puzzle.<br />
The Egyptian numbering system was also based on units of 10, but instead of relying on the position of numbers to define their value, the Egyptians used different images to represent different units of 10.<br />To write a number, the hieroglyph representing each unit of ten would simply be drawn as many times as was necessary.<br />
Papyrus_Ebers.png<br />prescription for an asthma remedy is to be prepared as a mixture of fr:herbs heated on a brick so that the sufferer could inhale their fumes.<br />
Archaic Egyptian<br />Archaic Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language spoken during the Early Dynastic Period, which lasted up to about 2600 BC. The first known inscriptions in Archaic Egyptian date from around 3400 BC. They are the earliest known Egyptian hieroglyphic texts. There is no direct evidence for the language of the Predynastic Period. <br />
Egyptian Hieroglyphs <br />The first full sentence written in Egyptian hieroglyphs so far discovered dates from the Second Dynasty, circa 3200 BC. <br />This ancient Egyptian writing system continued to be used under Persian rule and after Alexander's conquest of Egypt, during the ensuing Macedonian and Roman period. <br />By the fourth century, few Egyptians were capable of understanding hieroglyphs, and monumental use of ancient Egyptian inscriptions ceased after the closing of all non-Christian temples in AD 391 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I<br />Like many other Egyptian terms, the word hieroglyph has a Greek origin, hieroglyphiká, meaning sacred writing.<br />