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(A) Investigating Cells


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(A) Investigating Cells

  1. 1. Typical Animal Cell Cytoplasm Nucleus Cell membrane
  2. 2. Amoeba <ul><li>Unicellular animal found in pools </li></ul><ul><li>and puddles. </li></ul><ul><li>-Nucleus contains all genetic info. </li></ul><ul><li>-Numerous ‘feet’ extensions (pseudopodia) which allow movement, and catch food. </li></ul>An amoeba on a wash cloth These little things are bacteria!
  3. 3. Typical Plant Cell Cytoplasm Nucleus Cell membrane Sap vacuole Cell Wall Chloroplast
  4. 4. Looking at Plant Cells Pond weed cells Plant leaf cells packed with chloroplasts
  5. 5. Cell Structure and Function Contains a green chemical called chlorophyll. This green chemical absorbs sunlight to carry out photosynthesis to make food Chloroplast Controls the water content of the plant cell Sap Vacuole Rigid firm coating around the plant cell. It helps to keep the cell shape Cell wall Controls substances that enter and exit the cell, e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide and food Membrane Jelly like fluid which is the site of chemical reactions in the cell Cytoplasm Control centre of the cell. Contains information which controls everything that goes on in the cell Nucleus Function Structure
  6. 6. Paramecium <ul><li>Unicellular animals found in fresh water pools </li></ul><ul><li>Feed on bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Covered in cilia which beat in a wave for movement </li></ul>Cell division Tiny hairs (cilia) Single-celled Organisms
  7. 7. Vorticella <ul><li>Bell shaped heads have tiny hairs </li></ul><ul><li>(cilia) which waft food towards </li></ul><ul><li>them. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cilia are also used for movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Each head is attached to a stalk which anchors to a surface. </li></ul><ul><li>-When disturbed it can contract the stalk for protection. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pleurococcus <ul><li>- Forms a powdery, green covering on the bark of trees </li></ul><ul><li>Very common single-celled algae </li></ul><ul><li>Can withstand drought and is able to get water directly from the air </li></ul><ul><li>divides rapidly in good, moist conditions and spreads quickly </li></ul>
  9. 9. Yeast - Unicellular fungus - Cell is dividing - Ferment sugars (used in brewing and bread making) These circles are formed when the cell divides. The new cell ‘ buds off’ and leaves a scar.
  10. 10. Human Cells Ciliated Epithelial Cells Line many tubes in body. Have hairs called cilia that move in waves. Muscle cells Long striped bundles of fibres. Contract to move parts of the body. Bronchial cells with a carpet of cilia. Cardiac muscle
  11. 11. Bone Cells Form rings of tough protein fibres. Secrete crystals of calcium phosphate to make hard skeleton. Blood Cells Cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. Red cells transport oxygen. White cells fight infection.
  12. 12. Sperm Cells Male sex cells. Nucleus fuses with female sex cell nucleus to pass on genetic instructions to next generation. Nerve Cells Form a network of connections to transmit rapid messages around the body
  13. 13. Plant Cells Epidermis Skin of the leaf. Colourless to allow light through. Waxy cuticle. Guard Cell Swell to close pores in leaf called stomata. Close stomata in dark or when losing too much water.
  14. 14. Mesophyll Cells Take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen during photosynthesis. Packed with chloroplasts.
  15. 15. Tube like structure containing xylem and phloem to transport water and sugars. Vein
  16. 16. Transports water & strengthens plant. Xylem Transports sugar. Phloem
  17. 17. Leaf Structure Guard cells Stomata Air space Lower epidermis Spongy mesophyll cells Palisade mesophyll cells Upper epidermis Xylem Phloem Vascular Bundle }