Building Intranet Assignment 2009 03 14 roshan basnet (1)
IT 14 BUILD AN INTRANETIT 14-I1. Explain about Client/Server Model.Ans: Client/server model describes the relationship between two computer in which oneclient, makes a service request fromwhereas the server fulfills the request.In a network, the client/server model provides a convenient way to interconnect programsthat are distributed efficiently across different locations.For example, checking bank account from your computer, a client program in yourcomputer forwards your request to a server program at the bank. That program may inturn forward the request to its own client program that sends a request to a databaseserverat another bank computer to retrieve your account balance which in turn serves it back tothe client in your personal computer, which displays the information for you.Advantage:Greater ease of maintenance.All the data is stored on the servers, so everything can be centrally controlled.Since data storage is centralized, updates to that data are far easier to administer.It functions with multiple different clients of different capabilities.2. What is the difference between two-tier and three-tier architecture of Intranetbased on functionality.Two-tierarchitecture Three-tierarchitectureIn Two-Tier Architecture has just twolayers1. GUI/ interface / presentation layer2. Database layer (where we store/retrieveour data)Basically this architecture is followed inclient/serverapplications where database andapplication resides in thesame machine or database may in othermachine connectedThrough network.Three-Tire Architecture:In three tier architecture has three layers:1. Presentation Layer2. Business Layer/ Mid Layer3. Database Layer.Presentation Layer: GUI/Interface, where auser view/enters the data.Business Layer: where business login andrules are executed& can accommodate hundreds of users.
IT 14 BUILD AN INTRANETIT 14-IDatabase Layer: Data access layer takescare of connection between the applicationand storing the data as a warehouseapplication.Two-tier architecture is a client/serverarchitecture ,where a request to do some task is sent tothe server & the server responds byperforming the task.three-tier or a multi tier architecture has client,server and database. Where the clientrequest is sent to the server and the serverin turn sends the request to the database.The database sends back theinformation/data required to the serverwhich inturn sends it to the client.Client server application. Client acts asFront Endand Server acts as Backend like databasesthree tierarchitecture is web based application.Eg: Yahoo, Hotmail3. What is intranet? Write down the advantages and disadvantages of intranet.Ans: An "intranet" is a private and internal local-network that uses the typical internet-protocols hierarchy to provide various services to its user. Like on the Internet, allmachines in the Intranet have an IP-address.Advantages:Intranets can help users to locate/view information faster and use applications.Intranets can serve as powerful tools for communication within an organizationwithin short time.Intranets are also being used as a platform for developing and deployingapplications to support business operationsUsers can view information and data via web-browser rather than maintainingphysical documents such as procedure manualsDisadvantages:Management fears loss of controlHidden or unknown complexity and costsUnauthorized accessAbuse of accessDenial of servicePacket sniffing
IT 14 BUILD AN INTRANETIT 14-I4. Explain about File server, Application server and database server.Ans: File Server: File server is a computer responsible for the central storage andmanagement of data files so that other computers on the same network can access thefiles. A file server allows users to share information over a network without having tophysically transfer files by diskette or some other external storage device. Any computercan be configured to be a host and act as a file server.Application server: An application server, in an n-tier software architecture whichserves an API (application programming interface) to expose business logic and businessprocesses for use by third-party applications.The term can refer to:1. the servicesthat a server makes available2. the computer hardwareon which the services run3. the software frameworkused to host the services (such as JBoss applicationserveror Oracle Application Server)Example : JAVA-- J2EE or Java EE 5 application server.MICROSOFT-- .NET FrameworkZEND--- PHPDatabase server. : A database server is a computer program that provides databaseservices to other computer programs or computers.Example: SQL, MySqldatabase server5. Define the Extranet. What is middleware?Ans: An extranet is a private network that uses Internet technology and the publictelecommunication system to securely share part of a businesss information or operationswith suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses. An extranet can beviewed as part of a companys intranet that is extended to users outside the company.An extranet requires security and privacy which includes firewall/digital certificates orsimilar means of user authentication, encryption of messages, and the use of virtualprivate networks (VPNs) that tunnel through the public network.
IT 14 BUILD AN INTRANETIT 14-IMiddleware acts as mediate between two separate and often already existing programs.It connects two or more software applications, allowing them to exchange data.It includes web servers, application servers, and similar tools that support applicationdevelopment and delivery6. What is primary and extended partition?Ans: The primary partitionis normally apartitions with an operating system,mostly inour case the C: partition.An extended partition is the space in a drive which can be divided in many logicaldrives, which makes it possible to have more than four virtual partitions7. What is distributed system in Client/Server Model?Ans: A distributed system in Client/Server Model consists of multiple computers thatcommunicate through a computer network to interact with each other in order to achievea common goal. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called adistributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing suchprograms.Advantages:Fault-Tolerant: Helps to recover from component failures without performingincorrect actions.Highly Available: It can restore operations, permitting it to resume providingservices even when some components have failed.Recoverable: Failed components can restart themselves and rejoin the system,after the cause of failure has been repaired.Consistent: The system can coordinate actions by multiple components often inthe presence of concurrency and failure. This underlies the ability of a distributedsystem to act like a non-distributed system.Scalable: It can operate correctly even as some aspect of the system is scaled to alarger size.Predictable Performance: The ability to provide desired responsiveness in a timelymanner.Secure: The system authenticates access to data and services.cleint middlewareservers
IT 14 BUILD AN INTRANETIT 14-I8. What does DHCP stands for, how does it work and when would it be used?Ans: DHCP means Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.DHCP is used for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a networkautomatically.DHCP should be used in Computers in a company which often changes locations within abuilding, and network configurations change.9. What is Windows 2003 Internet Information Services (IIS) and what functionsdoes it provide?Ans: Internet Information Services (IIS) - formerly called Internet InformationServer - is a set of Internet-based services for servers created by Microsoft for use withMicrosoft Windows.Function :Windows operating system registry for World Wide Web Publishing ServiceFTP Publishing ServiceSimple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) serviceNetwork News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) service10. What is the IPCONFIG command, and how can it be used to check networkconnectivity?Ans: ipconfig (internet protocol configuration) in Microsoft Windows is a consoleapplication that displays all current TCP/IP network configurations.Syntax: ipconfig/all