The Stages of spelling


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The Stages of Spelling: A summary of the stages of spelling as described in "Words Their Way" by Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, and Johnston.

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The Stages of spelling

  3. 3.  Emergent Spelling is the first stage listed of the five stages of Spelling Development (Words Their Way)  The Emergent stage is also referred to as the Preliterate stage (Henderson’s Stages)Emergent and the Pre-phonetic stage (Original Stage Names-Virginia Spelling Studies)Description  The Emergent stage typically involves spellers ranging in age from 0 to 5 years old, including most toddlers, preschoolers, kindergarteners and some beginning first graders.o The Emergent Stage is the beginning stage of  The early emergent stage involves children learning how to hold an use a pencil, marker, or crayon to make marks on paper. learning about written language  Students may produce large ―scribbles‖ or drawings in the early Emergent stage. The students scribbles tell the story.  In the middle stage of the emergent stage the children start approximating theo Early, Middle & Late global contours of writing. The writing may occur in any direction but the children Emergent stages recognize top to bottom and linear arrangement.  Pretend writing in the Emergent stage is when children begin to write separate from the picture and the forms they draw are representative of letters and numberso From Scribbles to learned. The writing is generally linear. Invented Spelling  Toward the end, or late stage, of the Emergent stage children begin to use letters to represent sounds in a systematic way. Children must recognize some letters, even if its not all of the letters in a word, and be able to draw the letter, in addition to knowing that letters represent sounds.o Learn Letters  Students begin to include prominent or salient sounds in words in their writing towards the end of the Emergent stage.o Sounds in words
  4. 4.  In the Emergent stage children do not have to be able to recognize or know all of the sounds letters make but should be able to recognize letters and at least say the letter when asked what sound it makes.Emergent  A degree of phonemic awareness is necessary for the child to divide syllables andDescription invent words or spelling.  For Emergent readers, the purpose and goal of phonemic awareness instruction is to help the children classify the sounds they know into categories that coincide witho Phonemic printed word boundaries-beginnings and ends. (Words Their Way) Awareness  Students should be taught the names of the alphabet letters and the sounds they represent. Both teachers and parents or guardians can model for the children how to pronounce the letters and sounds.o Modeling  The 5 main components of the learning-to-read process include:  Vocabulary growth and concept development  Phonological awarenesso 5 Main Components  Alphabet knowledge of the Learning-To-  Letter-sound knowledge Concept of word in print Read Process  ―If all five components are addressed on a daily basis, no matter how far along in the emergent continuum a child may be, conventional reading and writing should inevitably follow.‖ (Words Their Way)o Letter-Sound  Children can work on continuant sounds and articulation of words. Knowledge and Vocabulary Growth  Children may begin to recognize sounds and words but may not fully understand or be able to relate the concept and ideas to the words to their meaning.
  5. 5. Sample ofEmergentSpelling
  6. 6.  Orthographic Knowledge is defined by three functional levels that are useful guides for knowing when to teach what:  What students do correctly-an independent or easy level  What students use but confuse-an instructional level where instruction is most helpfulTips to Parents  What is absent in students’ spelling-a frustration level where spelling concepts are too difficult.for Developing  Word Study is based on a students’ level of orthographic knowledge.Orthographic  Parents can help develop Orthographic knowledge for their children by working withKnowledge their children to recognize letters in the alphabet and practice saying what each letter is.  Parents can encourage their children ,who are in the Emergent stage, to write and drawEmergent Stage stories or ―scribbles‖ and have their children explain to them what they wrote about.  Parents who have children in the Emergent stage can help their children by―Developmental demonstrating how to write letters properly and practice writing letters with theirspelling research children.describes students’  Parents can help develop Orthographic knowledge with their children by working withgrowing knowledge of them so that the children begin to recognize and develop knowledge that letters makewords as a continuum sounds. They can then work on which letters make which sounds.or a series of  Parents can help develop Orthographic knowledge when working with their children bychronologically ordered reading to them and demonstrating to their children how to recognize different letters,stages of phases of word the shape of the letters and the sound of the letters in the book.knowledge.‖ (Words  Parents can work with their children to have the children realize there are different printTheir Way) styles and a difference between capital and lower case letters but the letter is still the same.  Parents can work with their students to organize letter sounds by using picture sorts
  7. 7.  Alphabet Games & Matching Activities:Examples of  The Alphabet is learned through active exploration of the relationships between letter names, the sounds of the letter names, their visual characteristics, and the motor movement involved in their formation.Spelling  Many alphabet activities begin with the child’s name, building it with letter titles, cutting it our of dough, or matching it letter for letter with a second set.Instruction  Picture Sorts:  Start with meaningful text Make sorts easier or harder as neededEmergent Stage • Use a key picture and a letter as headers  Begin with teacher-directed sorts  Use sets of pictures that are easy to name and sort  Correct mistakes on the first sort but allow errors to wait on subsequent sortsoStudents should be  Vary the group sortingactively involved  Plan plenty of time for individual practice  Plan follow up activities  Encourage invented spellingoAlphabet Games & MatchingActivities  Fingerprint Reading and Tracking Words:  The best way for children to achieve a concept of word is to have them point to the words as theyoPicture Sorts reread familiar text and to draw their attention to letters and sounds when they get off track.oFingerprint Reading &  Alphabet and Letter Sounds:Tracking Words  Students follow a set routine and point to the letters as they say the alphabet or ABC song. Students can match upper and lower case letters.oAlphabet & Letter Sounds  Concept of Word:  Students can use sentence strips and word cards while working to recognize familiar words and texts.oConcept of Word  Phonological Awareness and Language Play:oPhonological Awareness &  Students can work with rhyme or alliteration and listen for beginning or ending sounds to develop phonological awareness. A concrete referent, such as print, helps children attend toLanguage Play sounds.oConcept & Vocabulary  Concepts and Vocabulary Development:  Oral language interaction with whole group talk, read -alouds, and activities to extend students conceptual understanding of ideas and vocabulary.
  8. 8.  Concept Development: Children are recommended to write during every possible opportunity during or following concept sorts.Examples of  Beginning with Children’s Books and Concept Sorts  Past the Pasta and Other Concrete Concept Sorts  All My Friends Photograph SortSpelling  Phonological Awareness: An array of understandings about sounds, including a sense ofInstruction rhyme, alliteration, syllables, phonemic segmentation and blending are covered within the concept of Phonological awareness.  Begin with Thyme in Children’s BooksEmergent Stage  Match and Sort Rhyming Pictures  Invent Thymes  Use Songs to Develop a Sense of Rhyme and Alliteration  Incorporate Phonological Skills into Daily Activities  Lining u, taking attendance or calling children to a group  During read-aloudsoStudents should be  Alphabet Knowledge: A development of all aspects of alphabet knowledge including letteractively involved recognition for both lower and upper case letters, letter naming, letter writing and letter sounds.  Begin with Alphabet Books  Alphabet Book Follow-ups  Start with Children’s Names  Alphabet Scrapbook Alphabet EggsoConcept Development   Letter Spin  Sort Letters with Different Print StylesoPhonological Awareness  Letter-Sound Knowledge: Review is important and children can continue to review beginning word sounds with activities such as picture and word sorts.oAlphabet Knowledge  Use Books to Enhance Beginning Sounds  Soundline  Letter Spin for SoundsoLetter-Sound Knowledge  Sort Objects by sounds  Initial Consonant Follow-the-Path GameoConcept of Word  Concept of Word: Fingerpointing and reading from memory when children are learning about letters and sounds at the same time will give logic and purpose to learning the other. ―Fingerpoint reading to familiar rhymes and pattern books is the best way to achieve a concept of word‖ (Words Their Way)  Rhymes for Reading  Cut-Up Sentences  The Morning Message
  10. 10. Letter Name Stage DescriptionKey Features Three Sub-Divisions The Letter Name – Alphabetic stage is the  Early 2nd stage in this developmental model.  Students apply the alphabetic principle primarily to consonants often spelling the first and last sound of single syllable words.  Writing often lacks spacing between words. It is characterized by the ability to use letter names as a cue to the sound they  Middle want to represent. Students usually learn  There is a consistent use of vowels. the letter names first and then use them to  Silent letters are not usually represented. spell.  Short vowels are used, but confused.  Consonant blends begin to be used correctly.  Spelling is phonetic. Student can segment and represent Children understand that words can be most of the sounds heard in a syllable. segmented into sounds and that letters of the alphabet must be matched to these  Late sounds in a systematic way.  Consistently represent most regular short vowel sounds, digraphs, and consonant blends.  Students have mastered the alphabetic layer of English orthography. This stage is sub-divided into Early,  Will now begin to use, but confuse silent long vowel Middle, and Late because of the rapid and markers. dramatic growth during this time.
  11. 11. Middle to Late Letter Name Sample
  12. 12. Tips for Parents to Develop Orthographic Knowledge Letter Name StageBegin by focusing on initial consonants and then move toward blends and digraphs. oUse picture sorts and known words to review initial consonants. Talk about how the pictures/words ―sound at the beginning.‖ oStart with frequently occurring initial consonants where differences are clear visually and phonologically. oContrast specific consonants that children often confuse. oWhen students have a solid grasp of initial consonant sounds introduce ending consonant sounds. oAfter students are comfortable with initial and ending consonants begin introducing blends and digraphs.Then introduce short vowels that are in the same word family moving toward combining word families. oModel and use picture and known word sorts. oStart with short a word families (-at, -an, -ad, -ap) because they appear a lot in early reading materials. oWhen students are comfortable with sorts that include the same word families offer sorts of mixed word families. Use words students can read and easily distinguished.Then introduce short vowel words that are not rhyming/in the same word family. oUse more word than picture sorts. Use pictures as the column headings for the sorts. oUse words that they know from sight words, word banks, and familiar texts. oInclude an oddball category for words that do not fit the pattern of the sort to introduce children to the variations of spelling.
  13. 13.  Review beginning sounds, digraphs, and blends.Examples of  Create sound boards (WTW Appendix B). These provide a key word and picture for each letter-sound match to help children make connections.Spelling  Use word and picture hunts. Children can hunt in magazines andInstruction  catalogs and then cut and glue on another paper or chart. Initial sound, digraph, or blend bingo.Letter Name Stage  Study short vowels.  Play Hopping Frog Game. This is a board game where students spin the spinner and move to the first word that matches the vowel sound they land on.  Play Slide a Word. Students slide paper strips up and down a list of consonants. The paper strip already has a vowel on it so new words are created with each slide.  Play Follow-the-Pictures game. It is a follow the path game and templates are available in WTW Appendix F.  Study word families.  Create word family wheels and flip charts for children to manipulate.  Create word maker games with cards. Children match initial consonants, digraphs, and blends to word families to create words.  Play Roll the Dice word family game.  Play Go Fish with words from different word families. On the child’s turn he will ask someone if they have a word that rhymes with a word in his hand to create a match.
  15. 15. Within Word Pattern Stage Description Begins as students transition to independent reading toward the end of first grade and expands throughout the second and third grades, and even into the fourth grade Spellers typically range in age from 7 to 10 years. Begins when students can correctly spell most single syllable, short- vowel words correctly as well as consonant blends, digraphs, and pre-consonantal nasals. Students study words by sound and pattern simultaneously. First the students study the common long-vowel patterns and then less common patterns.
  16. 16. Within Word Sample
  17. 17. Tips For Parents to develop Orthographic Knowledge Within Word Stage Daily Interaction through listening and speaking Purposeful reading Daily writing
  18. 18. Examples of Spelling Instruction: Within Word Develop word sorts  Hands-on activities that mimic basic cognitive learning processes: comparing and contrasting categories of word features and discovering similarities and difference within and between categories. Teachers should read aloud to the students Guide silent reading of simple chapter books Have a open writing each day Introduce five new high-frequency words a week and place them on the word wall Provide word hunts • Ask the students to go through what they have recently read to find words that fit a particular sound or pattern. Play the Turkey Feathers Game • Comparing Vowel Patters (page 191, Words Their Way textbook) Play The Spelling Game • Page 193 Words Their Way textbook More Activities for this Stage in Words Their Way textbook pages 189 to 201
  20. 20.  The Syllables & Affixes stage is the next to last stage from Words Their Way.Syllables &  Typically, this stage begins in 2nd or 3rd grade for some but for most, it is 4th grade.Affixes StageDescription  This is when background knowledge and vocabulary become critical elements in comprehension.Major Features:  Developing word knowledge allows them to read more fluently which in turn allows them to exercise and expand their increasing level of cognitive and languageo How consonant and sophistication. vowel patterns are represented in polysyllabic words  During this stage, focus shifts from one syllable words to two syllable words. With more than one syllable to consider, each syllable may present a spelling problem.o What occurs when syllables join together  Students grapple with affixes (prefixes and suffixes) (syllable juncture)  Students study base words as morphemes (meaning units) that must retain theiro How stress or lack of spelling when an affix is added. Therefore, students must learn to rely on stress determines the knowledge of the spelling-meaning connection. clarity of the sounds in syllables  Students examine how important word elements (prefixes, suffixes, and baseo How simple affixes words) combine . This is called structural analysis and it is also used a tool for (prefixes and suffixes) vocabulary development, spelling, and figuring out unfamiliar words during change the usage, reading. meaning, and spelling of words  Students learn where syllable and morphemic breaks come in words so that they can use the appropriate chunks to quickly and accurately read, spell and determine meaning of polysyllabic words.
  21. 21. Syllables &Affixes Sample
  22. 22. Modeling Structural Analysis1. Examine the word for meaningful parts—base word, prefixes or suffixes. • If there is a prefix, take it off first. • If there is a suffix, take it off second. • Look at the base to see if you know it or if you can think of a related word (a word with the same base). • Reassemble the word, thinking about the meaning contributed by the base, the suffix, and then the prefix. This should give you a more specific idea of what the word is.2. Try out the meaning in the sentence; check if it makes sense in the context of the sentence and the larger context of the text that is being read.3. If the word still does not make sense and is critical to the meaning of the overall passage, look it up in the dictionary.4. Record the new word in a word study notebook.
  23. 23.  Explore Compound Words  Students learn how words can combine in different ways to make new words  Helps to lay the foundation for explicit attention to syllables (very often compound words are composed of two smaller words containing only one syllable)  Knowledge of spelling of high-frequency, high-utility words is reinforcedTips to Parents  Explore Base Words and Inflectional Endings/Suffixes  Includes –s, -ed, and –ingfor Developing   Changes number and tense of the base word but does not change its meaning ―One-One-One Rule‖: one syllable, one vowel, one consonant—double (example: jogjogging) Note: this rule has fewOrthographic  exceptions and therefore is worth learning Your child should know the spelling of the base word before they are asked to think about adding suffixes Explore Open/Closed SyllablesKnowledge   Open Syllables (CV) end with a long-vowel sound (ex. tiger)  Closed Syllables (CVC) end with a short-vowel sound (ex. rabbit)  When adding –ed or –ing to a base word, if your child is uncertain regarding whether to double the consonant, theySyllables & Affixes should say the word.  If they hear a long-vowel sound, the syllable is open and will be followed by a single consonant. (ex. hoping)  If they hear a short-vowel sound, the syllable is closed and will be followed by two consonants. (ex. hopping)  Explore Syllable Junctures  Practice word sorts using syllable juncture patterns which include  Explore Vowel Patterns―The range of reading  Vowel patterns explored in earlier levels using one-syllable words can be re-evaluated using two syllable wordsskill within this stage  Ambiguous vowels may be introduced. These patterns represent a range of sounds and spellings (ex. The ou spelling has four different sounds in shout, touch, your and thought.)makes it imperative to  By paying attention to the position of ambiguous vowels, your child can often determine which spelling pattern occurs most oftenrevisit many of the  Explore Accent or Stressorthographic concepts   Determine which syllable is emphasized, ―sounds louder‖ Point out homographs (words that are spelled the same but pronounced differently). Ex. The band hopes to record aunderlying syllables record.  Explore Base Words and Derivational Affixesand affixes.‖  Derivational Affixes (both prefixes and suffixes affect their bases, the bases’ meaning and their grammatical function in a sentence.  A base word can stand alone after all prefixes and suffixes have been removed. This is also called a free morpheme.  Address how derivational affixes change the meaning of known words  Further Exploration of Consonants  Expand and review on what your student knows from earlier levels
  24. 24.  Keep a Word Study NotebookExamples of  Students will keep a notebook divided into 2 sections. In the Word Study section, students will keep records of sorts, word hunts and lists generated in groups, and written reflections of sorts. In the Looking into Language section, lists of words related to themes and units, words categorized by parts of speech and semantic webs of content area studies.Spelling  Perform Compound Word Activities  Share compound words, discuss meaning, draw pictures to illustrateInstruction   Word Sorts: can focus on shared words or concepts Have students cut compound words apart. Then challenge them to create as many new compound words as they can. Discuss, share, write sentences, draw pictures.Syllables & Affixes Stage  Play Double Scoop  A gameboard is prepared and sentences using consonant doubling and e drop when adding inflected ending are written on small cards to go into a deck. A dry erase board is used to label headings of the to categories plus a category for no change. After player one rolls a die, playerGuidelines: two reads a sentence from the first card. Player one writes the underlined word under the correct heading on the dry erase board without seeing it. Player 2 checks to see if the answer is correct. If correct, player 1 may move the number of spaces rolled. Play continues with players takingoStudents’ should be turns until there is a winner.  Play Freddy, the Hopping, Diving, Jumping Frogactively involved  Create a game board with either Double, E Drop or Nothing written on each space. Prepare playing cards with a variety of words having –ing added (an equal number for each rule). Playing cards are placed face down. Each player draws a card, reads it out loud and moves to the closestoStudent’s prior space that matches. Play continues by taking turns until there is a winner.knowledge should be  Play Slap Jack A two-person card came where open and closed-syllable words are represented by any of theengaged  syllable spelling patterns. Words with the selected patterns are written on 52 cards. Cards are shuffled and dealt face down to each player until all cards are gone. Players simultaneously turn a card up and places it in a common pile. If both cards have the same pattern, the first player tooStudents should have slap the pile takes all the cards in the common pile. Play continues until one player ends up with all the cards.many exposures to words  Play Vocabulary Jeopardyin meaningful contexts  Students generate vocabulary cards from a unit of study. Students make a game using a gameboard template and write questions on cards that relate to facts and concepts studies. Answers are written on the back of the cards which are then sorted into categories. The whole class plays as teams.oStudents need  Play other Words Their Way gamessystematic instruction of  Play Stressbustersstructural elements and   A board game used to practice discriminating the accented or stressed syllable in a given word. Play Pair Them Uphow these elements  A card game similar to Memory where students match up unusual plurals such as wife/wives. Play Prefix Spincombine   A game where the idea that prefixes and base words can be combined in different ways
  26. 26. Derivational Stage Description The derivational stage is the last stage from Words Their Way. The derivational stage is when new words are developed from other words, especially through affixes. Affixes are prefixes, suffixes, root words, or base words that are combined with other words. The derivational stage also encompasses the combining of words from their origins. Typically, the derivational stage is reached between the grades of 5th through 12th. This is associated with the meanings of words, as well as the stage for more advanced readers.
  27. 27. Derivational Relations Sample
  28. 28. Tips to Parents to Develop Orthographic Knowledge: Derivational Stage Increasing the reading material that is read at home as well as school.  By reading, students can increase their vocabulary and in turn, improve their spelling techniques and habits. Introduce your child to a variety of genres during reading. Facilitate an increase in your child’s high-frequency word knowledge. Introduce your child to different roots, prefixes, and suffixes, both common and uncommon.
  29. 29. Examples of Spelling Instruction: Derivational Stage Create word sorts.  Word sorts are a game that forces the child to look within two words and find the commonality between the two words. Creating posters for the word.  On the poster, the student writes the word, definition, synonym, or antonym, etymology, and either a sentence using the word or picture that represents the word. Practice base words using ―Words that Grow‖  A picture of a tree with multiple branches is used. At the trunk of the tree, the base word is written. Then, inside of the branches the words that have the base word inside of the words are written. Practice root words by playing ―Brainburst‖  Root words are written on a note cards and placed in a stack lying face down. Then, the students are told to flip the top card over and they are given 2-3 minutes to write down as many words that incorporate the root word shown on the note card. If a student has a word that no one else does, that student gets a point. If multiple students have the same word, then no points are awarded. These ideas are just a few that seem to be the most engaging way to help teach spelling. However, the Words Their Way program includes many games that would be helpful to all spelling stages or instructional strategies that could possibly be adapted for any word pattern stage.