Networking Basics By Rouf

3,494 views

Published on

National Workshop on Networking and ISP setup with Linux.
Presentation on Networking Basics By Abdur Rouf.

1 Comment
9 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Mistake in IP ADRESS CLASS A IN IP ADRESS CLASS A IS FROM 0 TO 126* (127 IS FOR LOOP)
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,494
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
420
Comments
1
Likes
9
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • In a peer-to-peer network, all nodes have an equal relation to one another. Each node usually has access to some resources on other nodes, so users can share files, programs, or devices on other users' systems. Some peer-to-peer networks use a server, but some do not.
  • Networking Basics By Rouf

    1. 1. Networking Basics National Workshop on Networking and ISP Setup With Linux
    2. 2. Objectives: <ul><li>What is networking? </li></ul><ul><li>The Uses of a Network . </li></ul><ul><li>How Networks are Structured. </li></ul><ul><li>Cable connection for LAN. </li></ul><ul><li>Components or equipments of a computer network. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Addressing or IP. </li></ul><ul><li>Subnetting. </li></ul><ul><li>Superneting or Classless Inter Domain Routing. </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is Networking? <ul><li>Connecting Two or more devices for </li></ul><ul><li>communication purpose is called </li></ul><ul><li>networking. </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Uses of a Network <ul><li>Simultaneous Access </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Peripheral Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Communication </li></ul>A network connects computers so they can communicate, exchange information, and share resources. The main benefits of using a network are:
    5. 5. The Uses of a Network Simultaneous Access
    6. 6. The Uses of a Network Shared Peripheral Devices Read only Read / Write
    7. 7. The Uses of a Network Personal Communication
    8. 8. Types of Network <ul><li>Local Area Networks (LANs) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Networks (WANs) </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Client/Server Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer Networks </li></ul>
    9. 9. Local Area Network
    10. 10. WAN - Wide Area Network
    11. 11. MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
    12. 12. Client/Server Networks
    13. 13. Peer-to-Peer Networks <ul><li>In a peer-to-peer network, all nodes have an equal relation to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Each node usually has access to some resources on other nodes, so users can share files, programs, or devices on other users' systems. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Equipments: </li></ul><ul><li>LAN Cable. </li></ul><ul><li>RJ 45 Connector. </li></ul><ul><li>Crimping Tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Cable Tester. </li></ul><ul><li>Hub / Switch and </li></ul><ul><li>PC with NIC card </li></ul>Cable Connection For LAN
    15. 15. Cable Connection LAN Cable (Cat 5)
    16. 16. Cable Connection
    17. 17. Cable Connection RJ 45 Connector
    18. 18. Cable Connection
    19. 19. Cable Connection
    20. 20. Cable Connection <ul><li>Straight Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Crossover Connection </li></ul>
    21. 21. Cable Connection Straight Connection Crossover Connection
    22. 22. Straight Connection Side B Side A 8.Brown 7.Brown White 6.Green 5.Blue White 4.Blue 3.Green White 2.Orange 1.Orange white 8.Brown 7.Brown White 6. Green 5.Blue White 4.Blue 3.Green White 2.Orange 1.Orange white
    23. 23. Cross over Connection
    24. 24. Crossover Connection Side B Side A 6.Green 3.Green White 2.Orange 1.Orange white 6.Orange 3.Orange White 2.Green 1.Green white
    25. 25. Cable Connection Straight Host (PC or Router) Hub Crossover Host (PC or Router) Host Crossover Switch Hub Crossover Hub Hub Cable Type To From
    26. 26. Cable Connection Crimping Tool
    27. 27. Cable Connection Cable Tester
    28. 28. Cable Connection HUB
    29. 29. Cable Connection NIC Card
    30. 30. Cable Connection
    31. 31. Cable Connection What Type of Connection Need to connect this two network? Example: Solution: Crossover
    32. 32. Components of a network <ul><li>Message. </li></ul><ul><li>Sender. </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Protocol IP Internet Protocol
    34. 34. IP IP Addresses: Classful Addressing
    35. 35. <ul><li>Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) </li></ul><ul><li>-Use 32-bit. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) </li></ul><ul><li>-Use 128-bit. </li></ul>IP
    36. 36. <ul><li>This Presentation and our Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Covers Only IPv4. </li></ul>IP
    37. 37. IP Addressing An IP address (IPv4) is a 32-bit address .
    38. 38. IP Addressing The IP addresses are unique.
    39. 39. IP Addressing Binary Notation 01110101 10010101 0001110 11101010
    40. 40. IP Addressing Dotted-decimal notation
    41. 41. IP Addressing Binary To Decimal Conversion 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1 = 255
    42. 42. <ul><li>First Octet Second Octet Third Octet Fourth Octet </li></ul><ul><li>10000000 00001011 00000011 00011111 </li></ul><ul><li>128+0 0+8+2+1 0+2+1 0+16+8+4+2+1 </li></ul><ul><li>128 11 3 31 </li></ul><ul><li>Finally IP Address = 128.11.3.31 </li></ul>IP Addressing Binary To Decimal Conversion <ul><li>1 1 1 1 1 1 1 </li></ul><ul><li>128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul>
    43. 43. IP Addressing Example 1 Change the following IP address from binary notation to dotted-decimal notation. 10000001 00001011 00001011 11101111 Solution 129.11.11.239
    44. 44. IP Addressing Example 3 Find the error, if any, in the following IP address: 111.56.045.78 Solution There are no leading zeroes in dotted-decimal notation (045).
    45. 45. IP Addressing Find the error, if any, in the following IP address: 75.45.301.14 Solution Example 3 In dotted-decimal notation, each number is less than or equal to 255; 301 is outside this range.
    46. 46. IP Addressing In classful addressing, the address space is divided into five classes: A , B , C , D , and E .
    47. 47. IP Addressing Finding the class in binary notation
    48. 48. IP Addressing Finding the address class
    49. 49. IP Addressing Example 6 Find the class of the address: 0 0000001 00001011 00001011 11101111 Solution The first bit is 0. This is a class A address.
    50. 50. IP Addressing Example 7 Find the class of the address: 110 00001 10000011 00011011 11111111 Solution The first 2 bits are 1; the third bit is 0. This is a class C address.
    51. 51. Finding the class in decimal notation IP Addressing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
    52. 52. IP Addressing Example 7 Find the class of the address: 227 .12.14.87 Solution The first byte is 227 (between 224 and 239); the class is D.
    53. 53. Example 7 (Continued) Find the class of the address: 193 .14.56.22 Solution The first byte is 193 (between 192 and 223); the class is C. IP Addressing
    54. 54. Netid and hostid IP Addressing
    55. 55. Blocks in class A IP Addressing
    56. 56. Millions of class A addresses are wasted. IP Addressing
    57. 57. Blocks in class B IP Addressing
    58. 58. Many class B addresses are wasted. IP Addressing
    59. 59. Blocks in class C IP Addressing
    60. 60. The number of addresses in a class C block is smaller than the needs of most organizations. IP Addressing
    61. 61. Class D addresses are used for multicasting; there is only one block in this class. IP Addressing
    62. 62. Class E addresses are reserved for special purposes; most of the block is wasted. IP Addressing
    63. 63. Example 9 Given the network address 17.0.0.0, find the class, the block, and the range of the addresses. Solution The class is A because the first byte is between 0 and 127. The block has a netid of 17. The addresses range from 17.0.0.0 to 17.255.255.255. IP Addressing
    64. 64. Example 10 Given the network address 132.21.0.0, find the class, the block, and the range of the addresses. Solution The class is B because the first byte is between 128 and 191. The block has a netid of 132.21. The addresses range from 132.21.0.0 to 132.21.255.255. IP Addressing
    65. 65. Example 11 Given the network address 220.34.76.0, find the class, the block, and the range of the addresses. Solution The class is C because the first byte is between 192 and 223. The block has a netid of 220.34.76. The addresses range from 220.34.76.0 to 220.34.76.255. IP Addressing
    66. 66. Mask A mask is a 32-bit binary number that gives the first address in the block (the network address) when bitwise ANDed with an address in the block. IP Addressing
    67. 67. Masking concept IP Addressing
    68. 68. AND operation IP Addressing
    69. 69. The network address is the beginning address of each block. It can be found by applying the default mask to any of the addresses in the block (including itself). It retains the netid of the block and sets the hostid to zero. IP Addressing
    70. 70. Masking Concept <ul><li>11000000 10101000 00000011 00000001 </li></ul><ul><li>11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 </li></ul><ul><li>--------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>11000000 10101000 00000011 00000000 </li></ul>IP Mask AND operation
    71. 71. Masking Concept /24 255.255.255.0 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 Class C /16 255.255.0.0 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 Class B /8 255.0.0.0 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000 Class A Using Slash In Dotted-Decimal In Binary Class
    72. 72. Masking Concept Example 12 Given the address 23.56.7.91 and the default class A mask, find the beginning address (network address). Solution The default mask is 255.0.0.0, which means that only the first byte is preserved and the other 3 bytes are set to 0s. The network address is 23.0.0.0.
    73. 73. Masking Concept Example 13 Given the address 132.6.17.85 and the default class B mask, find the beginning address (network address). Solution The default mask is 255.255.0.0, which means that the first 2 bytes are preserved and the other 2 bytes are set to 0s. The network address is 132.6.0.0.
    74. 74. Masking Concept Example 14 Given the address 201.180.56.5 and the class C default mask, find the beginning address (network address). Solution The default mask is 255.255.255.0, which means that the first 3 bytes are preserved and the last byte is set to 0. The network address is 201.180.56.0.
    75. 75. Subnetting In subnetting , a network is divided into several smaller groups with each subnetwork (or subnet) having its own subnetwork address.
    76. 76. Subnetting <ul><li>Netid + Subnetid + Hstid </li></ul>
    77. 77. Subnetting 141 . 14 . 192 . 2 Netid + Hostid a. Without subnetting. 141 . 14 . 192 . 2 Netid + Subnetid + Hostid b.With subnetting.
    78. 78. Subnetting Default Mask 255.255.255.0 Subnet Mask 255.255.255.192 00000000 11111111 11111111 11111111 000000 11 11111111 11111111 11111111
    79. 79. Subnetting <ul><li>To create subnet 5 questions. </li></ul><ul><li>How many subnet does the subnet mask produce? </li></ul><ul><li>How many host per subnet available? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the valid subnet? </li></ul><ul><li>What broadcast address of each subnet? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the valid host in each subnet? </li></ul>
    80. 80. Subnetting <ul><li>How many subnet? </li></ul>2 x Where x is the mask bit.
    81. 81. <ul><li>How many host per subnet? </li></ul>Subnetting 2y-2 Where y is the Number of Unmaked bit
    82. 82. <ul><li>What are the valid Subnet? </li></ul>Subnetting 256 - subnet mask = blocksize Blocksize or Increment Number an example would be 256-192 =64. The block size of 192 mask is always 64. Start counting at zero in block of 64 untill we reach the subnet mask value and these are the subnets 0, 64,128,192.
    83. 83. <ul><li>What’s the broadcast address of each subnet? </li></ul>Subnetting Broadcast address is always the number right before the next subnet. For example, 0 subnet has the broadcast address 63.
    84. 84. <ul><li>What are the valid hosts? </li></ul>Subnetting Valid hosts are the number between the subnet address and the broadcast address For example, if 64 is the subnet and 127 is the broadcast address then 65-126 is the valid host range .
    85. 85. <ul><li>Practical Example of Subnet: 255.255.255.192(/26) </li></ul>Subnetting We going to subnet the network address 192.168.10.0 using the subnet mask 255.255.255.192. Since 192 = 11000000 in binary so we use 2 bit for mask. Now, we find the answer of five questions Number of subnet = 2 2 =4. Host per subnet = 2 6 -2 = 62 hosts Valid subnet = 256-192 = 64 Our subnets are 0,64,128,192
    86. 86. <ul><li>Subnets 0 64 128 192 </li></ul><ul><li>Our first host 1 64 129 193 </li></ul><ul><li>Our last host 62 126 190 254 </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast Address 63 127 191 255 </li></ul>Subnetting
    87. 87. <ul><li>Superneting or Classless Inter Domain Routing. </li></ul>Supernetting CIDR
    88. 88. Supernetting CIDR Masks
    89. 89. <ul><li>How can we connect 900 hosts in a network? </li></ul><ul><li>If classful IP addressing is used, this network needs 4 class C IP addresses or one class B IP address. </li></ul>Supernetting
    90. 90. Supernetting As the number of class C IP networks is limited (2097152), it is not preferable to assign 4 class C IP addresses to this network.
    91. 91. Supernetting If a class B IP address is used, as the maximum number of hosts in a class B network is 65534, a very large number (65534 - 900) of host IP addresses will be wasted.
    92. 92. <ul><li>if CIDR is used, then this network can be assigned an IP address with a network prefix of 22 (i.e. /22). This means, 10 bits are available for hosts, resulting in 1024 available host IP addresses, satisfying the exact requirements of the network. </li></ul>Supernetting
    93. 93. <ul><li>192.60.128.0/22 </li></ul>Supernetting IP 11000000 00111100 10000000 00000000 Mask 11111111 11111111 11111100 00000000 AND operation Net id 11000000 00111100 10000000 00000000

    ×