Codes and conventions

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Codes and conventions

  1. 1. CODES AND CONVENTIONS Codes and convention specifically in music videos are the different techniques used to send out different types of emotion The two types of codes and conventions can be technical and symbolic. Technical techniques is conveyed using technical equipment e.g. different types of shot, camera angles, diegetic and non- diegetic audio and editing. Symbolic on the other hand is way of showing meaning through expression, mis en scene and poses.
  2. 2. COMMON CODES AND CONVENTIONS The conventions in music videos vary but that will depend on the genre of the music video for example the simple conventions are • The style • The camera • The editing techniques • The sound whether diegetic or non-diegetic • Mis en scene – props, lighting, costumes, location etc.
  3. 3. THE MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF MUSIC VIDEOS • Performance- when the artist performs the song that is being sung , this means that there is no narrative at all video wise. A good example of a music video is “Single Ladies – Beyoncé” in where the video is all just about dancing and singing. For this specific artist this type of music video is common but overall it is not always chosen because it doesn’t targeted audience that can relate to the video but the video remains interesting because of the lighting, editing and the performance she gives.
  4. 4. NARRATIVE A music video with a narrative simply means a music video that has a story line that is consistent through the song. There are two types of narrative a linear and a fragmented. The difference being is that a linear has a story that start at the beginning and finishes at the end of the music video, whereas a fragmented is the exact opposite. A good example of a linear music video is “Dilemma – Nelly ft. Kelly Rowland” in where the protagonist stays in character all through the video and follows the narrative.
  5. 5. THE CLASH OF THE PERFORMANCE AND NARRATIVE When a music video has both features combined including performance and a narrative makes the music video much more interesting because its like having best of both worlds and it can target a much wider range of audience. A example of a music video that contains both features is “Perfect – Pink”
  6. 6. CAMEO This is where the artist or in most cases artists are playing the main roles in the music video but do not perform. An example of this would be “Last Friday Night – Katy Perry” but does not perform on stage
  7. 7. CAMERA SHOTS Camera angles are very important in every type of mediated visual text but in music video to feel. The different types of shots in a music video are there to create an emotional attachment to the viewer which help them better understand what the song is about. Very Wide & Wide shots This is done mainly to show the audience the scene and setting not all of these shot contain a artist or a person in the shot but can help to include a person in order to emphasis the horizon. Very Wide Wide
  8. 8. Mid shot Typically this shot show the artist from head to the waist as well as giving an idea of location and setting of the video. Although there are many types of mid shot you can have such as
  9. 9. Close Ups Many close up focus on a object or on a artist there are 3 main types of close ups for example Medium close up Showing the face and possible the shoulders Close ups Just showing the face Extreme Close up Where its is showing a section of for example the artist face like the eyes or the nose Medium Close up Extreme
  10. 10. Other common shots … Over shoulder shots This is a good shot and is mostly used in narrative to for conversations or to see exactly what the character is looking at in order for the viewer to feel more included Cut In Is a shot that can relate to the lyrics at that specific time for example the shot below is the artist driving getting into a Mercedes Benz and the line is “think I wanna drive your Benz”
  11. 11. CAMERA ANGLES Eye level – This shot is added to make the viewer feel as though they are taken a role in the music video because the audience will them shot as they would in real life High Angles - This shot shows the character from above and normally show vulnerability Low Angles – This shot does the opposite of a high angle and is used to show the artist in more control with more power.
  12. 12. Birds Eye – This shot can help add a dramatic effect or showing an unnatural point of view showing someone else’s perspective. These shot shots are directly above the object or artist/character. Slanted – This is an angle when the camera is at angle which can also be identified as a Dutch angle where the camera is purposely tilted adding again a dramatic effect. Both camera shots and angle play a huge part in creating emotion and expressions and can really help a music video come together to help implant that video and song into the viewers mind.
  13. 13. MORE …. ? Some other camera shots that are used in not only music video can add a great and powerful effect on the video. For example some of these movements will include panning or tracking. A director may choose to follow a character through the eyes of someone else for this it would be convenient to use a dolly or a tracking mat this is where the camera is mounted on top of tracks or place onto a dolly with wheels in order to create a soft movement. Another common movement is a pan in where the camera can be placed on a dolly or tracking in order to film on object or character round pass and it will allow them easy and a profession movement.
  14. 14. CODES AND CONVENTIONS Beside from camera shots and camera angles which are important to think about and consider there are also many other codes that can help bring a music video together. Editing techniques – editing plays a huge role in the making of all music videos. When editing you are able cut down scenes, add special effect to the visual or audio you can also play scene in slow or fast motion or change coloring. There is now also CGI which is very popular in music videos. CGI consist of a green screen behind the shot and hen it is edited to whatever is needed/wanted. An example in which CGI is used is “ET- Katy Perry”
  15. 15. Sound When thinking of the storyboard to match the song it is important to think of the tempo and the mood the song sets off at different times of the song so that the music video also follows the same sort of flow throughout the video in order to keep the viewer interested. There are to types of sound diegetic and non diegetic. Non diegetic is sound that has been edited in to the video such as voiceovers and Diegetic sound is created while filming such as a phone. A good example of a music video in where the song is at the same tempo and speed as the song is “OMG – Usher ft. Will.i.am” this is because the cuts of the shot are precise to the beat and the lyrics of the song.
  16. 16. MIS EN SCENE The mis en scene simply means the background in music video this can be anything from; lighting, prop, costumes, hair and makeup, location and colouring. Of course that these technique will depend on the genre of the song. Lighting – Depending on the genre of the music will depend on the lighting used in the music video for example if the song is feature in a night the lights will be dark with flashing lights like the song “Club can’t handle me – David Guetta ft. Flo Rida” or a love song it will have more bright scenes like “California King Bed – Rihanna”
  17. 17. PROPS Props are a good clear way to link the lyrics with a visual and they are mostly used in narrative music video. The props in a music video adds to the entertainment side but can still be used in a imaginative way to give a clue towards what will happen in the music video. A great example in where the props have played a major role in the music video is in “Irreplacable – Beyonce” where the props from the beggingin show the audience that the song is about a break up
  18. 18. COSTUME AND HAIR AND MAKE UP Costumes, make up and hair is important to create a personal background for the character in a 4 min music video. The costume and the way they look overall is a way of portraying the role. For example in “Right There – Ariana Grande ft. Big Sean” the video is set in the past which is why the costumes for men are suits and the woman dressing gowns, the song follows a Romeo and Juliet theme Make up and hair is important to a music video like “I am not a Robot – Marina & the Dimonds”
  19. 19. LOCATION The location is not only to show the audience the scenary of the music video but it can also help to better decide on what the genre is. For example “DJ got us fallin’ in love – Usher” is a song that would be expected to play in a club and for that reseaon is set in one. Where as if the song was about reminising about a relationship for example then a happy location would be perfect for example a beach or a fun fair, an example would be “Who knew – Pink”
  20. 20. COLOUR There are a lot of colour shown in most music videos but that distracts the audience more than if the music video were in black and white. Having a all black and white music video will create more focus on the video which is why its best when the storyboard of the music video has a narrative. Some music videos have some scene in black and white and this could be don’t to so time in the past or a dream. A good example of a video would be “Back to Black – Amy Winehouse” which is about a funeral so a black and white them allows the audience to be in the same mood as the characters.

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