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MAJOR TYPES
OF ECOSYSTEM
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Freshwater Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems
Desert
Grassland
Forests
TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM
Lake
Reservoir
Pond
Stream
River
Inland Wetland
FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM
Estuary and Coastal
Wet Lands
MARINE ECOSYSTEM
TERRESTRIAL
ECOSYSTEM
3 MAJOR TYPES OF
TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM
OR BIOME
- More than one-third of the
earth’s land surface is covered with
deserts where average precipitation is
low (250mm or 10 ...
Tropical Desert
Temperate (Mid-latitude)
Desert
Cold (High-latitude) Desert
THREE TYPES:
These are found in southern Sahara and the
Namib in Africa , where day time temperatures
are hot year-round and nights ar...
TROPICAL DESERT
TEMPERATE(MID-LATITUDE)
DESERTS
These deserts, like the
Sechura desert in South
America and the Mojave in
Southern Califo...
TEMPERATE (MID-LATITUDE) DESERT
Example is the Gobi in Mongolia,
which has cold winters and hot
summer.
COLD (HIGH-LATITUDE) DESERTS
COLD (HIGH-LATITUDE) DESERT
 These can be found in flat or slightly rolling terrains
that cannot support large stand of trees.
 They abound in regio...
 These are found in areas with high average
temperatures, very long dry seasons (about half of the
year) and abundant rai...
 Recent estimate show that there is an
approximate area of more than 6.5
Million hectares of grasslands. In the
Philippin...
TROPICAL GRASSLANDS
(SAVANNA)
 Are mostly dominated by cogon especially in
newly opened areas due to logging, kaingin
and mining.
 This grass are very...
 These are located in areas just below the arctic region of
perpetual ice and snow.
 These areas are cold and they exper...
 Dotted with shallow lakes , marshes , bogs and ponds.
 The permafrost below prevents this surface water from
seeping in...
These are located in the large interior areas of the continents.
They have moderate average temperature and a more even
...
TEMPERATE (MID-LATITUDE)
GRASSLANDS
These are located in areas just below the
arctic region of perpetual ice and snow.
These areas are cold and they experie...
ARCTIC TUNDRA
POLAR (HIGH LATITUDE
GRASSLAND
Water that is permanently frozen year – round
in thick layers of soil.
During the brief summer when sunlight
persists al...
Undisturbed areas with an average
precipitation of 750 millimeters (30
inches) or more a year tend to be covered
with for...
These are found in areas with moderate average
temperatures that change significantly during four
distinct seasons.
They...
TEMPERATE (MID-LATITUDE)
DECIDUOUS FOREST
Also called boreal forests or taiga
These are found in regions with a subarctic climate where
winter are long and dry wi...
COLD (HIGH LATITUDE) NORTHERN
CONIFEROUS FOREST
THREE MAJOR
RAINFOREST REGION
These are found near the equator in Central and South
America, Africa, Southeast Asia and some islands in the
Caribbean S...
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
The American Rain Forest region
The Malaysian Rain Forest
Region
The African Rain Forest Region
3 MAJOR RAINFORESTS REG...
Situated on the South American Continent
It is subdivided into three rainforest subregions
a. Amazonia – the biggest rai...
THE AMERICAN RAINFOREST
REGION
The region is often called the South East
Asian forest Region
Coincides almost entirely with the former
Malaysian archip...
THE MALESIAN RAINFOREST
REGION
This consist of four regions, all partly destroyed,
along the Atlantic coast between approximately 10˚ N
and 5˚ S, and th...
THE AFRICAN RAINFOREST
REGION
The tropical rainforest is considered as
the most diverse ecosystem
In the Philippines, forest are classified
according ...
Mangrove Forests
Beach Forests
Molave Forests
Dipterocarp Forest
Pine Forests
Mossy Forests
MAJOR PHILIPPINE FOREST
Literally a “Forest of the sea’
It is strikingly well developed in mudflats near river deltas from
tributaries that empt...
MANGROVE FORESTS
Beach forests occupy sandy shores or flat sandy gravely
coastal areas above high tide limits.
This type of forest is nea...
On sandy flood plains near riverbeds, pure
stands of Casuarina equisetifolia (agoho) may
develop.
In the vicinity of ric...
BEACH FORESTS
 The molave forests is named because of the free dominance of
molave (vitex parviflora) in the area
 It is also sometime...
MOLAVE FORESTS
In the Philippines the dipterocarp forest is by far the most important type for
timber production both for local and expo...
DIPTEROCARP FOREST
A. Lauan or Philippine Mahogany Subtypes
 The most succesful commercial forest in the Philippines
 It is confined to reg...
LAUAN OR PHILIPPINE
MAHOGANY SUBTYPES
 In terms of altitude and topographic conditions, the
lauan-apitong subtype is nearly similar to the lauan
subtype differ...
LAUAN-APITONG SUBTYPE
Is restricted to regions where there is
short or no dry season just like the
lauan subtype.
It only differs from the lau...
HAGAKHAK-LAUAN SUBTYPE
 The most extensively development on low coastal hills whwre
the underlying rock is volcanic and where the dry season is
...
YAKAL-LAUAN SUBTYPE
 The tangile-oak subtype extends from the upper (400
elevation) of the luan and lauan-apitong subtypes to the the
lower l...
TANGILE-OAK SUBTYPE
 Considered as a dis climax or anthropogenic subclimax
formation.
 It is believed that areas now extensively occupied by...
PINE FOREST
 Derives its name from the abundant growth of mosses and
liverworts on trunks of trees present in these areas.
 In the ,...
MOSSY FOREST
 A freshwater ecosystem whose physical nature is dominated by
the presence of water and supports a distinct set of produc...
FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM
MAJOR FRESHWATER
ECOSYSTEM
 The lake is a standing freshwater
ecosystem.
 It is formed when water is collected from
direct precipitation, surface r...
LAKES
FOUR DISTINCT ZONES
OF LAKES
Is found in the shallow, nutrients rich
water near the shore.
It contains rooted aquatic plants and
abundant aquatic lif...
LITTORAL ZONE
Is the open water surface layer that
receives sufficient sunlight for
photosynthesis and contain floating
phytoplankton's...
LIMNETIC ZONE
Zone of deep water , which is not
penetrated by sunlight.
Inhabited most by fish that are adapted
to its cooler, darker ...
PROFUNDAL ZONE
Supports the bloodworms and other
decomposers which live on dead
plants debris, animal remains and
animal wastes that flo...
BENTHIC ZONE
DISTINCT LAYERS OF
LAKES
The upper with warm water exposed to
the atmosphere with high levels of
dissolved oxygen.
THE EPILIMNION
THE EPILIMNION
Is the lower layer of colder, denser
water usually with a lower
concentration of dissolved oxygen.
THERMOCLINE
 The main...
THE HYPOLIMNION
THE MAJOR TYPES
OF LAKES
A lake with a low supply of plant
nutrients
Usually deep and has crystal clear
water, cool to cold temperatures and
rela...
OLIGOTROPHIC LAKE
 A lake with a large or excessive supply of
plant nutrients.
 Usually shallow and has cloudy, warm
water, large populati...
EUTROPHIC LAKE
 Which lakes receive inputs of plant
nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates)
from the surrounding land basin as a resu...
EUTROPHICATION
 the lakes that fall somewhere between
these two extremes of nutrient enrichment
MESOTHROPIC LAKES
 Are fairly large and deep, human-created
bodies of standing fresh water.
Often build behind dams
They are build primar...
RESERVOIR
Are small, shallow, usually human-created
impoundments of fresh watering
Used primarily for watering livestock, raising
...
POND
Stream – are relatively small and flowing bodies
of fresh water that empty into rivers.
STREAM AND RIVERS
Rivers – are wider and deeper than streams
and empty into oceans.
STEAM AND RIVERS
The entire land area that delivers the water,
sediment and dissolved substances via streams
to a major river and ultimate...
A. The Shallow Water Zone or Rapid Zone
- characterized by shallow water where the velocity of current is
enough to keep t...
B. Deeper Water or Pool Zone
- has a reduced velocity of current silt and other loose
materials tend to settle in the bott...
Land that remains flooded with fresh water all or part of the year
and located away from coastal areas.
It include bogs,...
Examples of inland wetlands in the Philippines are:
a. Liguasan Marsh (Cotabato)
INLAND WETLAND
b. Agusan Marsh (Agusan del Sur)
INLAND WETLAND
c. Candaba Swamps (Pampanga)
INLAND WETLAND
MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
Distinguished from the freshwater ecosystem because of its higher
level of salinity usually at 35 parts per thousand
Exa...
Refers to the concentration of dissolved salts like sodium chloride
in water
It is a limiting factor that affects the di...
The relatively warm, nutrients – rich, shallow water zone
that extends from the high tide mark on land to the edge
of a s...
Marine zone contains about 90% of the total surface
area of the ocean but only about 10% contains plant and
animal life
...
1. EUPHOTIC ZONE
- the surface layer through which enough sunlight can penetrate
for photosynthesis.
- it supports scatter...
2. BATHYAL ZONE
- a colder, darker layer where there is some penetration by
sunlight but not enough to support photosynthe...
3. ABYSSAL ZONE
- a layer of deep, pitch-dark, usually near freezing water and
the ocean bottom.
- about 9 % of the ocean’...
OPEN SEA IS DIVIDED INTO THREE
VERTICAL ZONES OR STRATA
ESTUARY AND
COASTAL WETLAND
 are found along coastlines where fresh water from
rivers mixes with salty oceanic waters.
The saltiness of water change...
ESTUARIES
Usually consist of a mix of bays, lagoons, salt marshes
where grasses are dominant vegetation
In tropical areas, we find...
COASTAL WETLANDS
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Major types of ecosystem
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Major types of ecosystem

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Major types of ecosystem

  1. 1. MAJOR TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM Terrestrial Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems Marine Ecosystems
  2. 2. Desert Grassland Forests TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM
  3. 3. Lake Reservoir Pond Stream River Inland Wetland FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM
  4. 4. Estuary and Coastal Wet Lands MARINE ECOSYSTEM
  5. 5. TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM
  6. 6. 3 MAJOR TYPES OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM OR BIOME
  7. 7. - More than one-third of the earth’s land surface is covered with deserts where average precipitation is low (250mm or 10 inches per year) and evaporation rates are high. DESERT
  8. 8. Tropical Desert Temperate (Mid-latitude) Desert Cold (High-latitude) Desert THREE TYPES:
  9. 9. These are found in southern Sahara and the Namib in Africa , where day time temperatures are hot year-round and nights are cold because of lack of sufficient vegetation to regulate extreme temperature. Dunes and consist These are among the driest places on earth. It make up about one-fifth of the world’s total desert area and consist primarily of barren sand dunes underlain by rocks. The vegetation includes the widely scattered thorny bushes and shrubs and succulents such as cacti and small fast growing wild flowers that bloom in spring or after a rare, brief drenching rain. TROPICAL DESERTS (SAHARA)
  10. 10. TROPICAL DESERT
  11. 11. TEMPERATE(MID-LATITUDE) DESERTS These deserts, like the Sechura desert in South America and the Mojave in Southern California, experience daily temperatures that are hot in summer and cold in winter.
  12. 12. TEMPERATE (MID-LATITUDE) DESERT
  13. 13. Example is the Gobi in Mongolia, which has cold winters and hot summer. COLD (HIGH-LATITUDE) DESERTS
  14. 14. COLD (HIGH-LATITUDE) DESERT
  15. 15.  These can be found in flat or slightly rolling terrains that cannot support large stand of trees.  They abound in regions where average precipitation is average that ranges from 250 to 750 mm (10-30 inches) a year  This amount of precipitation is sufficient to grow grass yet rainfall occurrences are so erratic that periodic droughts and grassfires prevent the growth of large stands of trees.  The grassland soils are thin and cannot store enough water because of intense sunlight, high temperature and evaporation rate. GRASSLANDS
  16. 16.  These are found in areas with high average temperatures, very long dry seasons (about half of the year) and abundant rains the rest of the year.  They are located in a wide belt on either side of the equator between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.  Some of this biomes such as Africa’s Serengeti Plain, consist of open plains covered with low or high grasses; others contain grasses in varying number of widely spaced, small, mostly deciduous trees and shrubs. TROPICAL GRASSLANDS (SAVANNA)
  17. 17.  Recent estimate show that there is an approximate area of more than 6.5 Million hectares of grasslands. In the Philippines, grassland areas are very extensive and expansive.  In this Philippines Grassland areas are very extensive and expensive. TROPICAL GRASSLANDS (SAVANNA)
  18. 18. TROPICAL GRASSLANDS (SAVANNA)
  19. 19.  Are mostly dominated by cogon especially in newly opened areas due to logging, kaingin and mining.  This grass are very prolific because its seeds are carried by the wind.  It persist in an area because of its network of underground rhizomes.  Samsong grass (Themeda Triandra)  Talahib (Saccharum spontaneum)  Rund (Miscanthus sinensis) EXTENSIVE GRASSLAND
  20. 20.  These are located in areas just below the arctic region of perpetual ice and snow.  These areas are cold and they experience icy gale-like winds, fairly low average annual precipitation during brief summer periods and long winter darkness.  The wet Arctic tundra is covered with a thick spongy mat of low-growing plants such lichens , sedges (grass-like plants often growing in dense tufts in marshy places)mosses and low woody shrubs.  PERMAFROST- water that is permanently frozen year- round in thick layers of soil.  During the brief summer when sunlight persists almost round – the –clock ,the surface layer of soil thaws and the biome is turned into soggy landscape •C.POLAR (HIGH LATITUDE)GRASSLANDS OR ARCTIC TUNDRAS
  21. 21.  Dotted with shallow lakes , marshes , bogs and ponds.  The permafrost below prevents this surface water from seeping into the lower soil.  The slow rate of decomposition , shallow soil and slow growth rate of plants make the arctic tundra perhaps the earth’s most fragile biome.  Vegetation destroyed by human activities can take decades to grow back.  3.FORESTS  Undisturbed areas with an average precipitation of 750 millimeters(30 inches) or more a year tend to be covered with forests, con
  22. 22. These are located in the large interior areas of the continents. They have moderate average temperature and a more even distribution of precipitation throughout the year than tropical grasslands. These areas have cold and winters with occasional snow covering the ground, hot and dry summers and winds blowing almost throughout the year. EXAMPLE: The tall-grass and low grass prairies of the Midwestern and Western Unite States and Canada. The pampas of South America The veld of the Southern Africa The steppes that stretch from Central Europe into Siberia. TEMPERATURE(MID-LATITUDE) GRASSLANDS
  23. 23. TEMPERATE (MID-LATITUDE) GRASSLANDS
  24. 24. These are located in areas just below the arctic region of perpetual ice and snow. These areas are cold and they experience icy gale-like winds, fairly low average annual precipitation during brief summer periods and long winter darkness The wet Arctic tundra is covered with a thick spongy mat of low-growing plants such lichens, sedges (grass like plants often growing in dense tufts in marshy places) mosses and low woody shrubs. POLAR (HIGH LATITUDE) GRASSLANDS OR ARCTIC TUNDRAS
  25. 25. ARCTIC TUNDRA
  26. 26. POLAR (HIGH LATITUDE GRASSLAND
  27. 27. Water that is permanently frozen year – round in thick layers of soil. During the brief summer when sunlight persists almost round the clock, the surface layer of soil thaws and the biome is turned into soggy landscape dotted with shallow lakes, marshes, bogs and ponds. The permafrost below prevents this surface water from seeping into the lower soil. The slow rate of decomposition, shallow soil and slow growth rate of plants make the arctic tundra perhaps the earth’s most fragile biome. Vegetation destroyed by human activities can take decades to grow back. PERMAFROST
  28. 28. Undisturbed areas with an average precipitation of 750 millimeters (30 inches) or more a year tend to be covered with forests, consisting of various species of trees and smaller woody forms of vegetation. FOREST
  29. 29. These are found in areas with moderate average temperatures that change significantly during four distinct seasons. They have long summer, mild winters and abundant precipitation spread fairly and evenly throughout the year. They dominated by a few species of broad- leafed deciduous trees The most dominant herbivore of most deciduous forest in the Eastern United States is the most of white tail deer, primarily because most of its natural predators have been eliminated. TEMPERATE (MID-LATITUDE) DECIDUOUS FORESTS
  30. 30. TEMPERATE (MID-LATITUDE) DECIDUOUS FOREST
  31. 31. Also called boreal forests or taiga These are found in regions with a subarctic climate where winter are long and dry with only light snowfall. Temperatures range from cool to extremely cold and summers are very brief with mild to warm temperature. These forests, which from an almost unbroken belt across North America and Northern Eurasia. Plants species diversity is low in the northern forests because few species can survive the long. Cold winters, when soil moisture freezes. Animals found in the taiga include : a. Large herbivores b. Small herbivores c. Medium to large herbivores COLD ( HIGH LATITUDE) NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FORESTS
  32. 32. COLD (HIGH LATITUDE) NORTHERN CONIFEROUS FOREST
  33. 33. THREE MAJOR RAINFOREST REGION
  34. 34. These are found near the equator in Central and South America, Africa, Southeast Asia and some islands in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean. They are characterized by the presence of high amounts of rainfall (200-500 centimeter per year) normally warm and relatively constant temperature. Often with low nutrients in the soil and mainly deciduous woody vegetation. The deciduous trees from a thick canopy, so dense that it is impossible to see the ground from above the trees. The main canopy level is usually 30 to 50 meters from the ground. There are trees 45 to 70 meters high and the forest stand is rather isolated. Trunks of the mature trees have a diameter of over 3 meters. Most trees are slender in proportion to their heights, they bear comparatively small crowns. TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS
  35. 35. TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
  36. 36. The American Rain Forest region The Malaysian Rain Forest Region The African Rain Forest Region 3 MAJOR RAINFORESTS REGION
  37. 37. Situated on the South American Continent It is subdivided into three rainforest subregions a. Amazonia – the biggest rainforest subregion, because it is so vast and must be considered as still largely intact b. A smaller region that lies west of the Andes and North of the equator c. Extending intermittently to Mexico – the smallest region is a narrow street along the Atlantic Coast of Brazil between 14˚ and 21˚S wherein only a few remnants of it are still in existence. THE AMERICAN RAIN FOREST REGION
  38. 38. THE AMERICAN RAINFOREST REGION
  39. 39. The region is often called the South East Asian forest Region Coincides almost entirely with the former Malaysian archipelago to which the Malay Peninsula belongs botanically The true rainforest is almost absent from continental Asia, except in Malaya, Southern most Thailand and South West Cambodia. THE MALESIAN RAINFOREST REGION
  40. 40. THE MALESIAN RAINFOREST REGION
  41. 41. This consist of four regions, all partly destroyed, along the Atlantic coast between approximately 10˚ N and 5˚ S, and the Congo basin stretching East to the mountains. Outlier pockets in East Africa maybe regarded as more or less true rainforest, but not the forest of Madagascar. The soil lying below this diverse masses of vegetation are generally thin and deficient in nutrients despite abundant rainfall because surface run off tends to carry the nutrients that are not immediately taken up by the plants. THE AFRICAN RAINFOREST REGION
  42. 42. THE AFRICAN RAINFOREST REGION
  43. 43. The tropical rainforest is considered as the most diverse ecosystem In the Philippines, forest are classified according to specific areas where they occur in the accompanying species they support. PHILIPPINE FOREST
  44. 44. Mangrove Forests Beach Forests Molave Forests Dipterocarp Forest Pine Forests Mossy Forests MAJOR PHILIPPINE FOREST
  45. 45. Literally a “Forest of the sea’ It is strikingly well developed in mudflats near river deltas from tributaries that empty into the sea or in tidal zones near protective bays In certain places, this overlaps or merges with the beach forest type or when conditions are favorable, over runs beaches washed by the tides. The principal species of the Mangrove forests in the Philippines and elsewhere in the tropics are the species belonging to the genera Brugeria (Bakawan) and Ceriops (Tangal) of the Rhizophoraceae. Typical tree components of Mangrove forests have fruits and seeds that are easily disperse by water. MANGROVE FORESTS
  46. 46. MANGROVE FORESTS
  47. 47. Beach forests occupy sandy shores or flat sandy gravely coastal areas above high tide limits. This type of forest is nearly reduced to nothing principally due to the massive influx of human settlements Most trees present in beach forest are the following: o Bitaog o Putat o Dapdap o Talisay o Banilad o Ipil BEACH FORESTS
  48. 48. On sandy flood plains near riverbeds, pure stands of Casuarina equisetifolia (agoho) may develop. In the vicinity of rich-bottoms patches, or nearly pure stands of Terminalia catappa are observed.
  49. 49. BEACH FORESTS
  50. 50.  The molave forests is named because of the free dominance of molave (vitex parviflora) in the area  It is also sometimes called the Limestone Forest because of the underlying rock and limestone  The soil that develops harbors a plant formation characteristics to limestone region  Alternately this forest type is known t some local botanist as the leguminous species type  Trees found in this forest type are also commercially important and are more accessible to exploitation together with small erect or climbing bamboos.  Many of the tree species are short boled with irregular spreading crowns  The molave forest has deciduous foliage, especially when it is found in areas with pronounce dry season MOLAVE FORESTS
  51. 51. MOLAVE FORESTS
  52. 52. In the Philippines the dipterocarp forest is by far the most important type for timber production both for local and export uses The dipterocarp forests is roughly 75% of the primary forest and harbors between 85% and 95% of the standing timber in the country All taxa of the Diptocarpaceae are giant trees reaching towering heights of 40- 50 m and dm of 100-150 cm In 1978, the remaining forests cover in the country is between 74% and 77% represents dipterocarp forest type From 1934-1982, the total area of dipterocarp forest was reduce by 38% The present distribution dipterocarp forest shows: a. 32.6% - Luzon b. 46.5% - Mindanao c. 20.9% - Visayas  most of the dipterocarp in the Philippines are practically evergreen species. DIPTEROCARP FORESTS
  53. 53. DIPTEROCARP FOREST
  54. 54. A. Lauan or Philippine Mahogany Subtypes  The most succesful commercial forest in the Philippines  It is confined to regions with short or no dry season  It is best developed on the gentle slopes near bases of mountain ranges and extends up to 300-400m elevation  At this point, it merge with tangile-oak of subtype.  When topography is rough, this subtypes rarely reaches a dense stand composition  At a lower elevation and when near the sea, this subtype overlaps with yakal-lauan subtype or the molave forest type. DIPTEROCARP SUBTYPES
  55. 55. LAUAN OR PHILIPPINE MAHOGANY SUBTYPES
  56. 56.  In terms of altitude and topographic conditions, the lauan-apitong subtype is nearly similar to the lauan subtype differing only in terms of regional climate pattern.  This subtype occurs in regions with a pronounced dry season.  Many of the species present in this subtype exhibit regular loss of foliage is relatively open and an undergrowth of climbing bamboos, woody lianas and other minor plants are typical. LAUAN-APITONG SUBTYPE
  57. 57. LAUAN-APITONG SUBTYPE
  58. 58. Is restricted to regions where there is short or no dry season just like the lauan subtype. It only differs from the lauan by being specifically found only in areas where the water table is high or near the surface. HAGAKHAK-LAUAN SUBTYPE
  59. 59. HAGAKHAK-LAUAN SUBTYPE
  60. 60.  The most extensively development on low coastal hills whwre the underlying rock is volcanic and where the dry season is relatively short.  It is sometime present in hills bordering large inner valleys or in headlands projecting into the sea.  During the driest period of the year, this subtype exhibits slight deciduousness.  On the ridges and exposed slopes, the most abundant species are yakal and hopea spp.  In protected ravines and along banks of streams, the following species are numerous a. Shorea contorta b. S. guiso c. S.palosapis d. Vatica manggachapoi e. Parashorea malanonan. YAKAL-LAUAN SUBTYPE
  61. 61. YAKAL-LAUAN SUBTYPE
  62. 62.  The tangile-oak subtype extends from the upper (400 elevation) of the luan and lauan-apitong subtypes to the the lower limits (1,000 meters altitude) of he mossy forest type.  I practically encompasses all the high slopes of mountain.  As the name implies, the principal components species are tangile (Shorea polysperma) and oaks (Lithocarpus spp.)  This forest formation an be found in certain mountains like Mt. Halcon in Mindanao and Mt. Giting-giting in Sibuyan Island. TANGILE-OAK SUBTYPE
  63. 63. TANGILE-OAK SUBTYPE
  64. 64.  Considered as a dis climax or anthropogenic subclimax formation.  It is believed that areas now extensively occupied by pine trees were once a bastion of broad-leaved species.  Anthropogenic activities, such as collecting timber for house, cleaning lands for shifting cultivation, accidental or international setting of fires transformed these forest into open and drier sites.  In the Philippines this vegetation type is at its peak development in high plateaus and mountain range of Northern Luzon particularly in the Mountain Province.  The greatest segment of this vegetation cover lies between 900 and 1, 500 meters I region where a distinct dry season occurs.  The undergrowth vegetation of pine forest cannot fully development or advance ecologically  The two principal pine species found in the Philippines. a. Pinus kesiya (Pinus insularis) b. P. merkusii PINE FOREST
  65. 65. PINE FOREST
  66. 66.  Derives its name from the abundant growth of mosses and liverworts on trunks of trees present in these areas.  In the , about 8% of the total land area is covered by the forest.  In many places, the topography of this forest type is rather rough and steep (over 1,200 meters)  The combination of steep slopes and heavy rains result in frequent landslide.  Generally, it is the type of forest where climatic conditions are very moist due to low clouds.  Temperature is much lower than in coastal areas  Only in a few species belongs to the genera are found at lower elevation. MOSSY FOREST
  67. 67. MOSSY FOREST
  68. 68.  A freshwater ecosystem whose physical nature is dominated by the presence of water and supports a distinct set of producers (plants) and consumers (animals)  The following are examples of freshwater ecosystem a. Water system that is inland from the coast b. Surface water (streams and rivers) c. Standing water (lakes, reservoir. Ponds or wetland)  Factors affecting the type and numbers of organisms found in fresh water are: a. The amount or concentration of nutrients b. The depth through which sunlight can penetrate c. The amount of dissolved oxygen and water temp. FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM
  69. 69. FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM
  70. 70. MAJOR FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM
  71. 71.  The lake is a standing freshwater ecosystem.  It is formed when water is collected from direct precipitation, surface runoff, or ground water flow.  Water fills the basin-like depression formed fro volcanic activity, glaciation and impact features of meteorites. LAKES
  72. 72. LAKES
  73. 73. FOUR DISTINCT ZONES OF LAKES
  74. 74. Is found in the shallow, nutrients rich water near the shore. It contains rooted aquatic plants and abundant aquatic life dependent on plants. LITTORAL ZONE
  75. 75. LITTORAL ZONE
  76. 76. Is the open water surface layer that receives sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis and contain floating phytoplankton's, plant-eating zooplanktons and fish that depend on such as kind of environment. LIMNETIC ZONE
  77. 77. LIMNETIC ZONE
  78. 78. Zone of deep water , which is not penetrated by sunlight. Inhabited most by fish that are adapted to its cooler, darker water and lower levels of dissolved oxygen. PROFUNDAL ZONE
  79. 79. PROFUNDAL ZONE
  80. 80. Supports the bloodworms and other decomposers which live on dead plants debris, animal remains and animal wastes that float. BENTHIC ZONE
  81. 81. BENTHIC ZONE
  82. 82. DISTINCT LAYERS OF LAKES
  83. 83. The upper with warm water exposed to the atmosphere with high levels of dissolved oxygen. THE EPILIMNION
  84. 84. THE EPILIMNION
  85. 85. Is the lower layer of colder, denser water usually with a lower concentration of dissolved oxygen. THERMOCLINE  The main transition zone separating these two layers.(epilimnion and hypolimnion)  The temperature drops shraply THE HYPOLIMNION
  86. 86. THE HYPOLIMNION
  87. 87. THE MAJOR TYPES OF LAKES
  88. 88. A lake with a low supply of plant nutrients Usually deep and has crystal clear water, cool to cold temperatures and relatively small populations of phytoplankton and fishes. OLIGOTROPHIC LAKE
  89. 89. OLIGOTROPHIC LAKE
  90. 90.  A lake with a large or excessive supply of plant nutrients.  Usually shallow and has cloudy, warm water, large populations of phytoplankton (especially algae) and zooplankton and diverse populations of fishes. EUTROPHIC LAKE
  91. 91. EUTROPHIC LAKE
  92. 92.  Which lakes receive inputs of plant nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates) from the surrounding land basin as a result of natural erosion and runoff. The input of nutrients near urban or agricultural centers can be greatly accelerated as a result of human activities. EUTROPHICATION
  93. 93. EUTROPHICATION
  94. 94.  the lakes that fall somewhere between these two extremes of nutrient enrichment MESOTHROPIC LAKES
  95. 95.  Are fairly large and deep, human-created bodies of standing fresh water. Often build behind dams They are build primarily for water storage Unlike in lakes, the volume of water is contained in reservoirs is determined by what is required for hydroelectric power production, irrigation or domestic consumptions. RESERVOIR
  96. 96. RESERVOIR
  97. 97. Are small, shallow, usually human-created impoundments of fresh watering Used primarily for watering livestock, raising freshwater fish or recreation especially fishing Most ponds consist entirely of a littoral zone covered with rooted plants from shore to shore and do not have distinct temperature zones like reservoirs or lakes. POND
  98. 98. POND
  99. 99. Stream – are relatively small and flowing bodies of fresh water that empty into rivers. STREAM AND RIVERS
  100. 100. Rivers – are wider and deeper than streams and empty into oceans. STEAM AND RIVERS
  101. 101. The entire land area that delivers the water, sediment and dissolved substances via streams to a major river and ultimately to the sea. WATERSHED OR DRAINAGE BASIN
  102. 102. A. The Shallow Water Zone or Rapid Zone - characterized by shallow water where the velocity of current is enough to keep the bottom clean of silt and other loose materials providing a firm substrate. TWO MAJOR ZONES IN STREAMS
  103. 103. B. Deeper Water or Pool Zone - has a reduced velocity of current silt and other loose materials tend to settle in the bottom providing favorable condition to the burrowing forms of animals. TWO MAJOR ZONES IN STREAMS
  104. 104. Land that remains flooded with fresh water all or part of the year and located away from coastal areas. It include bogs, marshes, swamps and river-overflow lands that are covered with fresh water and found inlands. INLAND WETLAND
  105. 105. Examples of inland wetlands in the Philippines are: a. Liguasan Marsh (Cotabato) INLAND WETLAND
  106. 106. b. Agusan Marsh (Agusan del Sur) INLAND WETLAND
  107. 107. c. Candaba Swamps (Pampanga) INLAND WETLAND
  108. 108. MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
  109. 109. Distinguished from the freshwater ecosystem because of its higher level of salinity usually at 35 parts per thousand Examples of marine ecosystems are oceans, coastal wetlands, estuaries and coral reefs. MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
  110. 110. Refers to the concentration of dissolved salts like sodium chloride in water It is a limiting factor that affects the distribution and growth of various aquatic plants and animals. SALINITY
  111. 111. The relatively warm, nutrients – rich, shallow water zone that extends from the high tide mark on land to the edge of a shelflike extension of continental landmasses known as the continental shelf. It includes a number of different habitats It represents less than 10% of the total ocean area it contains 90% of all ocean plant and animal life It is the site of most of the major commercial marine fisheries The sharp increases in the depth of the water at the edge of the continental shelf marks the separation of the neritic zone from the open sea COASTAL OR NERITIC ZONE
  112. 112. Marine zone contains about 90% of the total surface area of the ocean but only about 10% contains plant and animal life The huge open sea has a relatively low average net primary productivity of plant life because light is available only at its surface layer and most nutrients are found on the bottom far below. COASTAL OR NERITIC ZONE
  113. 113. 1. EUPHOTIC ZONE - the surface layer through which enough sunlight can penetrate for photosynthesis. - it supports scattered populations of phytoplankton, which in turn support commercially important herrings, sardines, anchovies and other small fishes that feed at the surface and their large predators such as tunas, mackerels and swordfishes. OPEN SEA IS DIVIDED INTO THREE VERTICAL ZONES OR STRATA
  114. 114. 2. BATHYAL ZONE - a colder, darker layer where there is some penetration by sunlight but not enough to support photosynthesis. OPEN SEA IS DIVIDED INTO THREE VERTICAL ZONES OR STRATA
  115. 115. 3. ABYSSAL ZONE - a layer of deep, pitch-dark, usually near freezing water and the ocean bottom. - about 9 % of the ocean’s different species are decomposer bacteria. Most survive by feeding on dead plants and animals (scavengers) and their waste products which sink down from the surface waters and by making daily migrations, usually near dusk, to surface waters to feed. OPEN SEA IS DIVIDED INTO THREE VERTICAL ZONES OR STRATA
  116. 116. OPEN SEA IS DIVIDED INTO THREE VERTICAL ZONES OR STRATA
  117. 117. ESTUARY AND COASTAL WETLAND
  118. 118.  are found along coastlines where fresh water from rivers mixes with salty oceanic waters. The saltiness of water changes with the tides ad flow of water from the rivers. Estuaries are productive ecosystems because of the large amount of nutrients from the river They serve as nursery sites for fish (Chanos-chanos) and crustaceans They also serve as barriers to pollution as they trap sediments that prevents pollutants from reaching the ocean. ESTUARIES
  119. 119. ESTUARIES
  120. 120. Usually consist of a mix of bays, lagoons, salt marshes where grasses are dominant vegetation In tropical areas, we find mangrove swamps dominated by mangrove trees Coastal zones of warm tropical and subtropical oceans often contain coral reefs In many populated coastal areas, human activities are increasingly threatening the abundance of plant and animal life in estuaries and coastal wetlands. COASTAL WETLANDS
  121. 121. COASTAL WETLANDS
  122. 122. THANK YOU !

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