Solar powered house

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In this ppt u'll find the how to calculate load of ur house, battery size calculation, solar panel size calculation, inverter size calculation.

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Solar powered house

  1. 1. Solar Powered Housing A Seminar On Presented By:RoshitKadiru DepartmentOf Electrical Engineering
  2. 2. What is Solar Powered Housing? A house which generates electricity by means of solar energy is known as Solar Powered house. 2
  3. 3. Why Solar Energy? •Solar energy is available through out the days in most of the year. •Its free of cost. •It’s a renewable source of energy. •Solar cells do not produce noise and they are totally silent. •They have long life time •They require very little maintenance as there is no moving parts. 3
  4. 4. Solar irradiation map of India. Geographical Location: India being a tropical country receives adequate solar radiation for 300 days, amounting to 3,000 hours of sunshine equivalent to over 5,000 trillion kWh. 4
  5. 5. Working of Photovoltaic cell Photovoltaic cells are made up of semiconductors like silicon. When light shines on the solar cell a percentage of this solar energy is absorbed into the semiconductor material. This energy now inside the semiconductor knocks electrons loose allowing them to flow freely. It also have one or more electric fields that force electrons to flow in one5 N type semi conductor Depletion Layer P-type semi conductor
  6. 6. Equipments used in Solar Powered Housing • Solar Panel: A solar panel is a set of solar photovoltaic modules electrically connected and mounted on a supporting structure which generates electricity using solar energy • Inverter: Since the electricity generated by solar energy is direct current (DC), and most household appliances require alternating current (AC), an inverter is necessary to change the current from direct current (D/C) to alternating current (A/C). 6
  7. 7. Equipments used in Solar Powered Housing • Battery (for off grid system): It is used to store electricity so that it can be used as a back up power when the panel is unable to produce electricity. • Net Metering (for grid tie system): A measuring meter which will calculate how much energy you have taken from the grid and also supplied to the grid. 7
  8. 8. Solar Charge Controller: • Controls the flow of electricity between the module, battery, and the loads. • Prevents battery damage by ensuring that the battery is operating within its normal charge levels. • If the charge level in the battery falls below a certain level, a "low voltage disconnect (LVD) will cut the current to the loads, to prevent further discharge. • Likewise, it will also cut the current from the module in cases of overcharging. Equipments used in Solar Powered Housing 8
  9. 9. Off Grid System Types of Solar Power System Grid Tie System & 9
  10. 10. Off Grid System 10
  11. 11. Grid Tie System 11
  12. 12. Name Of Equipment Wattage Quantity Usage Hours/day Watt hour/day Fan 100 W 2 7 1400 W/Hr Printer 100 W 1 0.2 20 W/Hr Computer 150 W 2 7 2100 W/Hr Light 40 W 3 7 840 W/Hr Laptop 100 W 1 7 700 W/Hr Total Watt 940 W Total watt/hour 5060 W/Hr Load Calculation
  13. 13. Calculation of Solar Panel Size Total Watt/Hour = 5060 W/Hr Total hours of Sun light = 3000/365 =8.21 Hr Size of Solar Panel = 5060/8.21 = 616 Watt Compensate for system inefficiencies. Every part of a solar powered system has some inefficiencies in it. The rule of thumb is if you are going to use an inverter (to produce AC) your total system inefficiency will be 30%. For systems that will be using the DC voltage directly from the battery bank, the inefficiency factor is 20%. So, to compensate for inefficiencies multiply your answer to step 3 by 1.3 (or 1.2, if there's no inverter). New size of solar panel = 616 * 1.3 = 800 W To determine how many solar panels you will need, take your answer from step 4 and divide it by the rated power output (watts) of the solar panel that you have chosen Total No. of Solar Panels Needed = (Total Solar Panel Watts Needed)/(Solar Panel Rated output) No. of Solar Panel needed = 800/200 = 4 Panels
  14. 14. How to decide Battery size The first thing you have to decide on is if you are going to use a 12V, 24V or 48V DC system (these are the most common selections). The advantages to using a larger DC voltage system is that the wires/cabling you will need to use can be of a smaller gauge (smaller diameter). Systems with higher DC voltages lose less energy due to resistances in wiring that those of lower DC voltage (e.g. 12V). The downside to higher voltage systems is that you have to buy everything in sets, and it may increase your overall cost. For instance, a 24V system will require you to buy solar panels in sets of 2 (assuming each panel produces 12V -> 12V+12V=24V). In the case of batteries, if you plan to use 6V batteries you have to buy them in sets of four (4 x 6V = 24V) to match the system voltage. Another downside to higher voltage systems, is that the voltage levels become more dangerous as they get higher. Whereas, 12V systems are less likely to seriously harm you. An advantage to 12V system is that it's a bit easier to find equipment you can power directly off of the batteries (i.e. 12V). Whereas if you were to power 12V appliances off of a 48V system, you would need to also buy a DC voltage converter.
  15. 15. How to decide Battery size Steps to decide the Battery size: 1. Decide the voltage of the battery. 2. Determine the total watt hours you will be using per day. = 5060 WHr 3. Determine the Days of autonomy. (Means decide the no. of days you want your battery to support your electrical systems) = 1 4. Multiply the number of watt*hours from your load calculation (Step 2) by the number of storage days (Step 3). = 5060 * 1 = 5060 W 5. Determine how deeply you want to discharge your batteries. 80% is considered the maximum amount you can discharge your lead-acid battery array, whereas 50% is an optimal amount for battery longevity. Then divide the amount calculated in Step 4 by 0.80 or 0.50. = 5060/0.8 = 6325 WHr 6. Find the watt hour capacity of the battery you selected. This is the voltage of the battery times the ampere hour capacity. For example, the PVX-4050HT Solar Battery is a 6V, 266 Ah battery. So it's Watt*Hour capacity is: 6Vx266Ah = 1596 WHr.
  16. 16. How to decide Battery size 7. Determine the number of batteries you need (almost). Divide the value you calculated for Step 5 by the value you found for Step 6. Example : 6325/1596= 4 Batteries 8. Round the number of batteries to fit the system voltage you selected. For instance, a 12V system will require that you use 6V batteries in sets of 2, or a 24V system will require 6V batteries to be used in sets of four. , if you are planning to have a 12V system and your calculations from Step 8 give you 5 batteries, you must round that number up to 6 batteries.
  17. 17. How to decide inverter size To determine the inverter size we must find the peak load or maximum wattage of your home. This is found by adding up the wattage of the appliances and devices that could be run at the same time. Include everything from microwaves and lights to computers and clocks. The sum will tell you which inverter size you need. Name Of Equipment Wattage Quantity Total equipment watt Fan 100 W 2 200 W Printer 100 W 1 100 W Computer 150 W 2 300 W Light 40 W 3 120 W Laptop 100 W 1 100 W Total Watt 820 W
  18. 18. How to decide Charge Controller Once you have sized your battery bank and solar panel array, determining which charge controller to use is comparatively straight forward. All we have to do is find the current through the controller by using power = voltage x current. Take the power produced by the solar panels and divide by the voltage of the batteries. For example: Example: Our solar array is producing 800 W and charging battery bank is of 12 V. Then the controller size will be = 800/12 = 67 A Now multiply the value of safety factor 1.25 with the value of size controller = 67 * 1.25 = 84 A
  19. 19. Maintenance of Solar Panel • Solar PV systems are durable and do not require regular maintenance • The only maintenance to be done regularly is to clean the dust particles deposited on the panels which can be done by showering water on the panel from the lower floor. 19
  20. 20. Life Span of Solar Panel • The output of the solar panels degrades by about 0.8% every year. • Solar Systems modules have 25 years of useful life with 80 per cent of power still available at the end of that time period. 20
  21. 21. Cost of Solar Panels • The range for a 1 KW system quoted at the expo by various solutions providers is between Rs. 1.20 lakhs to Rs. 1.8 lakhs. • Cost of 3750W solar system is up to $6756 which is around 4.3 Lakh 21
  22. 22. Cost of Solar Panel **Reference taken from - http://www.wholesalesolar.com/gridtie.html 22
  23. 23. Cost Trends - Photovoltaic's COEcents/kWh 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 100 80 60 40 20 Years Cost-cents/kwh 23
  24. 24. Why Solar panel is not much used? • Solar power cannot be obtained at night. • Solar cells (or) solar panels are very expensive • Air pollution and whether can affect the production of electricity • They need large area of land to produce more efficient power supply • Due to PV efficiency and low market demand, technological progression is slow. • Large land areas needed to produce energy on a power plant scale • Lack of subsidies and tax credits in India. • Lack of awareness about the benefits of solar energy towards environment. 24
  25. 25. Why to use solar power system • Solar power reduces your carbon footprint. • As calculated the coal left will last only for 109 years. • According to the IEA Clean Coal Centre, there are over 2300 coal-fired power stations worldwide as per 2011. • The average household generates 7.4 tons of carbon dioxide per year through electrical use. • Temperature of the earth has started to increase Since the early 20th century, the global air and sea surface temperature has increased about 0.8°C (1.4°F) • Due this high emission of carbon dioxide the Glaciers have started melting which will result in rise of sea level by 23 inches within the next 100 years which in 25
  26. 26. Air Pollution 26
  27. 27. • However, as technology increases, solar prices fall, and electricity prices rise, this may become a more economical solution. • I also greatly reduces the amount of harmful emissions. Conclusion 27
  28. 28. References -http://www.firstpost.com/india/indias-carbon-dioxide-emmission- shoots-up-7-7-in-a-year-study-1238553.html -http://www.wholesalesolar.com/gridtie.html - http://www.eai.in/ref/ae/sol/sol.html#sthash.2ajthLN6.dpuf -https://www.worldcoal.org/resources/frequently-asked-questions/ -http://eartheasy.com/blog/2013/03/our-experience-with-a-solar- energy-grid-tie-system/ -http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/More-homes-opt-for- solar-energy/articleshow/5280270.cms -http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/health-sapping.html -http://www.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/net- metering.html 28
  29. 29. You decide in which planet you want to live? Thank You 29

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