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4. Individual Differences


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4. Individual Differences

  1. 1. Intelligence Unit 3 > Individual Differences
  2. 2. Individual Differences <ul><li>Psychologists are also interested in why some people behave in ways, which you or I would not call ‘normal’. </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour that is not considered ‘normal’ in our society is called ‘atypical behaviour’. </li></ul><ul><li>This simply means it is different from the accepted norm. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Issues <ul><li>The psychology of individual differences is concerned with three key debates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get together into groups of three. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person in the group needs to take one of the debates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read the information on your debate and summarise the issues onto a handout. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the next lesson you will have to exchange handouts and explain your debate. </li></ul></ul>Free will and determinism Nature - Nurture Idiographic and nomothetic
  4. 4. Learning Content <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of intelligence, and the intelligence/IQ distinction; measurement of IQ; theoretical views of intelligence, including factor theories and information-processing approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature-nurture debate in intelligence: genetic relatedness and IQ, twins and adoption studies; effects of early deprivation and environmental enrichment; interactionist approaches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses of IQ testing: educational selection; recruitment in employment and military organisations; effect of cultural biases on validity/reliability of IQ tests. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Intelligence <ul><li>What is intelligence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can your group write a definition of intelligence? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The aggregate of the global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment.” (Wechsler, 1944) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Innate, general cognitive ability.” (Burt, 1955) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The effective all-round cognitive abilities to comprehend, to grasp relations and reason.” (Vernon 1969) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Intelligent activity consists in grasping the essentials in a situation and responding appropriately to them.” (Heim, 1970) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Intelligence <ul><li>Intelligence is very difficult to define. </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant by ability and capacity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between these? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Theories of Intelligence <ul><li>Factor theory approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The psychometric approach by Spearman (1904) refers to the measurement of differences in individual behaviours and abilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His testing of school children led him to focus on the ability correlations which appeared between different subjects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some of the children had performed well in all the tests while others had not performed so well in any of the tests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This led him to the conclusion that how a child performs on a test will be dependent upon their: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>general ability level (‘g’ or general intelligence) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specific abilities (‘s’) that the child possesses. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Factor Theory <ul><ul><li>How did Thurstone (1938) challenge Spearman’s work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List Thurstone’s seven separate factors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How have Guilford & Vernon modified the factor theory? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although following a similar path to Spearman, Cattell (1987) proposed an important modification to the ‘g’ factor by stating that it could be sub-divided into two important components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fluid intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crystallised intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the difference between fluid & crystallised intelligence? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Factor Theory <ul><ul><li>How can factor theories be evaluated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring not defining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inherited assumed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Theories of Intelligence <ul><li>Cognitive/Information Processing Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In contrast to the previous approaches Gardner (1985) put forward the idea that people have a number or multiple intelligences which are unrelated . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gardner identified seven distinct intelligences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outline these intelligences. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In what ways do Garnder’s intelligences differ from factor analysis? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where do your strengths lie? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you evaluate Gardner’s theory? </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Cognitive/Information Processing <ul><li>The theory put forward by Sternberg (1985) is known as a triarchic theory as he addresses three aspects of intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual: How intelligence relates to the external world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Componential: The cognitive processes that take place within the individual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential: Actual situations that require intelligence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make notes on each of these aspects. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can Sternberg’s theories be evaluated? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Measuring Intelligence <ul><li>As psychologists investigated different areas of human behaviour, they began to look for ways in which the science could be used to help people. </li></ul><ul><li>The first modern intelligence test was devised by Alfred Binet in 1905 at the request of the French education authorities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1881, the French Government introduced compulsory schooling for all children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This meant that slow learners, who had originally been kept at home, now had to attend school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binet devised a test which measured ability and considered that age of the child being tested. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He devised the concept of mental age which is the individual's mental development in relation to others. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Measuring Intelligence <ul><ul><li>Therefore, the six-year-old who can satisfactorily complete the work of a seven-year-old is said to have a mental age of seven. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likewise, a child of eight who can only complete the work of a six-year-old is said to have the mental age of six. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future researchers developed this work with Stern producing the idea of an intelligence quotient (IQ) in 1912. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The IQ was calculated as follows: </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Measuring Intelligence <ul><ul><li>What value would you expect to get if the mental age & the chronological age are the same? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How was the test modified in 1986? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IQ testing is no longer focused on identifying low ability children, but is used in many aspects of life. </li></ul></ul>IQ = Mental Age x 100 Chronological Age
  15. 16. Measuring Intelligence <ul><li>What is normal distribution? </li></ul>
  16. 17. Measuring Intelligence <ul><li>What is standard deviation? </li></ul>68.26% 95.44% 99.74% One standard deviation of the mean
  17. 18. Measuring Intelligence <ul><li>Complete the (b) & (e) sections of the activity on page 301. </li></ul><ul><li>What must you do with an intelligence test before you can use it to measure IQ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the IQ score telling you therefore? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is meant be the following terms in relation to intelligence testing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardised </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Measuring Intelligence <ul><li>Outline the criticisms which have been made of intelligence testing. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Nature v Nurture <ul><li>How does the nature/nurture debate apply to intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is meant by MZ and DZ. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the intelligence studies performed using twins. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the results show? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can this work be evaluated? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How have adoption studies been used to study genetic factors? </li></ul>
  20. 21. Nature v Nurture <ul><li>What environmental factors have been studied by Harrell et al and Benton & Cook? </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the study conducted by Zajonc & Marcus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What did they discover? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are Sameroff & Seifer’s ten environmental factor effecting IQ scores? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do these factors effect IQ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What other studies support the views of Sameroff & Seifer? </li></ul>
  21. 22. Nature v Nurture <ul><li>Rosenthal and Jacobson carried out a classic study of the effect of teacher expectations of success on IQ. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline their procedure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What were the results? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Uses of IQ testing <ul><li>Read the information on pages 307 to 309. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarise the information in your notes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You could do these as a table, e.g. </li></ul></ul>Explanation Example
  23. 24. Cultural, political & environmental factors <ul><li>What is ethnocentrism? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this impact IQ testing? </li></ul><ul><li>What role has racism played in psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the case of Yerkes (1971). </li></ul><ul><li>What impact did Yerkes ‘findings’ have on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the military? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minority ethnic groups in general? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immigration into the US? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What was lacking in Yerkes’ methodology? </li></ul>