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What is an oil spill
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Roshni (1)

  1. 1. OIL SPILL Presented by: Roshni Tiwari
  2. 2. Contents • What is an oil spill • How does it occurs • Human impacts • Its environmental effects • Its Prevention • Its clean up and recovery • Equipment's used • References
  3. 3. What Is An “OIL SPILL” ? • An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land.
  4. 4. How Does It Occurs ? • Oil spills may occur due to release of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil.
  5. 5. Human Impacts Of Spills • An oil spill represents an immediate fire hazard. The Kuwaiti oil fires produced air pollution that caused respiratory distress. • The Deep-water Horizon explosion killed 11 oil rig workers. The fire resulting from the Static Charge, which killed 47 and destroyed half of the town's center. • Contamination can have an economic impact on tourism and marine resource extraction industries. For example, the Deep-water Horizon oil spill impacted beach tourism and fishing along the Gulf Coast.
  6. 6. Deepwater Horizon oil spill. April 20, 2010 Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana, United Kuwaiti oil fires 1991
  7. 7. Environmental Effects • Oil penetrates into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing its insulating ability, and making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. • Heavily furred marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways. Oil coats the fur of sea otters and seals, reducing its insulating effect, and leading to fluctuations in body temperature and hypothermia.
  8. 8. • Some birds exposed to petroleum also experience changes in their hormonal balance, including changes in their luteinizing protein. • Oil can also blind an animal, leaving it defenseless. The ingestion of oil causes dehydration and impairs the digestive process. Animals can be poisoned, and may die from oil entering the lungs or liver.
  9. 9. An oiled bird from Oil Spill in San Francisco Bay , 11/09/2007 A bird covered in oil from the Black Sea oil spill, 12/11/2007
  10. 10. Prevention 1. Double-hulling - build double hulls into vessels, which reduces the risk and severity of a spill in case of a collision or grounding. Existing single- hull vessels can also be rebuilt to have a double hull. 2. Secondary containment - methods to prevent releases of oil or hydrocarbons into environment. 3. Blowout Preventer (BOP’s) 4. Well castings 5. Making shipping safer 6. Keeping the navigator informed
  11. 11. Cleanup and Recovery
  12. 12. Methods for cleaning up 1. Bioremediation: use of microorganisms (Oil Zappers) or biological agents to break down or remove oil. 2. Dredging: for oils dispersed with detergents and other oils denser than water. 3. Skimming: Requires calm waters at all times during the process. 4. Solidifying: Solidifiers are composed of dry hydrophobic polymers that both adsorb and absorb. They clean up oil spills by changing the physical state of spilled oil from liquid to a semi-solid or a rubber-like material that floats on water. 5. Vacuum and centrifuge: oil can be sucked up along with the water, and then a centrifuge can be used to separate the oil from the water - allowing a tanker to be filled with near pure oil.
  13. 13. A U.S. Air Force Reserve plane sprays Corexit dispersant over the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. 20 April – 15 July 2010 Clean-up efforts after the Exxon Valdez oil spill Alaska. March 24, 1989
  14. 14. Equipment used includes : 1. Booms: large floating barriers that round up oil and lift the oil off the water 2. Skimmers: skim the oil 3. Sorbents: large absorbents that absorb oil 4. Chemical and biological agents: helps to break down the oil 5. Vacuums: remove oil from beaches and water surface 6. Shovels and other road equipment: typically used to clean up oil on beaches
  15. 15. References 1. "Lingering Lessons of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill". Commondreams.org. 2004-03-22. Retrieved 2012-08-27 2. CNN.com, Kuwait still recovering from Gulf War fires, 3 Jan. 2003 3. Guided by :Harshvardhan Tiwari, Bsc. Fire & Safety, NEBOSH, PDIETM (MGLI), Sr. Officer HSE (Health, Safety, Environment) , (John 18 Drilling Rig, Barmer, Rajasthan)
  16. 16. THANK YOU
  • AntaraDas17

    Mar. 25, 2018
  • bankersmit3

    Apr. 20, 2016
  • ShahdFouad

    Nov. 16, 2014

i hope it can help peoples working on oil spill

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