Leap of Faith: Intelligent Design after Dover

764 views

Published on

Josh Rosenau presents a Darwin Day talk to Albany, CA's Kol Hadash. He describes his work at the National Center for Science Education, and discusses attacks on evolution education in the US and abroad, as well as growing attacks on climate education.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
764
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
95
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Fundamentals, R. A. Torrey\n
  • Somewhere, at some point in time, someone did something, somehow, for some reason, that affected the history of life somehow.\n
  • “Students will be made aware of gaps/problems in Darwin’s theory and of other theories of evolution including, but not limited to, intelligent design. \nNote: Origins of life will not be taught.”\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • In just the last 5 years, NCSE has tracked the spread of creationist attacks on science education in 19 countries and 48 states, missing only Hawaii and South Dakota. If any of you think evolution is on safe ground in South Dakota, perhaps you’d like a prospectus for my new Bigfoot ranch. This is a self-selected sample, since of course we can't monitor every classroom, so if no one in a community objects to creationism being taught in their public schools, we might never hear about it. The odds are also against Hawaii's chances at being a paradise for evolution education.\n
  • In just the last 5 years, NCSE has tracked the spread of creationist attacks on science education in 19 countries and 48 states, missing only Hawaii and South Dakota. If any of you think evolution is on safe ground in South Dakota, perhaps you’d like a prospectus for my new Bigfoot ranch. This is a self-selected sample, since of course we can't monitor every classroom, so if no one in a community objects to creationism being taught in their public schools, we might never hear about it. The odds are also against Hawaii's chances at being a paradise for evolution education.\n
  • In just the last 5 years, NCSE has tracked the spread of creationist attacks on science education in 19 countries and 48 states, missing only Hawaii and South Dakota. If any of you think evolution is on safe ground in South Dakota, perhaps you’d like a prospectus for my new Bigfoot ranch. This is a self-selected sample, since of course we can't monitor every classroom, so if no one in a community objects to creationism being taught in their public schools, we might never hear about it. The odds are also against Hawaii's chances at being a paradise for evolution education.\n
  • In just the last 5 years, NCSE has tracked the spread of creationist attacks on science education in 19 countries and 48 states, missing only Hawaii and South Dakota. If any of you think evolution is on safe ground in South Dakota, perhaps you’d like a prospectus for my new Bigfoot ranch. This is a self-selected sample, since of course we can't monitor every classroom, so if no one in a community objects to creationism being taught in their public schools, we might never hear about it. The odds are also against Hawaii's chances at being a paradise for evolution education.\n
  • In just the last 5 years, NCSE has tracked the spread of creationist attacks on science education in 19 countries and 48 states, missing only Hawaii and South Dakota. If any of you think evolution is on safe ground in South Dakota, perhaps you’d like a prospectus for my new Bigfoot ranch. This is a self-selected sample, since of course we can't monitor every classroom, so if no one in a community objects to creationism being taught in their public schools, we might never hear about it. The odds are also against Hawaii's chances at being a paradise for evolution education. … We do know that pressure on teachers is widespread\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • This is the strategy that the ICR, for example, recommended after the shock of Edwards v. Aguillard. Note that it relies on what Overton called, in his decision in Mclean, the “contrived dualism”: the idea that evolution and creationism are not only contradictory but exhaustive, so any evidence against, problems with, or gaps in evolution are perforce evidence for creationism. The ICR was not particularly diligent about pursuing this recommendation, however; after Edwards, young-earth creationism became in effect ghettoized. YEC degenerated further into a parade of revival meetings, debates held to inspire the faithful, pseudoscientific books published by small sectarian presses, and proprietary creationist-only conferences.\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • In 1998, Process skills included 3A\nSounds innocuous – good stuff for student to know\nBut in 2003, when biology textbooks were adopted, it was used to try to water down the coverage of evolution in textbooks\nSo in 2008, writing committees decided to leave that wording out and replace 3A with a critical thinking standard that could not be used to bash evolution\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • In 2009, however, board amended 3A – after several attempts to replace the S&W wording – was a whole thesaurus’ worth of euphemisms for S&W!\n“supportive/nonsupportive”\nSufficiency/insufficiency”, etc. \nFinally settled on “examining all sides” – which will allow the creos on board to hound textbook pubishers yet again\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • “Alternative theories or points of view on … biological or phyiscal origins”\nAcademic Freedom Act started in Alabama, as a “permissive/protective” approach to allow teachers to teach “alternative theories”\nPaul Hubbert, Ex Dir of AL Educat Assoc = “didn’t know of a singe incident” of teacher experiencing discrimination over teaching evolution; \nIntended to encourage the teaching of creationism w/o using the term. Sponsor said “This bill will level the playing field because it allows a teacher to bring forward the biblical creation story of humankind.“\nRep. Jim Carns, was quoted, "Evolution is one theory, creation is an alternative theory."\nBills got out of committee, but didn’t get through the House before the legislature adjourned\n
  • \n
  • Original AL bill: rights of students/teachers; legal protection, “alternate theories”\nAL bill critiqued by Discovery Institute, later versions drop ref to ‘alternate theories” replacing with Santorum language – “full range of scientific views”\n ref to Edwards (“scientific critiques of prevailing scientific theories could be taught”); strengthens Santorum language\nThis is the root of FL bill, as well\n
  • Original AL bill: rights of students/teachers; legal protection, “alternate theories”\nAL bill critiqued by Discovery Institute, later versions drop ref to ‘alternate theories” replacing with Santorum language – “full range of scientific views”\n ref to Edwards (“scientific critiques of prevailing scientific theories could be taught”); strengthens Santorum language\nThis is the root of FL bill, as well\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • The tree on the right represents another strain of AFAs, originating from a 2006 policy passed in Ouichita Parish in Louisiana, promoted by the Louisiana Family Forum, a conservative Xian organization\nCouched in terms of encouraging critical thinking of students – “critical analysis” of scientific theories\nLouisiana AFA passed a couple of years later was introduced by father of the Ouichita parish bill, when he was elected to the state house of reps\nAdded provision that administrators can’t “censor” materials, and stated this wasn’t to promote religion\n
  • Two strains , as in horizontal gene transfer, have influenced one another – more detail than necessary\nLeft: full range of scientific views (freedom of expression, students = permission to attack evolution)\nRight: S&W , critical analysis justification. Often include global warming, stem cell, etc. bundles\n
  • Singles out evolution\nDenies religious influence\nAdvocates supplementary texts (like LFF “addenda”)\n
  • Singles out evolution\nDenies religious influence\nAdvocates supplementary texts (like LFF “addenda”)\n
  • Singles out evolution\nDenies religious influence\nAdvocates supplementary texts (like LFF “addenda”)\n
  • Singles out evolution\nDenies religious influence\nAdvocates supplementary texts (like LFF “addenda”)\n
  • Singles out evolution\nDenies religious influence\nAdvocates supplementary texts (like LFF “addenda”)\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Explore Evolution, page 116\n
  • \n
  • Explore Evolution, page 35, figure 1:11\n\nCompare the top figure on this slide with the bottom figure on the next slide. Both depict the large gaps between phyla that support the polyphyletic view. However, the image on the next slide additionally illustrates descent with modification within a basic body plan (branching pattern within one tree; there being an “orchard” of trees according to the fossil data). However, even the image on the next slide is selective in what it illustrates (as indeed all illustrations abstract certain features of reality to display graphically). \n
  • \n
  • Three pictures of life, \n
  • Three pictures of life, \n
  • Three pictures of life, \n
  • \n
  • The absence of evidence is not evidence of absence, but this style of argument reflects the “contrived dualism” at the root of ID and earlier creationisms. \n
  • Setting aside the religious implications of this strategy, presenting students with such negative arguments does them a disservice. Requiring students learn that certain topics are unknown and unknowable miseducates students about science and weakens the foundation of their future learning. By presenting absent evidence as if it were evidence itself, Explore Evolution repeats its predecessor’s errors and leaves students with a flawed foundation on which little new scientific knowledge can build. The dangers are readily illustrated. …\n
  • Explore Evolution, published 13 years after Behe’s claim, now cites this sequence as a rare counterexample to their belief that such transitional sequences do not exist, waving off contrary evidence rather than using it as an opportunity to educate students about how science actually works. A student learning from a book like Pandas or Explore Evolution which teaches that new evidence will never be found would be unprepared to understand, let alone seek out, new fossil sequences or other unknown answers to scientific questions. This is bad pedagogy, and it is bad science.\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • “may it be unthinkable for all Jews”\n
  • “may it be unthinkable for all Jews”\n
  • “may it be unthinkable for all Jews”\n
  • “may it be unthinkable for all Jews”\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • <pause> Tomorrow's economy rests in part on their scientific knowledge, and the United States is at risk of losing its edge if we don't solve this problem. … Dobzhansky had part of the solution\n
  • Unfortunately, that trend doesn't hold for evolution. Genie co-authored a paper with Jon Miller and Shinji Okamoto in 2006 which found that, when comparing evolution understanding in 34 industrialized nations, … the US placed 33rd, behind such scientific powerhouses as Cyprus and the Slovak Republic and ahead only of Turkey. This is hardly where we want to be as we try to rebuild our economy and create 21st century industries in the US. … The same worrying trends show up\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • We do know that pressure on teachers is widespread. In an informal online survey by the National Science Teachers Association in 2005,… 30% of science teachers said that administrators and parents\n
  • 30% of science teachers said that administrators and parents… told them not to teach evolution, and\n
  • told them not to teach evolution, and… 31% report being\n
  • 31% report being… told to teach creationism\n
  • told to teach creationism.  That survey matches rigorous scientific surveys of teachers in several states.\n\nThis is also borne out by a national survey of high school biology teachers from 2008,… which found that one in eight teachers spend at least an hour of class time advocating creationism\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • And Judge Overton found that Act 590 indeed violated two of the prongs of the Lemon test.\n
  • And Judge Overton found that Act 590 indeed violated two of the prongs of the Lemon test.\n
  • And Judge Overton found that Act 590 indeed violated two of the prongs of the Lemon test.\n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • … hedge funds that invest billion of dollars in a computer algorithm that evolves virtual stock traders, whose results consistently beat the human traders on Wall Street; … oncologists using their understanding of evolution to shortcircuit the selective process that increases the growth and metastasis of a tumor; … flash drive manufacturers using evolutionary algorithms to boost the lifespan of those increasingly vital storage devices. … They're even evolving camoflage! … Just last week, researchers reported using evolutionary algorithms to predict a new form of elemental boron, nearly as hard as diamonds, and then to synthesize it in the lab. … Cosmologists have even used evolution to make sense of the laws of physics. In such models, our universe is the way it is because the process by which new universes are spawned is subject to a form of natural selection, with our universe's laws being the result of a long evolutionary process built on generations of ancestor universes.\n\nBut the last example … I want to bug you about is Integrated Pest Management\n
  • … hedge funds that invest billion of dollars in a computer algorithm that evolves virtual stock traders, whose results consistently beat the human traders on Wall Street; … oncologists using their understanding of evolution to shortcircuit the selective process that increases the growth and metastasis of a tumor; … flash drive manufacturers using evolutionary algorithms to boost the lifespan of those increasingly vital storage devices. … They're even evolving camoflage! … Just last week, researchers reported using evolutionary algorithms to predict a new form of elemental boron, nearly as hard as diamonds, and then to synthesize it in the lab. … Cosmologists have even used evolution to make sense of the laws of physics. In such models, our universe is the way it is because the process by which new universes are spawned is subject to a form of natural selection, with our universe's laws being the result of a long evolutionary process built on generations of ancestor universes.\n\nBut the last example … I want to bug you about is Integrated Pest Management\n
  • … hedge funds that invest billion of dollars in a computer algorithm that evolves virtual stock traders, whose results consistently beat the human traders on Wall Street; … oncologists using their understanding of evolution to shortcircuit the selective process that increases the growth and metastasis of a tumor; … flash drive manufacturers using evolutionary algorithms to boost the lifespan of those increasingly vital storage devices. … They're even evolving camoflage! … Just last week, researchers reported using evolutionary algorithms to predict a new form of elemental boron, nearly as hard as diamonds, and then to synthesize it in the lab. … Cosmologists have even used evolution to make sense of the laws of physics. In such models, our universe is the way it is because the process by which new universes are spawned is subject to a form of natural selection, with our universe's laws being the result of a long evolutionary process built on generations of ancestor universes.\n\nBut the last example … I want to bug you about is Integrated Pest Management\n
  • … hedge funds that invest billion of dollars in a computer algorithm that evolves virtual stock traders, whose results consistently beat the human traders on Wall Street; … oncologists using their understanding of evolution to shortcircuit the selective process that increases the growth and metastasis of a tumor; … flash drive manufacturers using evolutionary algorithms to boost the lifespan of those increasingly vital storage devices. … They're even evolving camoflage! … Just last week, researchers reported using evolutionary algorithms to predict a new form of elemental boron, nearly as hard as diamonds, and then to synthesize it in the lab. … Cosmologists have even used evolution to make sense of the laws of physics. In such models, our universe is the way it is because the process by which new universes are spawned is subject to a form of natural selection, with our universe's laws being the result of a long evolutionary process built on generations of ancestor universes.\n\nBut the last example … I want to bug you about is Integrated Pest Management\n
  • … hedge funds that invest billion of dollars in a computer algorithm that evolves virtual stock traders, whose results consistently beat the human traders on Wall Street; … oncologists using their understanding of evolution to shortcircuit the selective process that increases the growth and metastasis of a tumor; … flash drive manufacturers using evolutionary algorithms to boost the lifespan of those increasingly vital storage devices. … They're even evolving camoflage! … Just last week, researchers reported using evolutionary algorithms to predict a new form of elemental boron, nearly as hard as diamonds, and then to synthesize it in the lab. … Cosmologists have even used evolution to make sense of the laws of physics. In such models, our universe is the way it is because the process by which new universes are spawned is subject to a form of natural selection, with our universe's laws being the result of a long evolutionary process built on generations of ancestor universes.\n\nBut the last example … I want to bug you about is Integrated Pest Management\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • to follow Dobzhansky's maxim.\n
  • Leap of Faith: Intelligent Design after Dover

    1. 1. Leap of Faith:Intelligent Design after Dover Joshua Rosenau National Center for Science Education
    2. 2. “Intelligent design” 1989-2005
    3. 3. “Intelligent design” 1989-2005
    4. 4. ID Not Science
    5. 5. Controversy!
    6. 6. DC2005 + 7 countries
    7. 7. DC2006 + 13 countries
    8. 8. DC2007 + 14 countries
    9. 9. DC2008 + 18 countries
    10. 10. DC2009 + 19 countries
    11. 11. Euphemisms…
    12. 12. Euphemisms…• “critically analyze evidence for evolution”• “both evidence for and evidence against evolution”• “both strengths and weaknesses of evolution”• “evolution as theory not fact”• “teach the full range of views about origins”• “teach the controversy”
    13. 13. Euphemisms… ci ce• “critically analyze evidence for evolution” enagainst evolution” and s• “both evidence foron-evidence f• Tea ch n weaknesseso evolution” e of “both strengths and am n fact”• i n t he s” es about origins” “evolution as theory not• “ fa iof n “teach the full range r views• “teach the controversy”
    14. 14. Institute for Creation (1987) “…school boards and teachers should be strongly encouraged at least to stress the scientificevidences and arguments against evolution in their classes... even ifthey don’t wish to recognize these as evidences and arguments for creation.”
    15. 15. As a consequence [ofKitzmiller], administrativeguidelines, even legislativeenactments, are needed toprovide clearer protectionfor the rights of studentsand teachers to criticallyanalyze Darwins theory inthe classroom.(DeWolf et al, 2006,Traipsing into Evolution, p. 78)
    16. 16. The establishment of public schools isunconstitutional and even tyrannical.
    17. 17. The establishment of public schools isunconstitutional and even tyrannical. WTF
    18. 18. Board’s amendment:…analyze, evaluate, and critiquescientific explanations by usingempirical evidence, logicalreasoning and experimental andobservational testing, includingexamining all sides of scientificevidence of those scientificexplanations so as to encouragecritical thinking by students.
    19. 19. Earth and Space Science:....observations reveal differing theories about thestructure, scale, composition, origin, and history of theuniverse.Biology:analyze and evaluate scientific explanations concerning anydata of sudden appearance, stasis and the sequentialnature of groups in the fossil recordsEnvironmental Science:…evidence for and against the existence of global warming.
    20. 20. Earth and Space Science:....observations reveal differing theories about thestructure, scale, composition, origin, and history of theuniverse.Biology:analyze and evaluate scientific explanations concerning anydata of sudden appearance, stasis and the sequentialnature of groups in the fossil recordsEnvironmental Science:…evidence for and against the existence of global warming. Don McLeroy DDS then chairman of the Texas Board of Education
    21. 21. “Academic freedom”~36 bills filed in a dozen states 6 filed thus far this year
    22. 22. LA Science Education Act
    23. 23. LA Science Education Act
    24. 24. LA Science Education Act
    25. 25. LA Science Education Act
    26. 26. LA Science Education Act
    27. 27. LA Science Education Act
    28. 28. Louisiana Family Forum supplements
    29. 29. Louisiana Family Forum supplements
    30. 30. Louisiana Family Forum supplements
    31. 31. Pandas, extinct since Dover
    32. 32. Pandas, extinct since Dover
    33. 33. Explore Evolution
    34. 34. Darwin’s “Organs of Extreme Perfection”“If it could be … [shown] that anycomplex organ existed which couldnot possibly have been formed bynumerous, successive, slightmodifications, my theory wouldabsolutely break down.”Charles Darwin, Origin of Species, Chapter 6
    35. 35. The next sentence “But I can find out no such case. … “We should be extremely cautious in concluding that an organ could not have been formed by transitional gradations of some kind. Numerous cases could be given amongst the lower animals… “In such cases natural selection might specialise, … and thus by insensible steps greatly change its nature.”
    36. 36. Fossils Actually Found vs. Darwin’s Theory•Large gaps (between phyla) support the “many starting points” view Darwin’s Theory
    37. 37. Explore Evolution
    38. 38. 1991 Int’l. Conf. Creationism Explore Evolution
    39. 39. DontDiiissssssDaarrrw n D D D D Origin of Species Use with your copy of Comfort’s for best results, insert at p. 59BANANAS Dont Dont aw wiiin n ...cccoom SCIENCE omm The NCSE SafetyBookmark™ The NCSE SafetyBookmark
    40. 40. Trinity Broadcast Network
    41. 41. Trinity Broadcast NetworkStein: [T]he last time any of my relatives sawscientists telling them what to do they weretelling them to go to the showers to getgassed … that’s where science — in myopinion, this is just an opinion — that’swhere science leads you.
    42. 42. Trinity Broadcast NetworkStein: [T]he last time any of my relatives sawscientists telling them what to do they weretelling them to go to the showers to getgassed … that’s where science — in myopinion, this is just an opinion — that’swhere science leads you.Crouch: That’s right.
    43. 43. Trinity Broadcast NetworkStein: [T]he last time any of my relatives sawscientists telling them what to do they weretelling them to go to the showers to getgassed … that’s where science — in myopinion, this is just an opinion — that’swhere science leads you.Crouch: That’s right.Stein: …Love of God and compassion andempathy leads you to a very glorious place,and science leads you to killing people.
    44. 44. Trinity Broadcast NetworkStein: [T]he last time any of my relatives sawscientists telling them what to do they weretelling them to go to the showers to getgassed … that’s where science — in myopinion, this is just an opinion — that’swhere science leads you.Crouch: That’s right.Stein: …Love of God and compassion andempathy leads you to a very glorious place,and science leads you to killing people.Crouch: Good word, good word.
    45. 45. The Anti-Defamation League:[Expelled] misappropriates the Holocaust and its imageryas a part of its political effort to discredit the scientificcommunity which rejects so-called intelligent designtheory.Hitler did not need Darwin to devise his heinous plan toexterminate the Jewish people and Darwin andevolutionary theory cannot explain Hitlers genocidalmadness.Using the Holocaust in order to tarnish those whopromote the theory of evolution is outrageous andtrivializes the complex factors that led to the massextermination of European Jewry.
    46. 46. When I asked Stein about this statement, … he told me bluntly,“Its none of their f---ing business.”
    47. 47. 1/ teachers 8 promote creationism
    48. 48. 6/ teachers 10 minimize evolution
    49. 49. Reject evolution Not sure Accept evolutionJon D. Miller, Eugenie C. Scott, Shinji Okamoto (2006) Science 313(5788):765-766
    50. 50. Reject evolution Not sure Accept evolution e re areh YouJon D. Miller, Eugenie C. Scott, Shinji Okamoto (2006) Science 313(5788):765-766
    51. 51. The theory of evolution, anoutdated 19th century concept,has completely collapsed in theface of todays scientific facts.Darwinists have no scientificreply to offer in the face of thefossil record, which deals the mostsevere blow to the theory ofevolution. Harun Yahya, (2006) Atlas of Creation, p. 612
    52. 52. Violent ideologies such as racism,fascism and communism, and manyother cruel world views based onconflict have all drawn strength fromthis deception [evolution]. Harun Yahya, (2006) Atlas of Creation, p. 616
    53. 53. The truth revealed by science isthat the theory of evolution iswrong, and that the universe andliving things are the creation ofGod. Harun Yahya, (2006) Atlas of Creation, p. 613
    54. 54. Optimism
    55. 55. We always win
    56. 56. Epperson v.Arkansas, 1968We always win
    57. 57. McLean v. Epperson v. Arkansas, 1981Arkansas, 1968We always win
    58. 58. McLean v. Epperson v. Arkansas, 1981 Arkansas, 1968 We always win Edwards v.Aguillard 1987
    59. 59. McLean v. Epperson v. Arkansas, 1981 Arkansas, 1968 We always win Edwards v. Kitzmiller v.Aguillard 1987 Dover, 2005
    60. 60. B F B F B B B F B B D C B F B A A A C N/A A C F C B D A AA B F D F- B D B DC A F F B D A C A F F F B C CD C F D A F 2000: A:10, B: 14, C: 7, D: 6, F: 12, F-: 1
    61. 61. B C C C B B B A B C D C B D B D A B C C A C B C B B AA B F C A C D A DC B F D B C A A A B F C B F FD C A D F 2000: A:10, B: 14, C: 7, D: 6, F: 12, F-: 1 2010: A:10, B: 16, C: 14, D: 6, F: 5
    62. 62. New discoveries
    63. 63. Evo-Devo
    64. 64. Evo-Devo
    65. 65. SynthiaEvo-Devo
    66. 66. SynthiaEvo-Devo Evolving RNA enzymes
    67. 67. SynthiaEvo-Devo Artificial biochemistry Evolving RNA enzymes
    68. 68. http://ncse.comhttp://facebook.com/evolution.ncse http://twitter.com/ncse

    ×