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The Rotary Club
of Shanghai
The Events, Projects, and Personalities
from 1919 to 1949
Connie Fan
April Ma
December 2006
Main Events
The Birth of the
Rotary Club of
Shanghai
July 1919 Organization
✦ On July 9, 1919, Seattle Rotarian Roger D. Pinneo met
with J. Petit, W.S. Fleming, A.B. Rosenfeld...
Official Charter: Oct. 1,
1919✦ The Rotary Club of Shanghai was
officially chartered on October 1, 1919 as
Club #545. The ...
The 1920 Constitution
The Rotary Club of Shanghai in its early days held the same
values and objects as it does today. The...
The 1920 Constitution
✦ 1. Make the acquaintance of men you
ought to know.
✦ 2. Genuine, wholesome good-fellow-ship.
✦ 3. ...
The 1920 Constitution
✦ 1. To attend meetings regularly.
✦ 2. To pay your dues promptly.
✦ 3. To do your part when called ...
The Unique Role of the
RCS
✦ There were some doubts about the role of Rotary in a club-ridden
city like Shanghai. It was d...
The Secrets to Rotary’s
Success
✦ In an interview with The Shanghai Sunday Times in 1922, Mr. F. S.
Brockman, an Associate...
✦ “Most of its work is by voluntary effort. The work of many good institutions
in a community is largely carried on by pai...
Early
Issues and
Controversies
The Lincheng Incident,
1923✦ May 6, 1923: Pukow-
Tsientsin Blue Express
ambushed and derailed by
bandits
✦ 1 British man k...
The Lincheng Incident,
1923
✦ May 10: RCS held a 2-hour meeting
✦ Disagreement over direct action versus
contacting RI to ...
The Lincheng Incident,
1923
✦ RI replied two weeks later, stating that the
matter would be discussed at the next
meeting o...
The Lincheng Incident,
1923✦ Discussions ensued in The Pagoda
regarding:
✦ the role of Rotary Headquarters
versus local Cl...
✦ March 1936, Fong Foo Sec and
✦ Dr. C.T. Wang spoke to the RCS on the question of
forming a Chinese-speaking Rotary Club ...
Chinese Rotary
✦ The Chinese name of Rotary Club was suggested to be 扶 社轮 (Fu
Lun She) for 3 reasons:
✦ “The term “ 扶 ”轮 i...
Sino-Japanese Relations
✦ 1921, RCS President H.C. Norman to RI :
✦ “If we are to extend Rotary in China, we could not, of...
Sino-Japanese Relations
✦ A letter from President Fong Foo Sec in 1932, following Japan’s invasion of Manchuria and an
att...
✦ Thousands upon thousands of refugees poured into the International Settlement and
French Concession from the war-torn ar...
Wartime
Struggles
Meetings Cease 1941
✦ Regular meetings ceased in Dec. 1941, after an
outbreak of hostilities in Shanghai, which led to
fin...
The End of War
✦ At the end of 1944, internees in Shanghai
camps suffered a shortage of food. The Club
arranged to send ea...
Post-War Re-
Organization
✦ The Club applied for
readmission in early
1946, which was
granted on March
27, 1946.
Meeting Cease Again
1949
✦ In 1949, however, the Club was forced to stop again
✦ The People’s Republic of China was founde...
Informal Meetings
Begin 1993
✦ In the early 1990’s, Rotarians and friends
began meeting informally in Shanghai.
✦ Meanwhil...
Formal Re-Chartering
2006
✦ The Rotary Clubs of Shanghai and Beijing
were granted provisional status by RI in
June 2001
✦ ...
Historical Meeting
Places
Historical Meeting
PlacesRecord Date Meeting Place Address
1919 Palace Hotel
19 Zhongshan Dong Lu 1 Lu [now South
Building...
Now the South Tower of the Peace Hotel
(20 Nanjing Dong Lu)
Palace Hotel
Café Parisien
19 Yanan Dong Lu 27 Yanan Dong Lu
25 Ave. Edward VII (now Yanan Dong Lu)
Astor House Hotel
Now the Pujiang Hotel (15 Huangpu Lu)
The Great Eastern
Hotel
Was also known as “Wing On’s Hotel”
Now a Department Store
(635 Nanjing Dong Lu)
The Hongkong Shanghai Bank
Building
Now the Pudong Development Bank
(12 Zhongshan Dong 1 Lu)
Historical Spreadsheet
Event in Chinese History Year Event in History of the Shanghai Rotary Club RCS President
Xinhai Rev...
The Members
Past Presidents
✦ 1919-1920 Dr. Julian Petit
✦ 1920 W.L. Johnstone
✦ 1920-1921 T.E. Doremus
✦ 1921-1922 H.C. Norman
✦ 1922...
Past Members
Serial Name Surname Nickname Chinese Name Company Classification
1 T.B. Aitken Tom
2 G.H. Akerman Akey Arnhol...
Who’s Who in China
✦ Who’s Who in China: Biographies of
Chinese Leaders. Shanghai: China
Weekly Review, 1936.
✦ Contains b...
The Men of Shanghai
✦ Men of Shanghai and North China: A
Standard Biographical Reference Work,
second edition. Shanghai: T...
Dr. C.T. Wang 王正廷
✦ b. 1882, Zhejiang Province, Ningbo, Fenghua
✦ studied at Michigan University, 1907-1908
✦ B.A. from Ya...
Dr. C.T. Wang 王正廷
✦ Appointed by Northern Government as one of China’s
chief delegates to Paris Conference, 1919
✦ Directo...
Dr. New Way Sung
牛惠生✦ b. June 14,1892 in Shanghai, son of New Shang-
Chow and Nie Kwei Ching
✦ B.A. from St.John’s Univers...
✦ Superintendent and Chief Orthopedic Surgeon, Orthopedic
Hospital of Shanghai, 1928
✦ Surgeon General to the Army of the ...
Fong Foo Sec 鄺富灼
✦ 19 b. 1869 in Toishan, Guangdong in a farming village;
the son of a poor farmer
✦ age 13 went to Americ...
Fong Foo Sec 鄺富灼
✦ One of the leading editors and writers in China; Chief
English editor of Commercial Press (largest book...
Fong Foo Sec 鄺富灼
✦ 1922 became a member of RCS; represented RCS at
LA delegation that year
✦ President of RCS, 1931-32
✦ M...
Percy Chu 朱博泉
✦ b. Oct. 2, 1898 in Hangzhou
✦ B.A. from University of Shanghai, 1919 continued his
studies in Economics an...
✦ Liquidator of the Russo-Asiatic Bank, 1926-1929
✦ Appointed Associate General Liquidator by the National
Government, 192...
Major Projects
Institution for Chinese Blind
✦ 4 Edinburgh Road, at the corner of
Brenan Road (now Jiangsu and
Changning)
✦ Founded by Re...
Institution for Chinese
Blind
✦ The RCS built a 40 x 20 ft
room and kitchen for the
institution, and visited often
✦ 1922:...
Institution for Chinese
Blind
✦ Trachoma, a preventable contagious
disease that leads to blindness, was
a serious problem ...
Shanghai American School
Scholarships
✦ The Shanghai American School was built to provide
education for the children of Am...
Shanghai American School
Scholarships
✦ In the first year, the Bursary Committee of RCS was so
impressed by the calibre of...
Shanghai American School
Scholarships
✦ Scholarship Recipients Include:
✦ 1922 Herbert O. Waters
✦ 1923 William W. Lockwoo...
Civilian Refugee
Aid
Civilian Refugee Aid
✦ Funded
✦ local expert medical and relief organizations using Club
reserves
✦ Strengthened the Chari...
The Rotary
Refugee Relief Fund
✦ In 1937, RCS itself raised over $10,000
✦ An additional $40,000 (Chinese
currency) was re...
✦ RCS Member Alfred Morley:
✦ “There has been much searching of hearts on the
causes of this catastrophe, and in our Club’...
Christmas Toy Drives
✦ Annual toy drive, early 1920’s through 1941
✦ RCS prepared and delivered gifts to orphanages and
ot...
Christmas Toy Drives
✦ The toy drives were a hallmark of teamwork.
✦ advertising and publicity for toy donations
✦ U.S. “H...
Christmas Toy Drives
✦ 1931: 1500 children visited, and $1083 was distributed
among 8 different institutions
✦ 1933: 7000 ...
Russian School for
Boys✦ 1924: large influx of Russian refugees in Shanghai
✦ Walter “Rex” King appealed to the RCS in the...
Russian School for
Boys
✦ By 1925, there were 69 students, and great need for additional
space and funding
✦ RCS planned t...
Russian School for
Boys✦ The address of the new school was 13 Route Doumer
(now Donghu Road)
✦ Walter “Rex” King the first...
Dr. New’s Orthopedic
Hospital✦ Located on Siccawei Road (now Xujiahui)
✦ In 1930, the RCS promised its Chinese members tha...
Dr. New’s Orthopedic
Hospital
✦ Nonetheless, the Club visited the hospital
annually, and raised $582 for the hospital in
N...
Other Projects
✦ Total amount raised for various causes from April 1931 to
March 1932: $5,600, including:
✦ $1,305 for Han...
Unsuccessful Attempts
✦ The Big Brother Movement (1920)
✦ Educational Assistance to Portuguese School
Boys (1925)
✦ Treatm...
Other Proposed
Projects✦ Renumber Shanghai Streets and Buildings (1920)
✦ Create Civic League (1921)
✦ Improve the labour ...
Areas for Future
Research
Sources
✦ The Shanghai Municipal Archives
✦ The Shanghai Library, Xujiahui Cangshulou Branch
✦ The Research Institute of t...
To Do
✦ Old street names, buildings
✦ Prominent RCS members (and SAS scholarship winners,
perhaps)
✦ Issues/controversies,...
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History of the Rotary Club of Shanghai (1919)

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    I am looking for a photograph of Hans Berents who was in the Shanghai Rotary Club in the 1930ies. He was an engineer and president of 'The Engineering Society of China'.

    We are making an exhibition on him in his home town of Bergen, Norway.


    my e-mail: knut.rio@uib.no
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History of the Rotary Club of Shanghai (1919)

  1. 1. The Rotary Club of Shanghai The Events, Projects, and Personalities from 1919 to 1949 Connie Fan April Ma December 2006
  2. 2. Main Events
  3. 3. The Birth of the Rotary Club of Shanghai
  4. 4. July 1919 Organization ✦ On July 9, 1919, Seattle Rotarian Roger D. Pinneo met with J. Petit, W.S. Fleming, A.B. Rosenfeld, J.J. Gorman, and W.L. Johnstone at the Palace Hotel to discuss the possibility of organizing a Rotary Club in Shanghai. ✦ Four more meetings were held at the Palace Hotel, each time with more attendees than the last. ✦ On July 20, 1919, Pinneo sent a cable that read: “Interotary Chicago: Shanghai organized. Julian Petit chairman, mailing particulars. Pinneo.”
  5. 5. Official Charter: Oct. 1, 1919✦ The Rotary Club of Shanghai was officially chartered on October 1, 1919 as Club #545. The club received their Charter in January. ✦ The January 15, 1920 issue of The Pagoda read: “Wish I could have caught a picture of Doc Petit going down the street after tiffin last week with his hat askew and the new Charter under his arm, guarding it like it was his first chee-ild. Doc said ‘I wish you could have seen the bond and certificate I had to sign for this! Then you’d appreciate why I’m hugging it! They hold me responsible for it.’ Well, they didn’t’ pick a bad one did they, fellers?”
  6. 6. The 1920 Constitution The Rotary Club of Shanghai in its early days held the same values and objects as it does today. The Objects of the Constitution for 1920-1921 were as follows: 1.High ethical standards in business and professions. 2. The ideal of SERVICE as the basis of all worthy enterprise. 3.The active interest of every Rotarian in the civic, commercial, social and moral welfare of his community. 4.The development of a broad acquaintanceship as an opportunity for service as well as an aid to success. 5.The interchange of ideas and of business methods as a means of increasing the efficiency and usefulness of Rotarians. 6.The recognition of the worthiness of all legitimate occupations and the dignifying of the occupation of each Rotarian as affording him an opportunity to serve society.
  7. 7. The 1920 Constitution ✦ 1. Make the acquaintance of men you ought to know. ✦ 2. Genuine, wholesome good-fellow-ship. ✦ 3. Developing true and helpful friends. ✦ 4. Enlightenment as to other men’s work, problems and successes. ✦ 5. Education in methods that increase efficiency. ✦ 6. Stimulation of your desire to be of service to your fellowmen and society in general. ✦ 7. Business returns that come from enlarging your acquaintance and inspiring confidence in you and your business. The Benefits:
  8. 8. The 1920 Constitution ✦ 1. To attend meetings regularly. ✦ 2. To pay your dues promptly. ✦ 3. To do your part when called upon. ✦ 4. To be a big-hearted, broad- minded man – a man of energy and action – a real man – a Rotarian. The Obligations:
  9. 9. The Unique Role of the RCS ✦ There were some doubts about the role of Rotary in a club-ridden city like Shanghai. It was decided that the RCS would be international in character, dedicated to “international membership for the development of international relations in China”. ✦ The RCS was the first Rotary Club to be established in China. Soon after the Club was chartered, Rotary International contacted RCS to assist the International Board by looking into other Chinese cities where Rotary Clubs might be established. ✦ Rotary International also encouraged the RCS to recruit Chinese members, “believing that when a considerable number of the native business and professional men have been so honoured, the Shanghai Club will begin to realize its period of greatest success.”
  10. 10. The Secrets to Rotary’s Success ✦ In an interview with The Shanghai Sunday Times in 1922, Mr. F. S. Brockman, an Associate General Secretary of the International Committee of Y.M.C.A. in New York, listed four main secrets to the success of the Rotary Club of Shanghai: 1. “The meeting in good fellowship once a week of representatives of different professions and different lines of business, acts like magic in bringing about an understanding between these various elements of the community which have so often stood in a relationship of rivalry, antagonism, or ignorance.” 2. “Its membership is restricted by no limitations of religion, race, or class. It is as broad as the community.”
  11. 11. ✦ “Most of its work is by voluntary effort. The work of many good institutions in a community is largely carried on by paid, professional workers. Rotary has solved the difficulty of enlisting voluntary effort to a degree which no other organization, that I know, has done.” ✦ 4. “The fourth secret of its success is its main objective, namely, that of unselfish service to the community. It could not have succeeded as it has without a higher motive than simply good fellowship. All men of all creeds and in all lines of business and in every profession have a desire to serve their fellow men. Sometimes this desire is latent: sometimes the man is ignorant as to how he can serve: at other times he hesitates to attempt service alone. The Rotary is the magnet that draws out this inherent spirit of service. It organises it. It projects it into every part of the community.” The Secrets to Rotary’s Success
  12. 12. Early Issues and Controversies
  13. 13. The Lincheng Incident, 1923✦ May 6, 1923: Pukow- Tsientsin Blue Express ambushed and derailed by bandits ✦ 1 British man killed; 27 foreigners and 300 Chinese taken hostage for 38 days ✦ Among the captives were RCS members J.B. Powell and L.C. Solomon J.B. Powell arrives at Shanghai North Railway Station after the captives were released June 13, 1923.
  14. 14. The Lincheng Incident, 1923 ✦ May 10: RCS held a 2-hour meeting ✦ Disagreement over direct action versus contacting RI to pursue the release of the captives. ✦ latter group, led by PP Julian Petit, eventually successful ✦ cable sent to Chicago, asking RI to call for support for all the Rotary Clubs worldwide to urge their governments to take action demanding the protection of life and property in China at the time, RI consisted of nearly 1444 clubs in 27 countries, and nearly 90,000 Rotarians J.B. Powell arrives at Shanghai North Railway Station after the captives were released June 13, 1923.
  15. 15. The Lincheng Incident, 1923 ✦ RI replied two weeks later, stating that the matter would be discussed at the next meeting of the International Board on June 14 ✦ RCS was outraged ✦ PP Julian Petit wrote an angry letter to RI ✦ RI replied in September explaining the Board’s views on Rotary’s need to refrain from being involved in national matters J.B. Powell arrives at Shanghai North Railway Station after the captives were released June 13, 1923.
  16. 16. The Lincheng Incident, 1923✦ Discussions ensued in The Pagoda regarding: ✦ the role of Rotary Headquarters versus local Clubs in handling local matters ✦ the importance of discussion versus action ✦ the constitutional rules against politics in Rotary ✦ the constitutional rules ✦ requiring clubs to cooperate with RI ✦ The RCS became infamous for its attempt to appeal to all RC’s worldwide over the Lincheng matter J.B. Powell arrives at Shanghai North Railway Station after the captives were released June 13, 1923.
  17. 17. ✦ March 1936, Fong Foo Sec and ✦ Dr. C.T. Wang spoke to the RCS on the question of forming a Chinese-speaking Rotary Club in Shanghai, which would be separated from the current RCS on the basis of language rather than geography ✦ RI was consulted on the matter. ✦ The translation of Rotary literature into Chinese had already been well under way. Chinese Rotary
  18. 18. Chinese Rotary ✦ The Chinese name of Rotary Club was suggested to be 扶 社轮 (Fu Lun She) for 3 reasons: ✦ “The term “ 扶 ”轮 is based upon the old Chinese classical saying “ 大雅扶 ”轮 which means that the scholar, the experienced and refined co-operate in their efforts to work for the welfare of the public. (The word “ ”轮 is based upon the sentence “ 椎 大 之始”轮为 辂 in the preface of the “Selected Writings” by Chiu-ming, Prince of Liang Dynasty, meaning that we must need construct a large wheel in order to bear a big cart). ✦ Since the term “ 扶 ”轮 is based upon “ 大雅扶 ”轮 , it corresponds to the object of the Rotary Club. ✦ The meaning of “Rotary” is “turning as a wheel on its axis”. ✦ “ 扶 ”轮 also means “turning and advancing by turning around and around”. They are, there for, similar to each other.”
  19. 19. Sino-Japanese Relations ✦ 1921, RCS President H.C. Norman to RI : ✦ “If we are to extend Rotary in China, we could not, of course, permit Japanese members. I need not enlarge, perhaps, on this side of the question.” ✦ 1931, RCS President G.A. Fitch expressed the distress of RCS members over the Japan Clubs’ actions in broadcasting defense of Japan’s invasion of Manchuria and Shanghai, writing that “There is absolutely no defense for what they have done. They have imperiled the peace of the whole world. There are more far- reaching implications in what they have done than most of us realize.”
  20. 20. Sino-Japanese Relations ✦ A letter from President Fong Foo Sec in 1932, following Japan’s invasion of Manchuria and an attack on Shanghai: ✦ “Your letter of December 29 regarding the present Sino-Japanese situation was read in one of our meetings recently. The members of the Rotary Club of Shanghai appreciate your sympathy for the most trying times that we have been having in our city. At such times it is human for those of us who are involved in this undeclared war to be carried away by patriotic feelings. We are glad, therefore, to receive your letter, which reminds us that, as Rotarians, we should place internationalism above nationalism. ✦ “This war has put the Shanghai Club, in whose membership are Japanese and Chinese, besides sixteen other nationalities, to a severe test. As the warclouds burst, the tension in one or two of our meetings was great, and for a time, it looked as if we would not be able to uphold the international character of our organization. I am glad to say, however, that we have stood the test. ✦ “A number of our Chinese members who live in the Hongkew District had to evacuate from their homes in a hurry during the fighting. As the war dragged on, it was necessary for them to go back and get out some personal effects. To enter this district, which came under the control of the Japanese military authorities, Japanese passes were required. Some of our Japanese members helped in this emergency in true Rotary spirit.
  21. 21. ✦ Thousands upon thousands of refugees poured into the International Settlement and French Concession from the war-torn areas. Many of them had their homes burned and were in a pitiable condition. A number of organizations undertook relief which was urgent. Our members contributed $2,145 to help the work of the Christian War Relief Committee, which is caring for several thousand refugees in half a dozen or more centers. Some of our Japanese members gave liberally for this work. ✦ “Before the Japanese delivered their last ultimatum that brought on their “big push,” our Club tried to help find a solution for the conflict. Our Board of Directors appointed a committee of ten to see what could be done to bring the two sides together and stop the wholesale destruction of property and human lives. The committee drew up a letter, and a delegation consisting of a British, two Japanese, and two Chinese members presented it to the Japanese Consul General and the Chinese Mayor of the City Government of Shanghai. The British and Japanese members also called on the Japanese Minister, and arrangements were made to call on Dr. Wellington Koo [honorary member of RCS and Chinese Minister to Great Britain] when the Japanese ultimatum was delivered and the fighting resumed. Though we failed as peacemakers, yet we made an attempt to bring about peace. It was noteworthy that the Japanese and Chinese members on the committee worked without restraint and with sincere Rotary spirit. Our Vice-President Peter Harris, who took the initiative and gave much time and thought to this peace move, is preparing a full account of our effort. When it is ready, it will be sent to the office of Rotary International.” Sino-Japanese Relations
  22. 22. Wartime Struggles
  23. 23. Meetings Cease 1941 ✦ Regular meetings ceased in Dec. 1941, after an outbreak of hostilities in Shanghai, which led to financial and transportation difficulties for club members ✦ Club members continued to meet informally in each other’s homes, in order to maintain fellowship and to promote goodwill and understanding between the different nationalities that they represented ✦ In 1942, 19 Allied Rotarians were repatriated, and the remaining American and British members were interned at various Camps in and around Shanghai.
  24. 24. The End of War ✦ At the end of 1944, internees in Shanghai camps suffered a shortage of food. The Club arranged to send each interned Rotarian and each member of his family a special Christmas parcel ✦ The hostilities ended in August 1945, but due to the detrimental consequences to business and finance of the war, the Club was unable to resume its meetings until late 1945.
  25. 25. Post-War Re- Organization ✦ The Club applied for readmission in early 1946, which was granted on March 27, 1946.
  26. 26. Meeting Cease Again 1949 ✦ In 1949, however, the Club was forced to stop again ✦ The People’s Republic of China was founded on Oct. 1, 1949. Social welfare was now considered to be the responsibility of the government. Thus, non-governmental organizations were considered counterrevolutionary. ✦ Furthermore, foreign business persons were considered to represent imperialist capitalism, a form of economic invasion of China. ✦ By 1952, all Rotary Clubs in China had been closed ✦ In 1965, all property of RCS was confiscated by the PRC
  27. 27. Informal Meetings Begin 1993 ✦ In the early 1990’s, Rotarians and friends began meeting informally in Shanghai. ✦ Meanwhile, the Asian Extension Committee of Rotary International and the International Service Committee of the Rotary Club of Seattle worked hard at establishing relations with Chinese government officials in order to re-establish Rotary Clubs in China
  28. 28. Formal Re-Chartering 2006 ✦ The Rotary Clubs of Shanghai and Beijing were granted provisional status by RI in June 2001 ✦ The RCS was formally re-chartered on Feb. 8, 2006 as Club #60725
  29. 29. Historical Meeting Places
  30. 30. Historical Meeting PlacesRecord Date Meeting Place Address 1919 Palace Hotel 19 Zhongshan Dong Lu 1 Lu [now South Building of Peace Hotel 1919 -1920 Café Parisien 25 Ave. Edward VII [Yan’an Dong Lu] 1921 June Astor House 1922 January Carlton Café 1922 June Union Club of China 1924 January Astor House Hotel [Pujiang Hotel – formerly Richards’ Hotel] 15 Huangpu Lu, across from Russian Consulate 1930 Union Club Rooms 15 Peking Road 1931 Old Carlton 33 Ningpo Road 1932 Metropole Hotel 180 Kiangse Road [Jiangxi Zhonglu] corner of Fuzhou Lu 1945 – Nov Bankers Club 1946 Great Easter(n) Hotel 635 Nanking Road [635 Nanjing Donglu, Wing On Department Store Building]
  31. 31. Now the South Tower of the Peace Hotel (20 Nanjing Dong Lu) Palace Hotel
  32. 32. Café Parisien 19 Yanan Dong Lu 27 Yanan Dong Lu 25 Ave. Edward VII (now Yanan Dong Lu)
  33. 33. Astor House Hotel Now the Pujiang Hotel (15 Huangpu Lu)
  34. 34. The Great Eastern Hotel Was also known as “Wing On’s Hotel” Now a Department Store (635 Nanjing Dong Lu)
  35. 35. The Hongkong Shanghai Bank Building Now the Pudong Development Bank (12 Zhongshan Dong 1 Lu)
  36. 36. Historical Spreadsheet Event in Chinese History Year Event in History of the Shanghai Rotary Club RCS President Xinhai Revolution, collapse of the Imperial Qing Dynasty 1911 Founding of Republic of China 1912 1913 World War I begins 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 May Fourth Movement begins; World War I ends with Treaty of Versailles, signed June 28 1919 July 9: First organizational meeting; Sept. 2: first issue of The Pagoda; Oct. 1: formally chartered as Rotary Club #545 Dr. Julian Petit 1920 Jan.: charter received; May 27: F.J. Raven suggests street numbering project W.L. Johnstone, T.E. Doremus Jul. 1: Chinese Communist Party founded in Shanghai 1921 H.C. Norman 1922 Beginning of annual SAS Scholarships; RCS visits Institution for Chinese Blind H.B. Lane 1923 May: Lincheng incident W.J. Hawkings 1924 July: Russian School for Boys Project Begins T.C. Britton, H. Holgate Death of Sun Yat-sen 1925 A.R. Hager Chiang Kai-shek succeeds Sun Yat-sen as leader of Guomindang 1926 N.F. Allman Jiang leads refounding of Republic of China 1927 L.M. Jee April.: Nanjing formally established as Chinese capital 1928 G.E. Marden 1929 Carlos Bos 1930 George Fitch Aug. 22: Hankow Flood; Sept. 18: Japanese invade Mukden, Manchuria; 1931 Aug.: Dr. New's Orthopedic Hospital chosen as Main Object for 1931 Fong F. Sec Feb.: Japanese attack on Shanghai, short conflict 1932 E.F. Harris
  37. 37. The Members
  38. 38. Past Presidents ✦ 1919-1920 Dr. Julian Petit ✦ 1920 W.L. Johnstone ✦ 1920-1921 T.E. Doremus ✦ 1921-1922 H.C. Norman ✦ 1922-1923 H.B. Lane ✦ 1923-1924 W.J. Hawkings ✦ 1924 T.C. Britton ✦ 1924-1925 H. Holgate ✦ 1925-1926 A.R. Hager ✦ 1926-1927 N.F. Allman ✦ 1927-1928 L.M. Jee ✦ 1928-1929 G.E. Marden ✦ 1929-1930 Carlo Bos ✦ 1930-1931 George Fitch ✦ 1931-1932 Fong F. Sec ✦ 1932-1933 E.F. Harris ✦ 1933-1934 H. Sandor ✦ 1934-1935 Percy Chu ✦ 1935 G.W. Philleo ✦
  39. 39. Past Members Serial Name Surname Nickname Chinese Name Company Classification 1 T.B. Aitken Tom 2 G.H. Akerman Akey Arnhold & Company, Ltd. Machinery & Eqpt - Flour Milling Machinery Mfg. 3 E.D. Alexander Alex Walk-Over Shoe Store Add. Repr. Walk-Over Shoe Store 4 V.M. Allington Vic Millington Limited Printing & Publishing - Printing 5 N.F. Allman Judge U.S. Consulate add Rep. U.S. Consulate 6 H.L. Alt Shorty Asia Engineering Co. Sanitary Engineer 7 E.J. Anderson Andy Shanghai American School Education - Private Schools 8 P.M. Anderson Andy American Milk Products Corp. add. Rep Milk Distributing 9 Julean Arnold Julean U.S. Dept. Commerce Foreign Gvmt Svc - Commercial Attache 10 M.D. Arnold Mike National City Bank of N.Y. Finance - Exchange Banking 11 L.V. Arnoldov Lev The Shanghai Zaria Printing & Publishing - Newspaper Publishing 12 Cecil B. Arthur Art Liggett & Meyers Tobacco Co. Tobacco Products 13 G.F. Ashley Ash China Realty Company Architect 14 J.B. Atlung Botwid Aktieselskapet Borregaard Paper Industry - Paper Distr. Rep 15 A.J. Avramow Thos de la Rue & Co. 16 Charles A. Baboud Tony Baboud, Mary & Co. Beverages - Wine Distributing 17 J.J. Bahnson "J.J." Great Northern Telegraph Co. Communication Service - Telegraph & Cables 18 C.M. Bain Maitland & Co. Piece Goods 19 Charles J. Baker Charlie Bakerite Co. Federal, inc. Food Industry - Baking 20 E.O. Baker Ed Connell Brothers Co. Provisions 21 R.A. Baker Cookie Thos. Cook & Sons Transportation - Passenger Agencies 22 J.W. Baldwin Baldy Walk-Over Shoe Store Shoe Manufacturer 23 C.E. Barham Bah Kodak Ltd. Kodak 24 Dr. H. G. Barrie Howard Dr. Howard G. Barrie Medicine - Pulmonary Diseases 25 Willard W. Bartlett Bart Shanghai American School School Superintendant 26 E.W. Bauckham Office Appliance Co. Office Appliances 27 Claude S. Beatty Claude Sun Maid Raisin Growers Raisin Distributing 28 J. Beck-Friis Swedish Legation 29 Walter Benz Strick 30 Hans Berents Hans Hans Berents Engineering - Civil Engineering 31 F. Berge E.J. Muller, Norwegian Civil Engineers 32 E.A.L. Best Besty Chas. A. Schieren Co. Machinery & Equipmt - Leather Belting Mfg. 33 F.P. Bills Billsie Hudford Motors Automobile Retailing 34 M.A. Bishop Merlin National Committee YMCA Vocational Education 35 F.A. Blanche Tiny F.A. Blanche Leather Industry - Hides & Skins Marketing 36 M.S. Bloch Maurice M.S. Bloch & Co. Ltd. Lumber Industry - Barrel & Box Mfg. 37 S. Blom American Far Eastern Match Co. 38 L.M. Bocker Bock Associated Mission Treasurers Mission Treasurers 39 G.W. Boissevain Netherlands Consul General Foreign Gvmt Svc - Consular Service 40 W.H. Bolton Doc Florence Mfg. Co. Brush Manufacturing 41 Carlo Bos Carlo Chinese Maritime Customs Foreign Gvmt Svc - Customs Service 42 Fred A. Bowen Brad The Commercial and Credit Information Bureau Credit Information Bureau 43 G.G. Bradford General Motors (China) Frigidaire Div. 44 H.W. Breuer Melchers & Co. 45 R.W. Brewer Dick Ford Hire Service Tranportation - Taxicab Service 46 Ragnar Bringert Ekman Foreign Agencies Machinery & Eqpt - Bearing Dist. 47 T.C. Britton Tom Raven Trust Co. Ltd. Fire Insurance 48 H.W. Brooke Sunny Fu Chung Corporation Canned Goods ✦ Name, company, classification, nationality, years of membership ✦ Updated with all membership lists on hand; now contains 467 members ✦ Added Chinese names for those who have them (to help with future research)
  40. 40. Who’s Who in China ✦ Who’s Who in China: Biographies of Chinese Leaders. Shanghai: China Weekly Review, 1936. ✦ Contains biographies and photographs of over 1,500 prominent Chinese men and women ✦ Includes many members of Rotary Club of Shanghai
  41. 41. The Men of Shanghai ✦ Men of Shanghai and North China: A Standard Biographical Reference Work, second edition. Shanghai: The University Press, 1993. ✦ Contains “biographies and portraits of men of all races and creeds who, in various fields of endeavour, have contributed in some substantial measure to the material and cultural advancement of Shanghai and North China” (Preface). ✦ At least 38 of the people mentioned were members of the Rotary Club of Shanghai
  42. 42. Dr. C.T. Wang 王正廷 ✦ b. 1882, Zhejiang Province, Ningbo, Fenghua ✦ studied at Michigan University, 1907-1908 ✦ B.A. from Yale University, 1911 ✦ M.A. from Pei-Yang University in Tianjin, 1900 ✦ Founder and Managing Director, Hua Feng Cotton Mill Co. ✦ Assisted in the organization of the Provisional Government in 1912 ✦ Vice-Minister of Industry and Commerce of the first Republican Cabinet, 1913 ✦ Vice-President of the Senate, 1913, 1916-1917 ✦ Appointed General Secretary, National Committee of Chinese Y.M.C.A., 1914
  43. 43. Dr. C.T. Wang 王正廷 ✦ Appointed by Northern Government as one of China’s chief delegates to Paris Conference, 1919 ✦ Director General, Shantung Rehabilitation Committee, 1922 ✦ Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1922, 1925, 1926, 1928-1931 ✦ Director-General of Sino-Russian Conference, 1927 ✦ Member, Committee of Foreign Affairs of the Nationalist Government, 1928 ✦ Member, Central Executive Committee of Guomindang, 1936 ✦ Member, Central Political Council, 1936 ✦ Member of RCS, 1921-1922; Honorary Member 1923 onwards ✦ Director of Rotary International, 1944-1945 ✦ d. 1961
  44. 44. Dr. New Way Sung 牛惠生✦ b. June 14,1892 in Shanghai, son of New Shang- Chow and Nie Kwei Ching ✦ B.A. from St.John’s University in Shanghai ✦ M.D., Harvard University ✦ Married Zee Yuh-Tsung in Shanghai on Feb. 23 , 1924 ✦ they had one child: Kang Ming New ✦ Orthopedic Surgeon ✦ Professor of Orthopedic Surgery: ✦ Peking Union Medical College, 1918-1920 ✦ St. John’s University Medical School, 1920 ✦ Women’s Medical College, 1924
  45. 45. ✦ Superintendent and Chief Orthopedic Surgeon, Orthopedic Hospital of Shanghai, 1928 ✦ Surgeon General to the Army of the National Government of China, 1928-30 ✦ Fellow, American Medical Association, 1936 ✦ Fellow, American College of Surgeons, 1936 ✦ President, Chinese Medical Association, 1936 ✦ Chairman Board of Directors, Medhurst College, 1936 ✦ President, National Medical Association of China, 1936 ✦ President, Shanghai Medical Society, 1936 ✦ Member of RCS starting 1923 Dr. New Way Sung 牛惠生
  46. 46. Fong Foo Sec 鄺富灼 ✦ 19 b. 1869 in Toishan, Guangdong in a farming village; the son of a poor farmer ✦ age 13 went to America; worked and studied there for 24 yrs Bachelor of Letters, Univ. of California M.A. and M.E. in English Education from Columbia University joined the Salvation Army in California, but resigned after 8 yrs to finish college 06: returned to China to teach English in government colleges in Guangdong ✦ took the government exams, and was awarded a Chinshih degree (Doctor of Literature) ✦ deceased Oct. 10, 1938
  47. 47. Fong Foo Sec 鄺富灼 ✦ One of the leading editors and writers in China; Chief English editor of Commercial Press (largest book publishing company in Shanghai) for more than 20 yrs ✦ Member, Executive Committee of the China Christian Educational Association Member, Management Committee, Institution for Chinese Blind Chairman, National Committee of YMCA for 12 yrs Member, Board of Directors, Pan-Pacific Association Member, Board of Directors, Chinese Mission to Lepers First Vice-Chairman, National Child Welfare Association Member, Executive Committee, Church of Christ in China
  48. 48. Fong Foo Sec 鄺富灼 ✦ 1922 became a member of RCS; represented RCS at LA delegation that year ✦ President of RCS, 1931-32 ✦ Member of Resolutions Committee of RCS, 1932-33 ✦ Director of Rotary International, 1933-34 ✦ Governor of 81st District, 1936-37 effective October after Dr. C.T. Wang resigned (to move to Washington, D.C. in order to serve as China’s ambassador to the U.S.) ✦ Governor of 96th, 97th, 98th Districts, 1937-38 ✦ Governor of 97th, 98th Districts, 1938-39 Fong meet Paul Harris
  49. 49. Percy Chu 朱博泉 ✦ b. Oct. 2, 1898 in Hangzhou ✦ B.A. from University of Shanghai, 1919 continued his studies in Economics and Business Administration at the New York University and Columbia University ✦ gained practical experience in banking by working in a leading American financial house in New York City ✦ Returned to China in 1921, and was appointed Sub- Manager at the head office in Shanghai of the Zhejiang Industrial Bank, Ltd., where he was also in charge of the Exchange Department
  50. 50. ✦ Liquidator of the Russo-Asiatic Bank, 1926-1929 ✦ Appointed Associate General Liquidator by the National Government, 1928 ✦ Chief Auditor and later General Manager of the Central Bank of China, 1928-1932 Manager of the Joint Reserve Board, March1932 ✦ Established the first clearing house in China, January 1933 ✦ Director of School of Commerce, St. John’s University ✦ President of Chinese Bankers’ Association ✦ Honorary Treasurer of RCS since 1927-1933 ✦ President of RCS, 1934-1935 ✦ Director of RCS, 1935-1936 ✦ Deceased March 19, 2001 Percy Chu 朱博泉
  51. 51. Major Projects
  52. 52. Institution for Chinese Blind ✦ 4 Edinburgh Road, at the corner of Brenan Road (now Jiangsu and Changning) ✦ Founded by Rev. George B. Fryer; his son by the same name was a member of RCS ✦ By 1924, there were 45 boys there, ages 3-21 ✦ Manufactured hand-made products ✦ Engaged in athletic activities ✦ Excellent singers
  53. 53. Institution for Chinese Blind ✦ The RCS built a 40 x 20 ft room and kitchen for the institution, and visited often ✦ 1922: party at Hardoon’s Gardens ✦ 1924: trip through Shanghai the boys learned about the points of interest in Shanghai with their fingers, most likely learning things that even the RCS members didn’t know The boys at ICB demonstrate their athletic skills.
  54. 54. Institution for Chinese Blind ✦ Trachoma, a preventable contagious disease that leads to blindness, was a serious problem in China in the 1920’s. The chief cause was a lack of sanitation. ✦ Besides helping the Institution for Chinese Blind, the RCS also hoped to contribute to reducing the prevalence of trachoma by providing education and treatment The boys at ICB demonstrate their athletic skills.
  55. 55. Shanghai American School Scholarships ✦ The Shanghai American School was built to provide education for the children of Americans working in the Orient. ✦ Starting in 1922, RCS offered a scholarship of $500 to the most deserving student in the graduate class. ✦ class standing throughout high school ✦ extra-curricular involvement ✦ performance on two intelligence tests ✦ vote by the senior class ✦ vote by teachers ✦ Selection criterion emphasized service to the school community
  56. 56. Shanghai American School Scholarships ✦ In the first year, the Bursary Committee of RCS was so impressed by the calibre of the candidates that they voted to continue the scholarship program ✦ 1925: the RCS decided to deliver the award through Rotary rather than through SAS ✦ recipient honoured at a luncheon or dinner hosted by the Rotary Club closest to the recipient’s college town ✦ student acquainted with businessmen and professionals in their college town; RCS acquainted with other Rotary Clubs
  57. 57. Shanghai American School Scholarships ✦ Scholarship Recipients Include: ✦ 1922 Herbert O. Waters ✦ 1923 William W. Lockwood, Jr. & Alex S. Moffett ✦ 1924 Charles C. Squires ✦ 1925 Robert Paul Wright ✦ 1926 Henry Gilbert
  58. 58. Civilian Refugee Aid
  59. 59. Civilian Refugee Aid ✦ Funded ✦ local expert medical and relief organizations using Club reserves ✦ Strengthened the Charity Committee ✦ Created a special Relief Fund Committee ✦ Financed emergency hospital ✦ Supported maternity hospital ✦ Built, equipped, and staffed a mobile clinic and dispensary Built and maintained camp units, providing shelter, sleeping platforms, and food for thousands Special treats and gifts for 2,700 refugee children at Christmas
  60. 60. The Rotary Refugee Relief Fund ✦ In 1937, RCS itself raised over $10,000 ✦ An additional $40,000 (Chinese currency) was received from Rotary Clubs worldwide ✦ Funds were disbursed among various organizations that provided food, shelter, blankets, and winter clothes for refugees ✦ 50% of the overseas funding went to areas outside Shanghai, including Nanchang, Hangchow, Wusih, Wuhu, Nanking, Hankow, and Changsha
  61. 61. ✦ RCS Member Alfred Morley: ✦ “There has been much searching of hearts on the causes of this catastrophe, and in our Club’s international membership there has been some difficulty in avoiding the delicate political complex. We gave two full meetings to a discussion of the pros and cons of politics in Rotary and concluded that nothing would be gained and possibly much would be lost if Rotary meddled therein. So politics have been vetoed, and it is to the work of amelioration that we have unitedly bent our energies.” No Time for Politics
  62. 62. Christmas Toy Drives ✦ Annual toy drive, early 1920’s through 1941 ✦ RCS prepared and delivered gifts to orphanages and other institutions that helped underprivileged children in Shanghai ✦ collected and repaired old toys ✦ provided necessities, e.g. toothbrushes, soap, and towels ✦ One year, U.S. “Hark” Harkson also donated one ice cream bar for each child
  63. 63. Christmas Toy Drives ✦ The toy drives were a hallmark of teamwork. ✦ advertising and publicity for toy donations ✦ U.S. “Hark” Harkson’s “toy hospital” ✦ E.W. “Dick” Brewer’s Ford Hire Services ✦ T.J. Holt’s Nanking Theatre ✦ The RCS also worked with local schools and department stores to increase donations of old toys
  64. 64. Christmas Toy Drives ✦ 1931: 1500 children visited, and $1083 was distributed among 8 different institutions ✦ 1933: 7000 children were visited ✦ 1939: 6000 toys distributed among 59 institutions, plus $1,830 distributed among various institutions ✦ The institutions were very grateful to the RCS. Some invited the RCS to the children’s Christmas play, and a letter from the Nantao Christian Institute read, “Your gifts are not only making them happy, but are also helping in a very real way to raise the whole health standard of our city.”
  65. 65. Russian School for Boys✦ 1924: large influx of Russian refugees in Shanghai ✦ Walter “Rex” King appealed to the RCS in the July 17, 1924 edition of The Pagoda: something must be done about the Russian children on the streets: ✦ “We dare not refuse this charge to help these little outcasts in a strange land through no fault of their own.” ✦ RCS acted right away, and a boarding school was set up on Rue Chapsal to look after as many children as could be accommodated.
  66. 66. Russian School for Boys ✦ By 1925, there were 69 students, and great need for additional space and funding ✦ RCS planned to build a permanent home for the children in the French Concession ✦ $17,760 raised at a dinner, dance, and raffle at the Majestic ✦ $32,814 raised in a Shanghai beauty contest ✦ French Municipal Authorities leased land for the school in perpetuity for $1.00 per annum ✦ RCS member Hans Berents, civil engineer, supervised the building of the school free of charge
  67. 67. Russian School for Boys✦ The address of the new school was 13 Route Doumer (now Donghu Road) ✦ Walter “Rex” King the first President of the Board of Trustees (replaced by Sam Wolfe when King left for England); E.S. “Telly” Thellefsen the Secretary; Hans Berents also a Trustee ✦ In 1932, there were 148 pupils, including 70 boarders ✦ RCS member F.C. “Scout” Millington began sketching caricatures of local Rotarians in 1932; the originals were later auctioned and proceeds sent to the Russian school
  68. 68. Dr. New’s Orthopedic Hospital✦ Located on Siccawei Road (now Xujiahui) ✦ In 1930, the RCS promised its Chinese members that its Main Object for 1931 would be a Chinese charity of their choice ✦ August 1931: Chinese members chose Dr. New’s Orthopedic Hospital ✦ However, projects postponed to Spring, 1932 due to the pressing concern of the Hankow Flood Relief in August Further delayed by Sino-Japanese conditions in early 1932
  69. 69. Dr. New’s Orthopedic Hospital ✦ Nonetheless, the Club visited the hospital annually, and raised $582 for the hospital in November 1931. (They had also raised $550 in 1930.) ✦ After Dr. New’s death, the hospital was transferred to Hangzhou and became part of the Church Missionary Hospital
  70. 70. Other Projects ✦ Total amount raised for various causes from April 1931 to March 1932: $5,600, including: ✦ $1,305 for Hankow Flood Relief (in 10 minutes!) ✦ $310 for the Poseidon Fund ✦ $2,100 for War Relief ✦ Picnics with underprivileged children (1935-1936) ✦ Both the children and RCS members participated in the races and games, some of the latter “showing an unsuspected turn of speed in the egg-and-spoon race” ✦ Essay Contest (1936) ✦ Beggars’ Camp (Winter 1940)
  71. 71. Unsuccessful Attempts ✦ The Big Brother Movement (1920) ✦ Educational Assistance to Portuguese School Boys (1925) ✦ Treatment for Trachoma (1925) ✦ Shanghai City Sanitation (June 1928 - July 1939)
  72. 72. Other Proposed Projects✦ Renumber Shanghai Streets and Buildings (1920) ✦ Create Civic League (1921) ✦ Improve the labour conditions in China mills (1922) ✦ Raise money for a natural history museum, art gallery, and public reference library for Shanghai (1922) ✦ Bring the International Rotary Convention of 1928 to Shanghai
  73. 73. Areas for Future Research
  74. 74. Sources ✦ The Shanghai Municipal Archives ✦ The Shanghai Library, Xujiahui Cangshulou Branch ✦ The Research Institute of the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences (with permission only) ✦ The Rotary Clubs that RCS members visited ✦ The institutions and organizations that RCS worked with ✦ Track down more recent members or their descendants?
  75. 75. To Do ✦ Old street names, buildings ✦ Prominent RCS members (and SAS scholarship winners, perhaps) ✦ Issues/controversies, and their resolutions ✦ Other membership lists ✦ The gaps in RCS’s historical meeting places ✦ References to the RCS and its activities in the Shanghai press ✦ Find Gordon Park
  76. 76. Find Gordon Park

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