Outline<br />Background<br />Facts and Figures: J&K, Pakistan, India, China<br />History: Before the British<br />History: After Independence<br />The Wars<br />Recent Events and Current Status<br />Why are they fighting?<br />Challenges & Solutions<br />
Jammu and Kashmir:<br />Agricultural Economy: Main pillars Agriculture and Horticulture<br />Textiles (“Cashmere wool”)<br />Tourism : has declined greatly since 80s, resurging in recent years<br />Literacy and Education: at par with respective national levels<br />Amarnath Cave – Hindu Pilgrimage Site<br />India Administered Kashmir: GDP: $11000m, Increasing, Large recipients of grants, one of the lowest poverty rates in the country at 4%, considered partly free<br />Pakistan Administered Kashmir: Not much information, but generally worse off than Indian Kashmir, considered not free<br />
History: Before the British<br />An important center of Hinduism and Buddhism in the uptil 1300s. Harmony between Hindus/Buddhists and Muslims (the name Kashmir comes from this culture) <br />Waves of Islamic invaders started with the barbaric mongolDulucha in the 14th century. Killed, destroyed and converted.<br />By the 19th century, Sikhs had conquered the area.<br />1845: 1st Anglo-Sikh war , ended up separating the Sikh kingdom into 2, one of which became modern day J&K.<br />It was now ‘princely state(1846)’ that Gulab Singh(a Hindu) was given as part of the treaty with the British.<br />Still retained diverse ethnic groups, but was now predominantly islamic (sunni) <br />
History: After Independence<br />Maharaja Hari Singh (A Hindu) was the ruler.<br />He did not wish to accede to either nation state and instead sought an independent state.<br />Indian response: Ruler is autocratic, unpopular and decision must rest with popular leader Sheikh Abdullah (A muslim) <But just lip service<br />Pakistani Response: If it had not been a princely state and had been under direct British administration, it would have been a part of Pakistan<br />Pakistan decides to invade J&K to force the ruler to accede to Pakistan.<br />Hari Singh appeals to India to protect his kingdom, India demands Hari Singh to accede to India if he wants protection. Mountbatten (The Governor General) supports accession to India.<br />
Multiple Wars<br />Indo-Pakistani war of 1947: 14 month war, India is beating invading tribesmen (Pathanimuslims) and pakistani regulars<br />(India moved UNSC) The UN passes Resolution 47: immediate cease-fire, Pakistan must withdraw all military forces. Pakistan would have no say in J&Kpolitics. India would retain a minimum military. Impartial Plebiscite.<br />Sheikh Abdullah favored India to militarily defeat Pakistan<br />Resolution broken by Pakistan<br />UN puts out 11 more proposals for resolutions, India rejects them. India musciling puppet govts to pass a constitution that establishes it as part of India<br />War again in 1965 and 1971. India Wins; Agree on Bilateral Peace Talks<br />Insurgency in 1989<br />Then al-Qaeda, Hafiz Saeed and rising islamic extremism<br />Kargil War in 1999. Indian Wins again.<br />
Recent Events and Current Status<br />Over 500,000 Indian troops estimated in Kashmir<br />90s: Just like war: torture, custodial killings, youths signing up with militias<br />50000 dead by 2000. Most militias killed or laid down arms<br />In 2002, Pak and India almost go to war after terrorist attack on Indian Parliament. Nuclear War seemed possible.<br />2004-2008: relatively period of reprive<br />2008 a large pro-independence movement. Seemed a great turn towards non-violence. But state response was violent.<br />
Challenges<br />Everything.<br />Literacy, Education Systems. Society, Economy, Industry, Infrastructure<br />Hindu-Muslim peace and harmony<br />Militancy and Terrorism<br />Global Support and Resonance <br />Human Rights issues<br />Woman Rights<br />
Plausible Outcomes/Solutions<br /><ul><li>Continued Deadlock: Issues of Islamic Extremism and Unresolved Legitimacy Issues ; Implausible that nation states agree to give up their respective areas, Independency for Kashmir preposterous.
Very dangerous to take extreme actions: Terrorists are volatile + Nuclear weapons In the area.
Seems Best to sweep it under the carpet for now
Best that the nation states can do is develop regions under their respective control and give greater autonomy
Build systems to involve local leadership to develop education, infrastructure, spread technology, modernize agriculture, increase exports etc.
India Pakistan pursue peace efforts and trade that circumvent this issue.
Discuss various scenarios if time permits</li></li></ul><li>My Solutions<br />Unbridled, vehement, complete extermination of militant and extremist forces in the area. By ?<br />Pakistan must be forced to exterminate terrorist organizations in Pakistan<br />Taliban and Afghani extremism must also end.<br />Accompanied by continued/increased development of the Area.<br />IMMEDIATELY IMPROVE: EDUCATION <br />IMP: Providing cheap communications, internet and electrification<br />IMP: Secularization of society, Modernization of economy<br />(Synchronous) Demilitarization<br />Complete Accession to the state of India<br />Democratic Elections and all minority laws afforded. <br />
Resources/Follow-Up<br />Panel organized by Basharat Peer: http://fora.tv/2010/06/30/Solve_Kashmir_First_New_Thinking_on_the_S_Asia_Conflict#fullprogram<br />Different Scenarios: http://aacounterterror.wordpress.com/2010/03/20/possible-solutions-for-kashmir/<br />Hafiz Saeed denounces Indo-Pak peace talks: http://news.oneindia.in/2011/04/12/hafiz-saeed-denounces-india-pak-peace-talk-aid0120.html<br />Hafiz Saeed: Character Analysis http://www.eurasiareview.com/hafiz-saeed-an-angel-or-a-demon-analysis-18042011/<br />The Nation(PK) http://www.nation.com.pk (Search for India/Kashmir)<br />Pictures of Kashmir: http://kashmirphotos.org/index.html<br />J&K Clear, Concise History: http://www.jammu-kashmir.com/basicfacts/basics.html<br />India behind terrorism in Pakistan: Saeedhttp://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Regional/Lahore/25-Mar-2011/India-behind-terrorism-in-Pakistan-Saeed<br />More Autonomy and other sensible solutiions from academics http://www.hindustantimes.com/rssfeed/Srinagar/Give-Jammu-and-Kashmir-more-autonomy-say-interlocutors/Article1-687339.aspx<br />