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You wrote this scenario from the perspective of Behaviorism learni.docx

You wrote this scenario from the perspective of Behaviorism learning theory Now I want two scenarios same this scenario but from two different perspectives that they are Cognitivism Learning theory and Social learning theory For further clarification see attached example Learning Situation from Behaviorism Learning Theory The class of 20 students is divided into two teams, having 10 students in each team. The teacher makes two columns on the board for team A and team B. Teacher points out, Yesterday in our history class we studied about the civil rights movement I hope you have well-prepared that topic. Let’s start an informal quiz based on yesterday’s topic. Are you guys ready? Students say, “Yes”! Teacher starts asking questions. Team A! Which sports Jackie Robinson played? Students raised their hands. Robert? Can you give the answer? Robert says soccer. Teacher appreciating Robert’s effort says very good Robert and write 10 under the column of Team A. Next question for Team B, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. went to the college to become? Students raise their hands. James, can you answer? James says, “Minister”. Teacher appreciates the attempt but the answer is not correct. Ok! Now, what you guys think what was the main contribution of Abraham Lincoln?Timothy raised his hand and replied, he brought freedom and abolish slavery. Rosie raised her hand and replied, he ran the country being a president of the country. Teacher says, when we freedom was attained by the African American it was not solely due to Abraham Lincoln. Who played the actual role? Joseph replies, African Americans themselves. Teacher appreciated Joseph’s answer saying absolutely right. No leader can bring freedom from slavery or racism until its people are themselves not ready to put their efforts. Nation needs to be united to get rid of inequality. Learning Situation from Cognitivism Learning Theory: Learning Situation from Social Learning Theory: 3 | Page Chapter 2 terminology Psych260 Nervous System- A network of billions of cells in the brain and the body responsible for all aspects of what we feel, think, and do. Central nervous system- The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system- The part of the nervous central nervous system with the muscles, organs and glands. Neurons- The basic units of the nervous system cells that receive integrate and transmit information in the nervous system. Neurons operate through electrical impulses communicate with other neurons through electrical impulses communicate with other neurons through chemical signals and form neural networks. Dendrites – Branchlike extensions of the neuron with receptors that detect information from other neurons. Cell Body- Part of the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated. Axon- A long narrow outgrowth of a neuron that enables the neuron to transmit information to other neurons..

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You wrote this scenario from the perspective of Behaviorism
learning theory Now I want two scenarios same this scenario but
from two different perspectives that they are Cognitivism
Learning theory and Social learning theory
For further clarification see attached example
Learning Situation from Behaviorism Learning Theory
The class of 20 students is divided into two teams, having 10
students in each team. The teacher makes two columns on the
board for team A and team B. Teacher points out, Yesterday in
our history class we studied about the civil rights movement I
hope you have well-prepared that topic. Let’s start an informal
quiz based on yesterday’s topic. Are you guys ready? Students
say, “Yes”! Teacher starts asking questions. Team A! Which
sports Jackie Robinson played? Students raised their hands.
Robert? Can you give the answer? Robert says soccer. Teacher
appreciating Robert’s effort says very good Robert and write 10
under the column of Team A. Next question for Team B, Dr.
Martin Luther King Jr. went to the college to become? Students
raise their hands. James, can you answer? James says,
“Minister”. Teacher appreciates the attempt but the answer is
not correct. Ok! Now, what you guys think what was the main
contribution of Abraham Lincoln?Timothy raised his hand and
replied, he brought freedom and abolish slavery. Rosie raised
her hand and replied, he ran the country being a president of the
country. Teacher says, when we freedom was attained by the
African American it was not solely due to Abraham Lincoln.
Who played the actual role? Joseph replies, African Americans
themselves. Teacher appreciated Joseph’s answer saying
absolutely right. No leader can bring freedom from slavery or
racism until its people are themselves not ready to put their
efforts. Nation needs to be united to get rid of inequality.
Learning Situation from Cognitivism Learning Theory:
Learning Situation from Social Learning Theory:
3 | Page
Chapter 2 terminology
Psych260
Nervous System-
A network of billions of cells in the brain and the body
responsible for all aspects of what we feel, think, and do.
Central nervous system-
The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the
spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system-
The part of the nervous central nervous system with the
muscles, organs and glands.
Neurons-
The basic units of the nervous system cells that receive
integrate and transmit information in the nervous system.
Neurons operate through electrical impulses communicate with
other neurons through electrical impulses communicate with
other neurons through chemical signals and form neural
networks.
Dendrites –
Branchlike extensions of the neuron with receptors that detect
information from other neurons.
Cell Body-
Part of the neuron where information from thousands of other
neurons is collected and integrated.
Axon-
A long narrow outgrowth of a neuron that enables the neuron to
transmit information to other neurons.
Synapse-
The site where communication occurs between neurons through
neurotransmitters.
Action Potential-
The neural impulse that travels along the axon and then causes
the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse.
Neurotransmitters-
Chemical substances that carry signals from one neuron to
another.
Broca’s area-
A small portion of the left frontal region of the brain; this area
is crucial for producing speech.
Medulla-
A hindbrain structure at the top of the spinal cord; controls
functions such as breathing and heart rate.
Pons-
A hindbrain structure above the medulla; it regulates sleep and
arousal and coordinates movements of the left and right sides of
the body.
Cerebellum-
A hindbrain structure behind the medulla and pons; this
structure is essential for coordinated movement and balance.
Thalmus-
A subcortical forebrain structural gateway to the brain for
almost all incoming sensory information before that information
reaches the cortex.
Hypothalamus-
A subcortical forebrain structure involved in regulating bodily
functions. The hypothalamus also influences our basic
motivated behaviors.
Amygdala-
A subcortical forebrain structure that serves a vital roe I
learning to associate things with emotional responses and in
processing emotional information.
Occipital lobes-
Regions of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain; these
regions are important for vision.
Parietal Lobes-
Regions of the cerebral cortex in front of the occipital lobes and
behind the frontal lobe; these regions are important for the
sense of touch and for picturing the layout of spaces in an
environment.
Temporal lobes-
Regions of the cerebral cortex below the parietal lobes and in
front of the occipital lobes; these regions are important for
processing auditory information and for perceiving objects and
faces.
Frontal Lobes-
Regions of the cerebra; cortex at the front of the brain; these
regions are important for movement and complex processes
(rational thought, attention, social processes, etc..
Somatic Nervous System
A part of the peripheral nervous system; this part transmits
sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous
system and the skin, muscles, and joints.
Automatic nervous system-
A part of the peripheral nervous sis part transmits sensory
signals and motor signals between the central nervous system.
Endocrine system
A communication system that uses hormones to influence
thoughts and actions.
Hormones
Chemical substances, released from endocrine glands, that
travel through the bloodstream to targeted tissues; the tissues
are later influenced by the hormones.
Genes-
The units of heredity which partially determine an organism’s
characteristics
Monozygotic Twins-
Identical twins; these siblings result from one zygote splitting
in two, so they share the same genes.
Dizygotic Twins
Fraternal twins; these siblings result from two separately
fertilized eggs, so they are no more similar genetically than
non-twin siblings are.
Plasticity
A property of the brain that causes it to change through
experience, drugs, or injury
What are some of the ways you can use the terminology to help
you learn?
Chapter 2
The Role of Biology in Psychology
Jo-Anne D. Petrie, M.Ed.
September 2018
Psych 206
1
Consists of a network of billions of cells in the brain and body
Responsible for what we feel, think and do.
Basic Functions:
Receive sensory input through the senses
Process information in the brain by being aware, perceiving and
memory.
Respond to information by acting on it.
The Nervous System
2
Watch and discuss
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44B0ms3XPKU
Let’s play!!
Understanding the functions of the brain
1. Sensory input
2. Mode of processing information
3. Responses of input
Think about what your want to use for this experiment. It could

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You wrote this scenario from the perspective of Behaviorism learni.docx

  • 1. You wrote this scenario from the perspective of Behaviorism learning theory Now I want two scenarios same this scenario but from two different perspectives that they are Cognitivism Learning theory and Social learning theory For further clarification see attached example Learning Situation from Behaviorism Learning Theory The class of 20 students is divided into two teams, having 10 students in each team. The teacher makes two columns on the board for team A and team B. Teacher points out, Yesterday in our history class we studied about the civil rights movement I hope you have well-prepared that topic. Let’s start an informal quiz based on yesterday’s topic. Are you guys ready? Students say, “Yes”! Teacher starts asking questions. Team A! Which sports Jackie Robinson played? Students raised their hands. Robert? Can you give the answer? Robert says soccer. Teacher appreciating Robert’s effort says very good Robert and write 10 under the column of Team A. Next question for Team B, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. went to the college to become? Students raise their hands. James, can you answer? James says, “Minister”. Teacher appreciates the attempt but the answer is not correct. Ok! Now, what you guys think what was the main contribution of Abraham Lincoln?Timothy raised his hand and replied, he brought freedom and abolish slavery. Rosie raised her hand and replied, he ran the country being a president of the country. Teacher says, when we freedom was attained by the African American it was not solely due to Abraham Lincoln. Who played the actual role? Joseph replies, African Americans themselves. Teacher appreciated Joseph’s answer saying absolutely right. No leader can bring freedom from slavery or racism until its people are themselves not ready to put their efforts. Nation needs to be united to get rid of inequality.
  • 2. Learning Situation from Cognitivism Learning Theory: Learning Situation from Social Learning Theory: 3 | Page Chapter 2 terminology Psych260 Nervous System- A network of billions of cells in the brain and the body responsible for all aspects of what we feel, think, and do. Central nervous system- The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system- The part of the nervous central nervous system with the muscles, organs and glands. Neurons-
  • 3. The basic units of the nervous system cells that receive integrate and transmit information in the nervous system. Neurons operate through electrical impulses communicate with other neurons through electrical impulses communicate with other neurons through chemical signals and form neural networks. Dendrites – Branchlike extensions of the neuron with receptors that detect information from other neurons. Cell Body- Part of the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated. Axon- A long narrow outgrowth of a neuron that enables the neuron to transmit information to other neurons. Synapse- The site where communication occurs between neurons through neurotransmitters. Action Potential- The neural impulse that travels along the axon and then causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse. Neurotransmitters- Chemical substances that carry signals from one neuron to another. Broca’s area- A small portion of the left frontal region of the brain; this area is crucial for producing speech. Medulla- A hindbrain structure at the top of the spinal cord; controls functions such as breathing and heart rate. Pons- A hindbrain structure above the medulla; it regulates sleep and arousal and coordinates movements of the left and right sides of the body.
  • 4. Cerebellum- A hindbrain structure behind the medulla and pons; this structure is essential for coordinated movement and balance. Thalmus- A subcortical forebrain structural gateway to the brain for almost all incoming sensory information before that information reaches the cortex. Hypothalamus- A subcortical forebrain structure involved in regulating bodily functions. The hypothalamus also influences our basic motivated behaviors. Amygdala- A subcortical forebrain structure that serves a vital roe I learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information. Occipital lobes- Regions of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain; these regions are important for vision. Parietal Lobes- Regions of the cerebral cortex in front of the occipital lobes and behind the frontal lobe; these regions are important for the sense of touch and for picturing the layout of spaces in an environment. Temporal lobes- Regions of the cerebral cortex below the parietal lobes and in front of the occipital lobes; these regions are important for processing auditory information and for perceiving objects and faces. Frontal Lobes- Regions of the cerebra; cortex at the front of the brain; these regions are important for movement and complex processes (rational thought, attention, social processes, etc.. Somatic Nervous System A part of the peripheral nervous system; this part transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the skin, muscles, and joints.
  • 5. Automatic nervous system- A part of the peripheral nervous sis part transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system. Endocrine system A communication system that uses hormones to influence thoughts and actions. Hormones Chemical substances, released from endocrine glands, that travel through the bloodstream to targeted tissues; the tissues are later influenced by the hormones. Genes- The units of heredity which partially determine an organism’s characteristics Monozygotic Twins- Identical twins; these siblings result from one zygote splitting in two, so they share the same genes. Dizygotic Twins Fraternal twins; these siblings result from two separately fertilized eggs, so they are no more similar genetically than non-twin siblings are. Plasticity A property of the brain that causes it to change through experience, drugs, or injury What are some of the ways you can use the terminology to help you learn? Chapter 2 The Role of Biology in Psychology Jo-Anne D. Petrie, M.Ed. September 2018
  • 6. Psych 206 1 Consists of a network of billions of cells in the brain and body Responsible for what we feel, think and do. Basic Functions: Receive sensory input through the senses Process information in the brain by being aware, perceiving and memory. Respond to information by acting on it. The Nervous System 2 Watch and discuss https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44B0ms3XPKU Let’s play!! Understanding the functions of the brain 1. Sensory input 2. Mode of processing information 3. Responses of input Think about what your want to use for this experiment. It could
  • 7. be a fidget, something you have in front of you, or something you find. You have 3 minutes to decide then follow the steps above and record the sensory input you receive, how you processed that information, and your responses of input. 3 To Solidify your examination of the Nervous System….. Central Nervous system- The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System- enables nerves to connect the central nervous system with the muscles, organs and glands. The Nervous System 4 Neurons They receive integrate and transmit information in the nervous system Operate through electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons through chemical signals and from neural fireworks They only reason why we can think and act is because neurons are able to process information with power and efficiency. 5
  • 8. Basic units of our Nervous Systems are : Your brain on communication- A TED Talk https://www.ted.com/talks/uri_hasson_this_is_your_brain_on_c ommunication 6 Firing and Communicating Neurons 1. Transmission Begins when there is enough stimulation in the presynaptic neuron to create action potential. This potential travels quickly down the myelinated axon to the terminal buttons. 7 3 Steps of neural communication
  • 9. 2. The action potential causes chemicals (neurotransmitters) to be released from the terminal buttons at the end of the axon. The neurotransmitters cross the synapse and fit into the receptors of the dendrites of the postsynaptic neuron. 8 Reception 3. Each neurotransmitter has either excitatory or inhibitory effects on the postsynaptic neuron. The effects are “summed” together in the cell body. If there is not enough activation it will lead to another action potential- the process will start again. 9 Integration Remember as the text states in the case of integration it is dependent if the molecules respond correctly to the neurotransmitter. Do you remember the lock and key example in
  • 10. your text? 10 Attaching or binding of neurotransmitters with receptors can produce either of two signals: Excitatory-The signal excites the neuron increasing the likelihood it will fire. Inhibitory- Signal decreases the likelihood the neuron will fire. 11 Excitatory and Inhibitory Signals Research comes from how drugs and other substances affect emotion, thought and behavior. Drugs that enhance the actions of neurotransmitters are called agonists. Those that do not are called antagonists. Addictive drugs re: heroin, cocaine are chemically similar to naturally occurring neurotransmitters. Receptors can not sense the difference between the drug and real neurotransmitters released from the presynaptic neuron. 12 Neurotransmitters
  • 11. Assessment of neurotransmitters affect behavior. Researchers often inject agonists or antagonists into animals brains. These studies help in the development of drug treatments for many psychological and mental disorders. 13 More about neurotransmitters Acetylcholine- motor control over muscles Attention Memory, learning and sleeping Acetylcholine antagonists can cause temporary amnesia. Diminished acetylcholine function is associated with Alzheimer's (severe memory deficits. 14 Neurotransmitters and their major functions Responsible for arousal and alertness Important for noticing things around you Related substance is called epinephrine was originally called adrenaline.
  • 12. Have you heard of an adrenaline rush? Let’s break up into groups take 15 minutes. Count off by 5’s Share what the situation was and what happened? Did you experience a dangerous situation? Fight or flight? 15 Norepinephrine Important for emotional states, impulse control and dreaming Lack of serotonin is thought to contribute to sad and anxious moods, food cravings and aggressive behaviors. Meds like Prozac leave more serotonin in the synapse to bind with the postsynaptic neurons giving that person extra serotonin. 16 Serotonin Most important for motivation and reward Eat- hungry Drink- thirsty Sleep – tired Aroused- Sex Lack of dopamine may be connected to problems with movement. Severe loss of dopamine connected to Parkinson’s. Parkinson's is when the dopamine producing neurons in the brain slowly die off affecting motor, balance, rigid muscles.
  • 13. Later stages people experience severe cognitive and mood disturbances. https://www.cbs.com/shows/cbs-sunday- morning/video/Worjo3CcwvP3mzhXa2ihA8ECG5Tq_B8M/mich ael-j-fox-s-fight-against-parkinson-s/ Can get injections of DOPA – chief building block of dopamine to help surviving neurons produce more dopamine. 17 Dopamine Main inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). Distributed throughout the brain than most other transmitters. GABA drugs are Valium which are used to treat anxiety disorders by calming the person down. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter. . Glutamate receptors aid learning and memory by strengthening synaptic connections. 18 Gaba and Glutamate Neurotransmitter involved in reward- “runners high”
  • 14. What to you like to do to get your endorphins going. How does it make you feel. Think if you could not get that high? 19 Endorphins Brain weighs approximately 3 lbs. Evolved through time Adaptable in environments Most psychologists agreed many studies conducted in the early19 th century believed mental processes were a result of brain function; example singer or dancer. 20 The Brain over time Psychographs posed by Johann Spurzheim. were sold to the public – Claimed to do the work of a psychologist Showed “weak” traits of an individuals abilities etc . They were mapped out by measuring bumps or configurations on the skull
  • 15. 21 Phrenology First came about from the work and anatomist Paul Broca. Performed an autopsy on a patient who lost the skill of language. After brain was examined he discovered a large section of damaged tissue in the left front side. Concluded the left hemisphere was important for speech thus know as Brocas area. 22 Regions of the brain Late 1930’s mental health professionals developed lobotomy's to help those to control their emotions Deliberate damaging of the prefrontal cortex Left people lethargic and emotionless and disconnected from the social world. Lobotomy phased out with the introduction of drugs to help control behaviors. 23 Lobotomy
  • 16. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RfJv4zGpkw 24 Lobotomy EEG https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KXS268XsRic Main brain imaging today is called MRI or magnetic https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AwXJNXNcLNs resonance imaging Measures changes in blood oxygen level to assess blood flow in the brain and can map out the working brain. TMS Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkNbYHu_STU Momentarily disrupts the brain in a specific region to measure brain activity Can be used for only short durations Powerful for examining brain regions necessary for psychological functions. 25 Contemporary Brain Research 26
  • 17. Let's take a closer look at the brain Located at the base of the skull Divided into 3 structures 1. Medulla responsible for breathing, heart rate, vomiting, urination, and orgasm and other survival devices. A blow can cause death. 27 Hindbrain- 3 structures 2. Pons Responsible for sleep, arousal, left-right body movement and coordination. 3. Cerebellum Large extension in the hindbrain Located behind the medulla and pons. Comes from the Latin work small brain Essential for proper motor function 28 Hindbrain
  • 18. Located above the pons. Consists of several structures involved in the reflexive movement of eyes and body. Critical for the production of dopamine- neurotransmitter that motivates behavior an controls normal function. 29 Midbrain Above the midbrain Contains two main areas: Cerebral cortex and five subcortical structures. Outermost part of the forebrain is called the cerebral cortex. 30 Forebrain Thalamus-gateway to the cortex Receives almost all incoming sensory information Organizes the information and relays it to the cortex The exception to the rule is sense of smell Smell has a direct route to the cortex During sleep the thalamus partially shuts out incoming sensations to help the person stay asleep. 31 Within the forebrain
  • 19. Master of the regulatory structure Essential to body's survival Located below the thalamus Receives input from almost everywhere in the body and brain Sends it messages almost everywhere in the body and brain Affects functions of many internal organs Regulates body temperature Sleeping Waking Blood pressure Blood sugar 32 Hypothalamus Helps in the formation of new memories Comes from the Greek word seahorse because of its shape Forms new memories by creating new neural connections within the cerebral cortex for each new experience Ability to remember maps- London Taxi Cab drivers Fun Study- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sfy9j0h9_O8 Hippocampus 33
  • 20. Comes from the word almond in Latin due to the amygdala’s shape In front of the hippocampus Relates experiences with emotions Such as: Fear- Happiness- Sadness- Pain- Amygdala 34 Processes more positive feelings Increases when people see things visually stimulating to them Amygdala activity higher in men than women Basal Ganglia Planning and producing movement Taking something hot off the stove Crossing the street Damage to the basal ganglia can impair learning of habits such as looking for cars before crossing the street. Fun Fact: When men were shown more expensive cars they had greater activation of pleasure parts of the brain. 35
  • 21. Outer layer called the cerebral cortex Gives the brain a wrinkled appearance Cortex is Latin for bark Human cerebral cortex large About the size of a large sheet of newspaper Allows us to comprehend ourselves, people and the outside world. Divided into two halves; Left and the Right Hemispheres Forebrain 36 Each hemisphere contains 4 areas called the lobes; Occipital Parietal Temporal Frontal Hemispheres are connected by corpus callosum This bridge contains millions of axons allowing information to flow between both hemispheres. Forebrain Continued: 37 For most people the left is responsible for logic, thought and language
  • 22. Speaking and writing is left hemisphere dominant Are you more right or left hemisphere dominant? Let’s find out! Hemispheres of the Brain Left Brain 38 Spatial relationships Understanding and reading a map, locating objects around you Recognizing emotional aspects of language Abstract thinking 39 The Right Brain Are you more right or left brain? https://testyourself.psychtests.com/bin/transfer?req=MnwzMTc4 fDU0MjM0MDF8MHwxfA==&refempt= Answer as accurately as possible Share your results Do you agree or disagree? Why?
  • 23. What do you think? 40 Occipital At the back portion of the head Devoted primarily to vision Major place for processing of visual information Parietal lobes Devoted primarily to touch Divided between the left and right cerebral hemispheres Information received is usually the reverse Left hemisphere receives touch information from the right and vice versa Lobes of the cerebral cortex 41 Stroke or other damage to the right parietal region can result in a disorder called hemineglect Patients with this syndrome fail to notice anything on their left sides If two objects are held up they only see the one on the right omitting the other half. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlI7GsBHok8
  • 24. Lobes continued 42 Responsible for hearing Include visual areas specialized for recognizing detailed objects such as faces Fusiform face area activated by objects such as house or cars. If fusiform face areas are damaged you would have trouble recognizing people not objects Temporal Lobes 43 Essential for planning and movement Rear portion of the frontal lobes – primary motor cortex to the spinal cord to move the bodies muscles Divided down the middle of the body Right hemisphere controls the right arm Frontal Lobes 44 30% of the brain Difference between the human brain and animal brain is not
  • 25. how much of the brain the prefrontal cortex uses yet how complex the human brain is and how neural circuits are organized. Bush & Allman, 2004 Schoenemann, Sheehan & Gliotzer 2005) Psychologists have learned about brains by studying those who have been ill or injured Prefrontal cortex 45 Transmits signals to and from the central nervous system through nerves Receptors in the skin muscles and joints send sensory information to the spinal cord then relaying it to the brain. Signals through the somatic nervous system to muscles joints and skin to initiate or inhibit movement. Somatic Nervous System 46 Regulates the bodies internal environment Carries signals from the glands and internal organs to the central nervous system Signals provide information about when you think you should go to sleep, you are full, etc.. Sympathetic para sympathetic nervous system Imagine a fire alarm going off. Your body goes into fight/flight
  • 26. mode epinephrine is released increasing heart rate and blood sugar, lungs take in more oxygen, pupils dilate to make sure your vision is acute and sharp. If the alarm is false your para sympathetic state will return Also released by someone you feel attracted to. Automatic nervous system 47 Communication network that influences thoughts and actions Unlike the nervous system the endocrine system uses hormones (chemicals) to communicate Both work together to regulate psychological activity The endocrine system releases hormones that help us deal with threats Endocrine System 48 Chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands Endocrine glands include the pineal, adrenal, pituitary thyroid and testes or ovaries Hormones travel through the bloodstream until they reach where they need to go Hormones 49
  • 27. Main endocrine glands influencing sexual behavior Males the gonads testes Females ovaries Both males and females produce hormones The difference is the quantities Testosterone is more prevalent in males; estrogen female Gonadal hormones influence the development of secondary sex characteristics breasts females facial hair in men Hormones and Sexual Development 50 Prompts bone cartilage and muscle tissue to grow or regenerate after injury Remember Lance Armstrong using GH (growth hormones) to gain strength for a cutting edge in cycling? Hormones and physical growth 51 Play the genetic matching game Do people say you may have a twin? Do you look like someone
  • 28. they know? Genes affect thoughts and behaviors and can tell us if we are predisposed to certain conditions. Have you gone for an annual physical and been asked about family history of mental illness, cancer, etc.. Genetic makeup is called your genotype Observable physical and psychological characteristics are your phenotype Factors influenced by genotype and environmental factors- eg diet Psychologists study ways that nature, nurture and their combinator affect psychological characteristics Nature, nurture and our brains 52 Do we have any twins in the group? Monozygotic twins are identical Come from one fertilized egg (zygote) diving into two. Because the come from the same egg they will have the same genetic make up Dizygotic twins are referred to as fraternal or non identical Two separately fertilized eggs develop in the womb simultaneously Because they are from two separately fertilized eggs these twins are like two siblings Twins 53
  • 29. Siblings who are adopted living in the same home have little influence on such things as personality Minnesota twin project highlights that identical twins whether raised apart or together are likely to be similar. This study proves genetic make up has a strong effect on molding personality and behavior. Adoption 54 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyT2AlzzzQs Thoughts? Do you know any identical twins? Comments you have noticed or observed? Minnesota Twin Project 55 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teFzfTI3KMc Jim Twins 56
  • 30. Over time the brain can change Take for example in our text the Story about Michelle Parents felt she was different Doctors discovered she suffered a stroke in the womb Her right hemisphere was “chief in command” for processing void in the left hemisphere This is known as plasticity Reflective of biological and environmental influences Environment and the Brain 57 Continuous research is going on to understand how the brain works Map our regions of the brain Understand mental and behavioral aspects of the brain Specifically in the areas of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's This is thanks to Obama’s $300 million dollars slated to brain research Ending words about Brain Plasticity 58 Brain plasticity allows us to learn Memories are reflected in brains physical changes Psychologists believe changes are mostly in the power of existing connections For example if two neurons fire together the connection strengthens Neurons get weaker if they do not consistently fire
  • 31. simultaneously. Catch phrase as outlined in our text “Neurons that fire together, wire together”. Strengthening Existing Conditions 59 Laws governing learning disabilities If you believe you have a deficit to learn get a recommendation from an educational neuropsychologist Can receive untimed testing Testing in different modalities Graded fairly taking into account your learning differences Learning disabilities and support 60 Coined by the National Center for Learning Disabilities Definition- A neurological disorder that affects the brains ability to receive store and process information. Famous dyslexics http://www.psychologydegree.com/50-famously-successful- people-who-are-dyslexic Take a peek Highlighting dyslexia 61
  • 32. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSz_zjiS3E8 Think about yourself What are your limitations How do those affect your schoolwork and ability to process or tell about what you learned? Dyslexia and Learning disabilities 62 Terms in chapter 2 on a separate page Will be posted Wednesday on Blackboard along with the power point Next week: Consciousness/development Ch. 3/4 Journal 1 writing quiz Ch. 1/2 (Prompts will be posted by Tuesday evening) Office hours: Monday 4:30pm-6:15pm Downstairs suite B Ending Remarks 63
  • 33. Using this tutorial as instruction, you will compose a learning scenario that you will use in all three sections of your Knowledge Base (KB). At the end of the activity, you will share your scenario with your peers, give and receive feedback, and finalize you scenario. 1IDD&E 2018 (c) IDE 621 Learning Practice - Learning Scenario Development Abdullah Albelehy Abdullah Albelehy Abdullah Albelehy Abdullah Albelehy Step 1 is to write a 200 to 250 word scenario on a learning situation.
  • 34. This scenario or “scene” should be a description of what is occurring in the learning scenario and NOT a lesson plan. What is going on in the scenario .. .what do you see and hear. The scenario must include one person who is the instructor or teacher plus several learners. Step 2 is a add a supporting graphic that illustrates the learning environment. Together text and graphic must describe the activities and conversation that take place between the people in the “scenario.” as if you were sitting there watching … for example… 2IDD&E 2018 (c) IDE 621 Learning Practice - Learning Scenario Development Abdullah Albelehy Abdullah Albelehy
  • 35. Your scenario may be something like this one… The teacher in a math class is at the front of the room, 25 students are sitting in their desks. At the front of the room, projected on the white board is the equation 2x(x+3)=. The teacher points to the equation and says to the students, “Yesterday we started this unit on solving algebraic equations … etcetera etcetera … etcetera … The text description clearly shows what is happening and what is being said in this learning situation… Or your scenario may be like this next one … 3IDD&E 2018 (c) IDE 621 Learning Practice - Learning Scenario Development Abdullah Albelehy
  • 36. Abdullah Albelehy The running coach at the practice field course says “Today, we are going to learn how to prepare to start a 100 yard dash. Positioning at the starting block can determine your run time … bad form means longer times” the coach points to the starting block and asks the athletes “what do you think we are looking for here?” Pete raises his hand and shouts out “ correct placement of your feet” … Geno shouts out “proper stance of your legs, arms, and hands.” … … etcetera etcetera … etcetera … Notice how the text describes the stakeholders and what they are doing and saying in response to each other… Pick a topic that you are knowledgeable about and write a scenario that includes at least 3 to 4 different types of activities and interaction among the instructor and learners…
  • 37. 4IDD&E 2018 (c) IDE 621 Learning Practice - Learning Scenario Development Abdullah Albelehy Abdullah Albelehy Once your scenario is written, continue with your work by … Step 3: Underlining, in black, the text that describes what you believe are instances on providing learning content. Step 4: underlining, in blue, the text that describes what you believe are instances of prompting students to engage in learning. Step 5: Highlighting, in yellow, the text that you believe are instances where students are demonstrating they are learning or have learned. 5IDD&E 2018 (c) IDE 621 Learning Practice - Learning
  • 38. Scenario Development Abdullah Albelehy Abdullah Albelehy Your learning scenario, in the end, should look like these… • 200-250 words • Framing graphic • Series of black and blue underlines in the text, several parts of the text highlighted in yellow, based on instructions from Steps 3-5. You will be expected to create this learning scenario for your Knowledge based, as directed. Then in each of the three sections of you Knowledge Base you will adjust the underlines and add additional information based on the instructions. Just know that this narrative is the SAME in all three sections of you KB … 6IDD&E 2018 (c)
  • 39. IDE 621 Learning Practice - Learning Scenario Development Abdullah Albelehy Abdullah Albelehy You wrote the first scenario from the perspective of Behaviorism learning theory Now I want two scenarios like the first scenario but from two different perspectives that they are Cognitivism Learning theory and Social learning theory
  • 40. International students at Syracuse University come from more than 123 countries all over the world. All international students are required to comply with New York state’s health policy. Learning situation - Behaviorism Slutzker house organizes three sessions to help international students comprehend the importance of immunization and vaccination and its implication to the SU community’s health and help them in completing the required health records, provide information to SUHC, and booking an appointment online for vaccinations in a timely manner. The first session takes place prior to arriving at SU and is delivered online. The session includes general information about immunization and vaccination and why it’s important for person’s health as well as the community. Graphics and visuals are used to design learning materials. By the end of the session, students are asked to complete a quiz. Students must complete all questions correctly and are directed to return to the relevant information if they fail to get the correct response. The second session consists of four parts and takes place up the arrival on campus and is delivered face-to-face, large group orientation session. First part covers general information about immunization and vaccination. By the end of this part, presenter asks learners questions and students to respond. The second part focuses on required vaccinations at Syracuse University and the implications of not having vaccinations. The third part is a live demonstration on how to login to the patient portal, complete forms, upload document, and book an appointment online to get vaccinated. Last part is a Q&A, in which students can clarify their doubts and get their questions answered. The third session will be on a need basis. Students who can’t
  • 41. complete the process are divided into small groups and are supported by peer students who successfully completed their patient portal task. International students at Syracuse University come from more than 123 countries (1: Equal Learning regardless of their different nationalities) all over the world. All international students are required to comply with New York state’s health policy (2: Required Behavior). Slutzker house organizes three sessions to help international students comprehend the importance of immunization and vaccination and its implication to the SU community’s health (3: Not observable, hence not considered) and help them in completing the required health records, provide information to SUHC, and booking an appointment online for vaccinations in a timely manner(4: Observable behavior and hence can tell whether learning took place or not. It also serves as Behavioral objective if detailed). The first session takes place prior to arriving at SU and is delivered online. The session includes general information about immunization and vaccination and why it’s important for person’s health as well as the community. Graphics and visuals are used to design learning materials. By the end of the session, students are asked to complete a quiz. Students must complete all questions(5: Stimulus/ Response)correctly and are directed to return to the relevant information if they fail to get the correct response (6:Mastery Learning with %100 criterion for mastery). The second session consists of four parts and takes place up the arrival on campus and is delivered face-to-face, large group orientation session. First part covers general information about immunization and vaccination. By the end of this part, presenter asks learners questions and students to respond (7: Stimulus/ Response). The second part focuses on required vaccinations at
  • 42. Syracuse University and the implications of not having vaccinations. The third part is a live demonstration on how to login to the patient portal, complete forms, upload document, and book an appointment online to get vaccinated(8: Channing process when implemented). Last part is a Q&A, in which students can clarify their doubts and get their questions answered (9: Immediate response). The third session will be on a need basis. Students who can’t complete the process are divided into small groups and are supported by peer students who successfully completed their(10: Learning takes place only if students successfully completed required forms) patient portal task. International students at Syracuse University come from more than 123 countries all over the world. All international students are required to comply with New York state’s health policy. Learning situation - Cognitivism Theory Slutzker house organizes three sessions to help international students comprehend the importance of immunization and vaccination and its implication to the SU community’s health and help them in completing the required health records, provide information to SUHC, and booking an appointment online for vaccinations in a timely manner. The first session takes place prior to arriving at SU and is delivered online. The session includes general information about immunization and vaccination and why it’s important for person’s health as well as the community. Graphics and visuals are used to design learning materials. By the end of the session, students are asked to complete a quiz. Students must complete all questions correctly and are directed to return to the relevant information if they fail to get the correct response. The second session consists of four parts and takes place up the arrival on campus and is delivered face-to-face, large group orientation session. First part covers general information about immunization and vaccination. By the end of this part, presenter asks learners questions and students to respond. The second part
  • 43. focuses on required vaccinations at Syracuse University and the implications of not having vaccinations. The third part is a live demonstration on how to login to the patient portal, complete forms, upload document, and book an appointment online to get vaccinated. Last part is a Q&A, in which students can clarify their doubts and get their questions answered. The third session will be on a need basis. Students who can’t complete the process are divided into small groups and are supported by peer students who successfully completed their patient portal task. International students at Syracuse University come from more than 123 countries all over the world. All international students are required to comply with New York state’s health policy (1: To avoid prior misconceptions). Slutzker house organizes three sessions to help international students comprehend (2: Learning is an internal process) the importance of immunization and vaccination and its implication to the SU community’s health (3: Impose meaning) and help them in completing the required health records, provide information to SUHC, and booking an appointment online for vaccinations in a timely manner (4: Clear Goals/ Objectives). The first session takes place prior to arriving at SU and is delivered online. The session includes general information about immunization and vaccination and why it’s important for person’s health as well as the community (5: Impose meaning). Graphics and visuals are used to design learning materials (6: Graphics and visuals enhance long-term memory). By the end of the session, students are asked to complete a quiz (7: Enactment, as learners need to respond to reflect what’s being learned). Students must complete all questions correctly and are directed to return to the relevant information if they fail to get the correct response. The second session consists of four parts and takes place up the arrival on campus and is delivered face-to-face, large group
  • 44. orientation session. First part covers general information about immunization and vaccination (8: Repetition to online session). By the end of this part, presenter asks learners questions and students to respond (9: Students should actively respond). The second part focuses on required vaccinations at Syracuse University (10: Instructions started with general information, before moving to details) and the implications of not having vaccinations. The third part is a live demonstration on how to login to the patient portal, complete forms, upload document, and book an appointment online to get vaccinated. Last part is a Q&A, in which students can clarify their doubts and get their (11: Students are given time to comprehend and ask questions to organize their schemes) questions answered. The third session will be on a need basis. Students who can’t complete the process are divided into small groups and are supported by peer students who successfully completed their patient portal task. International students at Syracuse University come from more than 123 countries all over the world. All international students are required to comply with New York state’s health policy. Learning situation - Socialism Theory Slutzker house organizes three sessions to help international students comprehend the importance of immunization and vaccination and its implication to the SU community’s health and help them in completing the required health records, provide information to SUHC, and booking an appointment online for vaccinations in a timely manner. The first session takes place prior to arriving at SU and is delivered online. The session includes general information about immunization and vaccination and why it’s important for person’s health as well as the community. Graphics and visuals are used to design learning materials. By the end of the session, students are asked to complete a quiz. Students must complete all questions correctly and are directed to return to the relevant
  • 45. information if they fail to get the correct response. The second session consists of four parts and takes place up the arrival on campus and is delivered face-to-face, large group orientation session. First part covers general information about immunization and vaccination. By the end of this part, presenter asks learners questions and students to respond. The second part focuses on required vaccinations at Syracuse University and the implications of not having vaccinations. The third part is a live demonstration on how to login to the patient portal, complete forms, upload document, and book an appointment online to get vaccinated. Last part is a Q&A, in which students can clarify their doubts and get their questions answered. The third session will be on a need basis. Students who can’t complete the process are divided into small groups and are supported by peer students who successfully completed their patient portal task. International students at Syracuse University come from more than 123 countries all over the world. All international students are required to comply with New York state’s health policy (1: Verbal modelling). Slutzker house organizes three sessions to help international students comprehend the importance of immunization and vaccination and its implication (2: Learning is an internal process) to the SU community’s health and help them in completing the required health records, provide information to SUHC, and booking an appointment online for vaccinations in a timely manner. The first session takes place prior to arriving at SU and is delivered online. The session includes general information about immunization and vaccination and why it’s important for person’s health as well as the community. Graphics and visuals are used to design learning materials (3: Visuals imagery). By the end of the session, students are asked to complete a quiz (4: Active learning). Students must complete all questions correctly
  • 46. and are directed to return to the relevant information if they fail to get the correct response. The second session consists of four parts and takes place up the arrival on campus and is delivered face-to-face, large group orientation (5: Communities of learners) session. First part covers general information about immunization and vaccination. By the end of this part, presenter asks learners questions and students to respond. The second part focuses on required vaccinations at Syracuse University and the implications of not having vaccinations (6: Response-Consequence contingencies/ Outcome expectation). The third part is a live demonstration on (7: Cognitive modeling) how to login to the patient portal, complete forms, upload document, and book an appointment online to get vaccinated (8: Learn by observing). Last part is a Q&A, in which students can clarify their doubts and get their questions answered (9: Active learning). The third session will be on a need basis. Students who can’t complete the process are divided into small groups and are supported by peer students (10: Peer tutoring) who successfully completed their patient portal task (11: Tutors have mastered the material before tutoring other students). 1