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C) Water And Waste


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C) Water And Waste

  1. 1. Water and Waste
  2. 2. Activity <ul><li>Using the liquid intake diaries you have kept for the last few days: </li></ul><ul><li>add up the total volume of liquid you consumed per day </li></ul><ul><li>- work out the average volume of liquid you consumed per day </li></ul><ul><li>-work out the class average vol. of liquid consumed per day. </li></ul><ul><li>-draw a bar graph of these results </li></ul>275 cm 3 250 cm 3 330 cm 3
  3. 3. The Need For Water <ul><li>Water is required for life to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a medium for chemical reactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow compounds and elements to dissolve. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide lubrication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep objects firm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To cool our body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How do we gain water? Drinking Eating Chemical Reactions
  5. 5. Water from chemical reactions - Metabolism is all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body. - Some of these chemical reactions produce water. Which one do we know already…? Aerobic respiration… Glucose + Oxygen Water + Energy + Carbon dioxide
  6. 6. How do we lose water? Faeces Sweat Breathing Urine Discuss
  7. 7. Water loss through breathing Breathe in and out Starting mass of tube: g Final mass of tube: g Mass of water lost in 2 min: g Mass of water lost in 24 hr: g Vol. of water lost in 24 hrs: cm 3 Iced water to cool tube so water will condense Experiment
  8. 8. Water Gained = Water Lost It is essential to keep a water balance in your tissues and blood stream or your cells would shrink or burst! Notes Water gain/ 24 hr Food/ drink: 2300 cm 3 Metabolic water: 300 cm 3 Total: ? cm 3 Water lost/ 24 hr Sweat: 1000cm 3 Breath: 400cm 3 Faeces: 100cm 3 Urine: ? cm 3 Total: ? cm 3
  9. 9. Kidney Functions ? ? Use the success guides to find the two essential functions of the kidneys and complete the diagram. Notes
  10. 10. ? What is urea ? Where does it come from? Why must it be removed from blood? Which organ removes it?
  11. 11. The Human Urinary System Aorta Left Kidney Ureter Bladder Urethra Right Kidney Renal vein Vena cava
  12. 12. The Human Urinary System Label and colour your copy of the human urinary system. Renal artery/aorta: red Renal vein/vena cava: blue Kidney/Ureters/ bladder: orange Use the text books for help! Notes
  13. 13. The Functions of the Urinary System Produce a table or spider diagram to describe the function of all the parts of the urinary system labelled on the diagram. Notes
  14. 14. Once inside the kidney the artery splits into many capillaries . Each capillary supplies blood to one of thousands of tiny nephrons.
  15. 15. Nephron Branch of renal artery Glomerulus Bowmans capsule Kidney tubule Blood capillaries Collecting Duct Notes Label your copy of the nephron.
  16. 16. The Glomerulus and Bowman's Capsule The blood entering the glomerulus is under pressure, forcing small soluble molecules through the capillary wall into the bowman's capsule. The small soluble molecules, urea, glucose, salts are called the glomerular filtrate.
  17. 17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 <ul><li>Add these numbers to your diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Success Guide (p44) to draw a flow diagram of what is happening at each numbered stage. </li></ul>Notes
  18. 18. Recap Questions Success Guide Page 45: Questions 1-7
  19. 19. Controlling Water Concentration - Changes in blood water concentration are detected by the _____. - The brain sends nerve impulses to the _____ gland , a pea sized organ at the base of the brain. - The pituitary gland releases more or less of a hormone called _________ hormone (ADH). - ADH controls how much _____ the cells of the kidney _______ reabsorb, regulating the volume of water in the bloodstream. Notes
  20. 20. Water content of the blood normal Water content of the blood HIGH Water content of the blood LOW Too much water drunk Too much salt or sweating Brain produces More ADH Urine output LOW Brain produces Less ADH Urine output HIGH High volume of water reabsorbed by kidney Low volume of water reabsorbed by kidney (small volume of Concentrated urine) (large volume of dilute urine)
  21. 21. Complete your copy of the effects of ADH on blood water content. (Use pencil if you are unsure) Notes
  22. 22. Activity <ul><li>In groups of no more than three research into: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of kidney disease </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney transplants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney dialysis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Make a presentation of your findings. The format is up to you e.g poster, leaflet, powerpoint etc.
  23. 23. Kidney Dialysis animation
  24. 24. Kidney Transplant Animation
  25. 25. Activity Rearrange the cards you have been given under the following headings: Artificial Kidney (Kidney Machine) Replacement Kidney (Kidney Transplant) Limits Limits Benefits Benefits
  26. 26. Check Test 1. Name 3 ways the body gains water. 1 Mark 2. Name all the ways the body loses water. 1 Mark 3. State the two main functions of the kidneys. 2 Marks
  27. 27. 4. Complete the labels for the diagram. a) b) c) d) 2 Marks a b c d
  28. 28. 5. Match the following statements: Structure Function Renal artery Ureter Renal vein Urethra Carries urine from kidney to bladder Transports unpurified blood to kidney Carries urine from bladder to external environment Transports purified blood away from kidney 2 Marks
  29. 29. 9. What happens to the level of ADH released by the pituitary gland when there is a low concentration of water in the blood. 1 Mark 6. How is urea transported to the kidneys? 1 Mark 7. Name three molecules small enough to pass from the glomerulus into the Bowmans capsule. 1 Mark 8. Name the useful products reabsorbed into the capillaries. 1 Mark