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Let’s get started being
scientists!
http://genomicenterprise.com/blog/2012/11/28/kids-doing-grown-ups-science-the-blackawt...
http://www.treknature.com/gallery/photo160544.htm
Warm Up
1.What does the prefix “bio” mean?
2.What does the word “diverse...
http://www.facingthefuture.org/Curriculum/Graphics/tabid/189/Default.aspx
http://www.facingthefuture.org/Curriculum/Graphics/tabid/189/Default.aspx
“The diversity of life forms, so numerous that we have yet to
identify most of them, is the greatest wonder of this planet...
Biodiversity protects
ecosystems against
infectious diseases,
researchers have
concluded. The
finding suggests
that loss o...
http://positivepress.in/media/?p=1822
Key Words:
Earth
Plants
Animals
People
Energy
With a partner create a word web.
1.Pi...
Here is one to use as an example.
Day 2 Warm Up
1.What is one problem with a growing global
population and natural environments?
2.What are non-renewable re...
http://wiki.urbanedibles.org/index.p
hp?title=Identification
Leaf
shape
helps
scientists
to identify
plants.
http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/Topicpages/plantsystems.cfm
Leaf Shape
http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/simplecompound.jpg
Simple vs. Compound
Leaf Veins
http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/leafvei
ns.jpg
Leaf Arrangement on Stem
http://...
http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/tendril.jpg
http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/stomate.jpg
Stomata
http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/leafxsection.jpg
Internal Leaf
Anatomy
In vascular plants,...
http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/dicotleaf.jpg
External Leaf Anatomy
Your assignment
for today:
Search and find
four different types
of leaves.
Return to the
classroom and
sketch them in
your...
The
Chinese
Guizhou
Golden
Monkey,
Our Middle
School, and
Our Local
Community
And a Look at
Biodiversity
http://www.cultur...
To understand our
project let’s first
look at another
small ecosystem that
we will also be
studying this year.
Jacumba, CA...
I hope
they
don’t
see me!
Jacumba Bull Frog, June 11, 2013, 3:00 pm
Cattails
Cattails, June 11, 2013, 3:00 pm
Typha
Typha is a genus of about eleven species of
monocotyledonous flowering plants in th...
Cattails, June 11, 2013, 3:00 pm
Let’s have a look at a special
place in China.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Boy-with-binoculars.png
Guizhou Golden Monkeys
are found on Fanjingshan
Mountain in Guizhou
Province.
http://www.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/html/e...
Golden
Monkeys
mainly live
in trees,
but they
also seek
food on
the
ground.
http://www.cultural-
china.com/chinaWH/html/en...
Their main
food
includes tree
leaves,
tender
branches,
flowers,
fruits, bark,
roots,
insects,
birds, and
bird eggs.
http:/...
Please copy
the
upcoming
vocabulary
words into
your science
journal.
Isn’t this one
berry cute?
http://www.cultural-
china...
Vocabulary –
It is folivorous
(folivore: eats
foliage; includes
arboreal
folivores—
animals whose
diet consists
largely of...
The Golden Monkey, which is the focal point of
the project, is endangered, and serves as a symbol
of conservation for Chin...
This species is found in forests of mixed–deciduous and
evergreen broadleaf and deciduous broadleaf trees at
elevations be...
However, at
times of heavy
snow cover,
they may be
recorded at
lower
elevations
(as low as 570
m. ≈ 1871 ft.),
as individu...
Guizhou Snub-Nosed
Monkeys Restricted distribution
 Occurs in evergreen and
deciduous broadleaf
forests at altitudes of
...
Guizhou Snub-Nosed
Monkeys
Social Organization:
Family groups of 5-10
individuals with one adult
male. Many family groups
...
They are
diurnal (plant
or animal
behavior
characterized
by activity
during the day
and sleeping at
night).
http://www.ani...
They are semi-
terrestrial (living
mostly on land but
requiring a moist
environment or
nearby water,
especially as a
breed...
They are semi-terrestrial, yet more arboreal
(adapted for living and moving about in
trees) as they only come to the groun...
The birth season for
this species is from
April to May.
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19595/0
http://www.cultural-chi...
The social structure is based on one-male
groups which travel and rest together in large
cohesive (stick togetherish) band...
The golden snub-nosed monkey is found in the protected
Fanjingshan Nature Reserve. It is listed on Appendix I of
the Conve...
Camera Trapping Most primate species are
studied using direct
observations
 Guizhou snub-nosed
monkeys are shy and vigil...
FNNR /The People
There are about 50
villages and over 20,000
local people living in and
around the reserve.
Traditionally,...
Basic concepts in
conservation ecology:
Biodiversity
Habitat
Ecosystems
Food Webs
Endangered
Species/HIPPCO
(see next slid...
H abitat Destruction,
Degradation, Fragmentation
I nvasive species
P ollution
P opulation growth (human)
C limate change
O...
One of the most urgent conservation actions needed for
the snub-nosed monkey is to reduce the threats in and
around the re...
Why is the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey endangered?
Grey snub-nosed monkey status:
The grey snub-nosed monkey is classified a...
Guizhou Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey
Threats
One of the major threats to the snub-
nosed monkey is accidental injury or
death ...
Injury or Death From Non-Targeted Poaching
• Before FNNR was founded,
humans were likely the primary
predators of Guizhou ...
Disturbance and Potential Competition with
Humans for Food
 Most human activities
within FNNR present an
indirect threat ...
Other VulnerabilitiesA slow life history and low
reproductive rate:
– Females do not sexually
mature until age 8 or 9
– Th...
Guizhou Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey Threats:
Habitat degradation such as firewood collection,
charcoal production and illegal...
Guizhou Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey Threats:
Since the golden snub-nosed monkey is endemic (Native
to or confined to a certai...
Guizhou Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey Threats:
Since the golden snub-nosed monkey is endemic to just
one small area, it is part...
Continued Habitat Loss and Degradation
Even with protection, local
residents still exploit forest
resources for traditiona...
Here in Jacumba Middle School –
As we watch what the San Diego State
University (SDSU) researchers are doing as
they conti...
1. How does the behavioral,
habitat, and conservation ecology of
the endangered Golden Snub-Nose
Monkey (in relation to hu...
Let’s have a little vocabulary building!
Please copy these vocabulary words
into your science journal. Feel free to
add an...
Behavioral ecology is the study of the
evolutionary basis for animal behavior
due to ecological pressures.
Habitat ecology...
Conservation biology is the scientific
study of the nature and status of
Earth's biodiversity with the aim of
protecting s...
Other questions we will be
thinking and writing on are-
3. How do human activities
effect the Golden monkeys?
4. How do hu...
The next step in our
lesson is to visit our
lake. We will walk
over and collect
examples of the
plants that we find,
press...
Given the strong habitat sensitivity of
the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey, their
occurrence (or absence) may be a
direct indic...
6. Make a list with a neighbor
of all the flora and fauna
that we have seen up to this
time at our lake. Now, with
the who...
Next go to http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-
Understanding-Biodiversity/ and download the
book called Biodiversity.
On page 7 of that text you will find this –
The Encyclopedia of Life
(EOL; http://www.eol.org/ , and
http://www.youtube.co...
We will be using the CK-12 book as a
guide and create a Biodiversity book of
your own. Our book will document the
communit...
We will also be involved in a phenology project.
Check this out at http://budburst.org/
Phenology is the study of periodic...
This will be a year-long, whole school project.
We will be looking at what the researchers are learning
in China. We will ...
You are to come up
with additional
vocabulary words for
this biodiversity
project. I have a
PowerPoint on our
class websit...
The following pages can be printed as
handouts, six slides to a page, cut apart
and used to play a vocabulary game the
sam...
Ecology
The scientific study of interactions
among organisms and their
environment, organisms have with
each other, and with their...
Behavioral Ecology
The study of the
evolutionary basis for
animal behavior due to
ecological pressures.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
Habitat Ecology
The study of the area or natural environment in
which an organism or population normally lives.
A habitat is made up of ph...
Conservation Biology
The scientific study of the nature
and status of Earth's biodiversity
with the aim of protecting species,
their habitats, ...
Flora and Fauna
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or
time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora,
fauna...
Phenology
The study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these
are influenced by seasonal and inter-annual variati...
Folivorous
Folivore: eats foliage;
includes arboreal folivores—
animals whose diet consists
largely of tree foliage.http://en.wikiped...
Biodiversity
The degree of variation of
life forms within a given
species, ecosystem, biome, or
planet.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
Diurnal
A plant or animal behavior
characterized by activity
during the day and sleeping
at night.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
Semi-terrestrial
Living mostly on land but
requiring a moist
environment or nearby water,
especially as a breeding site.http://en.wikipedia...
Arboreal
Adapted for living and
moving about in trees.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
Endemic
Native to or confined to a
certain region.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
Epidemic
An epidemic (from epi, meaning "upon or
above" and demos, meaning "people")
occurs when new cases of a certain
disease, in...
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School
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Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School

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This PPT will take us a month to go through. We will study biodiversity locally and via a grant project with SDSU in Sand Diego.

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Biodiversity and Jacumba Middle School

  1. 1. Let’s get started being scientists! http://genomicenterprise.com/blog/2012/11/28/kids-doing-grown-ups-science-the-blackawton-bees-project/
  2. 2. http://www.treknature.com/gallery/photo160544.htm Warm Up 1.What does the prefix “bio” mean? 2.What does the word “diverse” mean? 3.What is one example that makes birds diverse from each other? 4.What is one example of a food chain that includes a bird? 5.How do birds benefit humans? Quiet please, no talking during the warm up! Thanks.
  3. 3. http://www.facingthefuture.org/Curriculum/Graphics/tabid/189/Default.aspx
  4. 4. http://www.facingthefuture.org/Curriculum/Graphics/tabid/189/Default.aspx
  5. 5. “The diversity of life forms, so numerous that we have yet to identify most of them, is the greatest wonder of this planet.” Edward O. Wilson, Biologist http://mrbarlow.wordpress.com/2010/12/14/a-decrease-in-biodiversity-causes-an-increases-in-disease/
  6. 6. Biodiversity protects ecosystems against infectious diseases, researchers have concluded. The finding suggests that loss of species from an environment could have dangerous consequences for the spread and incidence of infections, including those that affect humans. http://mrbarlow.wordpress.com/2010/12/14/a-decrease-in-biodiversity-causes-an-increases-in-disease/ http://www.biodiversitytrail.org/
  7. 7. http://positivepress.in/media/?p=1822 Key Words: Earth Plants Animals People Energy With a partner create a word web. 1.Pick one key word from the list. 2.Create a web using as many of these words as possible. 3.Use words to describe the connections between the words, e.g., influences, affects, benefits, is helped by, can lead to, and can cause. 4.Use drawing paper and colored pencils.
  8. 8. Here is one to use as an example.
  9. 9. Day 2 Warm Up 1.What is one problem with a growing global population and natural environments? 2.What are non-renewable resources? 3.What must be done to replace these resources? 4.Why does global thinking make sense? 5.What global issues require consideration from every person on this planet?
  10. 10. http://wiki.urbanedibles.org/index.p hp?title=Identification Leaf shape helps scientists to identify plants.
  11. 11. http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/Topicpages/plantsystems.cfm Leaf Shape
  12. 12. http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/simplecompound.jpg Simple vs. Compound
  13. 13. Leaf Veins http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/leafvei ns.jpg Leaf Arrangement on Stem http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/leafposition.jpg
  14. 14. http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/tendril.jpg
  15. 15. http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/stomate.jpg Stomata
  16. 16. http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/leafxsection.jpg Internal Leaf Anatomy In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. Xylem conducts water and dissolved minerals from the roots to all the other parts of the plant.
  17. 17. http://cropsci.illinois.edu/classes/cpsc112/images/PlantSystems/dicotleaf.jpg External Leaf Anatomy
  18. 18. Your assignment for today: Search and find four different types of leaves. Return to the classroom and sketch them in your sketchbook or on sketch paper. Label as much as you can. Record the time, date, and location of your collection.
  19. 19. The Chinese Guizhou Golden Monkey, Our Middle School, and Our Local Community And a Look at Biodiversity http://www.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/html/en/22Scenery59.html 英文名 学 名
  20. 20. To understand our project let’s first look at another small ecosystem that we will also be studying this year. Jacumba, CA 91934 Notice the biotic and abiotic factors found in this picture. I wonder if they noticed me? Or me?
  21. 21. I hope they don’t see me! Jacumba Bull Frog, June 11, 2013, 3:00 pm Cattails
  22. 22. Cattails, June 11, 2013, 3:00 pm Typha Typha is a genus of about eleven species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae. The genus has a largely Northern Hemisphere distribution, but is essentially cosmopolitan, being found in a variety of wetland habitats. Wikipedia
  23. 23. Cattails, June 11, 2013, 3:00 pm
  24. 24. Let’s have a look at a special place in China. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Boy-with-binoculars.png
  25. 25. Guizhou Golden Monkeys are found on Fanjingshan Mountain in Guizhou Province. http://www.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/html/en/22Scenery59.html http://geography.sdsu.edu/Research/Projects/GoldenMonkey/Project_Details/details.htm l This species is endemic to a small region of Guizhou Province southern China (in Jiangkou, Songtao, and Yingjiang counties). It is confined to a small, continuous block of habitat centering on Fanjing Mountain, south of the Yangtze in the Wuling Mountains (Bleisch et al. 1993; Bleisch and Xie 1994; Groves 2001). We are going to call this the FNNR
  26. 26. Golden Monkeys mainly live in trees, but they also seek food on the ground. http://www.cultural- china.com/chinaWH/html/en/22Scenery5 9.html http://english.cntv.cn/program/storyboard/20100725/101777.shtml Study species: Guizhou snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi)
  27. 27. Their main food includes tree leaves, tender branches, flowers, fruits, bark, roots, insects, birds, and bird eggs. http://www.cultural- china.com/chinaWH/html/en/22Scenery59.html
  28. 28. Please copy the upcoming vocabulary words into your science journal. Isn’t this one berry cute? http://www.cultural- china.com/chinaWH/html/en/22Scenery59.html
  29. 29. Vocabulary – It is folivorous (folivore: eats foliage; includes arboreal folivores— animals whose diet consists largely of tree foliage), (but as we also said, it consumes leaf buds, flower buds, fruits, seeds, bark, and insect larvae). http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19595/0 http://www.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/html/en/22Scenery59.html
  30. 30. The Golden Monkey, which is the focal point of the project, is endangered, and serves as a symbol of conservation for China. In addition, the well-being of the monkey population is an indicator of the overall health of ecosystems, says Dr. An of SDSU, the principal investigator. http://hanyu.iciba.com/wiki/131536.shtml
  31. 31. This species is found in forests of mixed–deciduous and evergreen broadleaf and deciduous broadleaf trees at elevations between 1,400 and 2,300 m. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19595/0 http://geography.sdsu.edu/Research/Projects/GoldenMonkey/Photo_Gallery/photos.html 1 m is equivalent to 1.0936 yards, 39.370 inches, and 1ft = 0.30480m So, 1,400m = 4,593ft 27⁄64in., and 2,300m = 7,545ft 113⁄16in. Or we could round and say between 4,600 and 7,500 feet. Jacumba Middle School elevation: 2,829 feet ASL Boulevard: 3,638 feet ASL
  32. 32. However, at times of heavy snow cover, they may be recorded at lower elevations (as low as 570 m. ≈ 1871 ft.), as individuals move down to the rivers. http://ghsdawgs.com/life/laurenweldy/goldenmonkey.html http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19595/0
  33. 33. Guizhou Snub-Nosed Monkeys Restricted distribution  Occurs in evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forests at altitudes of 4500–7500 ft. in FNNR  Most recent estimates are <800 individuals  Feed mainly on young leaves and flowers, fruits and seeds, and mature leaves and buds in winter Photo Credit: Department of Geography, SDSU Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU
  34. 34. Guizhou Snub-Nosed Monkeys Social Organization: Family groups of 5-10 individuals with one adult male. Many family groups range together in larger, semi-cohesive (half- causing items to stick together) bands. The bands may split up or coalesce (come together) temporarily to form aggregations of over 400 animals. Photo Credit: Department of Geography, SDSU Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU
  35. 35. They are diurnal (plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day and sleeping at night). http://www.animalinfo.org/image/pygabrel2%2065.jpg http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19595/0
  36. 36. They are semi- terrestrial (living mostly on land but requiring a moist environment or nearby water, especially as a breeding site). http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19595/0 http://www.madmonkeyknits.com/gilbert-the-golden-monkey-goes-to-china/
  37. 37. They are semi-terrestrial, yet more arboreal (adapted for living and moving about in trees) as they only come to the ground when there is an absence of appropriate trees. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19595/0 http://dornsife.usc.edu/labs/stanford/research/behavioralecology.cf m
  38. 38. The birth season for this species is from April to May. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19595/0 http://www.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/html/en/22Scenery59.html http://english.people.com.cn/200604/05/eng20060405_256164.html
  39. 39. The social structure is based on one-male groups which travel and rest together in large cohesive (stick togetherish) bands composed of up to 400 individuals or more. http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/19595/0
  40. 40. The golden snub-nosed monkey is found in the protected Fanjingshan Nature Reserve. It is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which means that international trade in this species is permitted only in exceptional circumstances. The species is also listed as Category I under the Chinese Wildlife Protection Act of 1989. http://www.arkive.org/grey-snub-nosed-monkey/rhinopithecus-brelichi/#conservation
  41. 41. Camera Trapping Most primate species are studied using direct observations  Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys are shy and vigilant. Direct observations of this species are further hampered by the harsh physical and climatic conditions, e.g. fog  Use camera traps as one of our survey methods to monitor both monkeys and human activity at different sites within FNNR  Very effective tool for studies of wildlife populations, as they do not require direct observation or physically capturing animals Camera has motion or an infrared sensor which triggered when a person or an animal moves into the field of view. We will attach the cameras to trees at varying heights to capture both monkey and human activity. Cameras operate remotely 24/7. Photo Credit: WWF-Malaysia / Raymond Alfred Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU
  42. 42. FNNR /The People There are about 50 villages and over 20,000 local people living in and around the reserve. Traditionally, local residents grow subsistence crops like rice, corn, and potatoes, herd livestock, and trade at local markets in order to meet their daily needs. Many are ethnic minorities such as Tujia and Miao. Photo Credit: China Daily/Mu Xiangdong Photo by Steven Allison Photo Credit: ChinaTourGuide.com
  43. 43. Basic concepts in conservation ecology: Biodiversity Habitat Ecosystems Food Webs Endangered Species/HIPPCO (see next slide) Photo by Xi Zhinong Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU
  44. 44. H abitat Destruction, Degradation, Fragmentation I nvasive species P ollution P opulation growth (human) C limate change O ver-exploitation What threatens species persistence? http://alishasroleplay.wikia.com/wiki/File:Animated_monkey_3.gif Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU
  45. 45. One of the most urgent conservation actions needed for the snub-nosed monkey is to reduce the threats in and around the reserve. This is likely to require measures to improve the living standards of local people and to introduce sustainable livelihoods, as well as to carry out education programs and control illegal poaching. It will also be important to work with local communities to limit any collection of Magnolia sprengeri, as this plant provides a vital food source for the golden snub-nosed monkey.http://www.arkive.org/grey-snub-nosed-monkey/rhinopithecus-brelichi/#conservation http://davisla.wordpress.com/2012/03/25/plant-of-the-week-magnolia-sprengeri-diva /
  46. 46. Why is the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey endangered? Grey snub-nosed monkey status: The grey snub-nosed monkey is classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List (1) and is listed on Appendix I of CITES (4). http://www.arkive.org/grey-snub-nosed-monkey/rhinopithecus- brelichi/#conservation (1)IUCN Red List (December, 2012) http://www.iucnredlist.org/ (4) CITES (December, 2012) http://www.cites.org/ http://www.nessgardens.org.uk/media/34495/magnolia_sprengeri__diva__w688_sl2.jpg
  47. 47. Guizhou Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey Threats One of the major threats to the snub- nosed monkey is accidental injury or death caused by non-targeted hunting. For example, this species may be caught in snares that were set for other animals. Like other Rhinopithecus species, the snub-nosed monkey has also been hunted for food and traditional medicine, and local people are often unaware of the laws protecting these species. http://www.arkive.org/grey-snub-nosed-monkey/rhinopithecus-brelichi/#conservation http://www.tacticalintelligence.net/blog/progressive-backyard-surviva.htm
  48. 48. Injury or Death From Non-Targeted Poaching • Before FNNR was founded, humans were likely the primary predators of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys • Although protected, monkeys have been killed by local residents unaware of their protection status, usually when monkeys roam out of the reserve • Hunting is banned in FNNR, but illegal poaching still occurs for deer, serow, wild boar, masked palm civet, black bear, and badger • Monkeys have been killed or lost limbs from being caught in snares or leg hold traps intended for other species Photo Credit: IFAW Africa Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU
  49. 49. Disturbance and Potential Competition with Humans for Food  Most human activities within FNNR present an indirect threat to Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys  Unlike most primate species, monkeys are very shy and wary of humans.  Will not use areas where human activities regularly occur further reducing the habitat available to them  Contact with humans may put monkeys at risk for human diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, and measles In late winter, the monkeys are heavily dependent on Magnolia buds for food. Buds and bark of Magnolia trees are a traditional Chinese medicine with high economic value. Local people habitually collect the buds or even cut down whole trees to remove the bark for sale. Photopostedbyunconnladybug Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU
  50. 50. Other VulnerabilitiesA slow life history and low reproductive rate: – Females do not sexually mature until age 8 or 9 – The time between births is about 3 years Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys have very low genetic diversity: – Could lead to lowered immunity, amongst other health problems – Unlike the other Chinese snub-nosed species, there is only one population of Guizhou snub-nosed monkeys, so genetic exchange, which allows for increased genetic diversity and enhanced species survival, is impossible All of these factors combined with the species small population size and small range increase the Guizhou snub- nosed monkey’s vulnerability to disease outbreaks, catastrophes such as forest fires, climate oscillations, and other environmental changes, events from which the species may not be able to recover. Photo Credit: Lin Yiguang Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU
  51. 51. Guizhou Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey Threats: Habitat degradation such as firewood collection, charcoal production and illegal strip mining are reducing the habitat of the golden snub-nosed monkey. Construction and other development due to the increase in tourism, such as tourist roads, cable cars, and hotels, are also potential disturbances and pose the additional threat of habitat destruction. The golden snub-nosed monkey is shy of humans and will not usually use habitats where regular human activity occurs. Collection of magnolia flower buds and bark by local people was also previously a threat to this monkey, as it removed an important food source, but this practice is now thought to have ceased. http://www.arkive.org/grey-snub-nosed-monkey/rhinopithecus-brelichi/#conservation
  52. 52. Guizhou Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey Threats: Since the golden snub-nosed monkey is endemic (Native to or confined to a certain region) to just one small area, it is particularly vulnerable to epidemic diseases (see next slide) or environmental catastrophes. Its population is also perilously small, with only an estimated 750 individuals counted in 2007 to 2008, of which fewer than 400 individuals may be mature adults. http://www.arkive.org/grey-snub-nosed-monkey/rhinopithecus- brelichi/#conservation, http://geography.sdsu.edu/Research/Projects/GoldenMonkey/Project_Det ails/details.html
  53. 53. Guizhou Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey Threats: Since the golden snub-nosed monkey is endemic to just one small area, it is particularly vulnerable to epidemic diseases or environmental catastrophes. An epidemic (from epi, meaning "upon or above" and demos, meaning "people") occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given population, and during a given period, substantially exceed what is expected based on recent experience. Epidemiologists often consider the term outbreak to be synonymous to epidemic, but the general public typically perceives outbreaks to be more local and less serious than epidemics. Epidemics of infectious disease are generally caused by a change in the ecology of the host population (e.g. increased stress or increase in the density of a vector species), a genetic change in the parasite population or the introduction of a new parasite to a host population (by movement of parasites or hosts).
  54. 54. Continued Habitat Loss and Degradation Even with protection, local residents still exploit forest resources for traditional activities.  Firewood/charcoal production for heating  Timber for building  Medicinal plant extraction  Illegal mining Economic development and tourism are increasing:  Construction projects related to development and tourism These activities affect Guizhou snub-nosed monkey habitat:  Firewood extraction reduces cover  Timber extraction thins the canopy. The monkeys spend 80% of their time in trees and rely on a dense canopy for protection from predators at sleeping sites  Illegal strip mining known to occur in FNNR’s core habitat for the monkeys  New construction can impair habitat and may increase disturbance Dr.RebeccaLewison&JenniferFeltnerBiologyDepartmentSDSU
  55. 55. Here in Jacumba Middle School – As we watch what the San Diego State University (SDSU) researchers are doing as they continue to study the illegal mining effects on golden monkey habitat, and focus on the convergence of the two contemporary environmental issues of biodiversity loss and mining impacts. http://www.templates.com/blog/?s=biodiversity Biodiversity loss is a major environmental concern in contemporary society and science. Although extinction has occurred in the past, the current rate of loss is 100- 1,000 times higher than before human activity.
  56. 56. 1. How does the behavioral, habitat, and conservation ecology of the endangered Golden Snub-Nose Monkey (in relation to human activities within FNNR) mean to us in Jacumba? 2. How can we relate that to our lake studies? I hope no one can see me! Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU Picture by Mrs. Morris
  57. 57. Let’s have a little vocabulary building! Please copy these vocabulary words into your science journal. Feel free to add any vocabulary words that you are not real comfortable with yet! Ecology (from Greek: "house― and "study of") is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, organisms have with each other, and with their abiotic environment. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution, amount (biomass), number (population) of organisms, as well as competition between them within and among ecosystems. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Vocabulary -
  58. 58. Behavioral ecology is the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures. Habitat ecology is the study of the area or natural environment in which an organism or population normally lives. A habitat is made up of physical factors such as soil, moisture, range of temperature, and availability of light as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence of predators. A habitat is not necessarily a geographic area—for a parasitic organism it is the body of its host or even a cell within the host's body. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
  59. 59. Conservation biology is the scientific study of the nature and status of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. It is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on sciences, economics, and the practice of natural resource management. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
  60. 60. Other questions we will be thinking and writing on are- 3. How do human activities effect the Golden monkeys? 4. How do human activities effect our lake?
  61. 61. The next step in our lesson is to visit our lake. We will walk over and collect examples of the plants that we find, press them, label them, and display them. We will do this once a month in order to observe the changes as the seasons move along. http://www.treehugger.com/renewable-energy/cutting-cattails-for-fuel-north-carolina-researchers-investigate-potential-ethanol- feedstock.html
  62. 62. Given the strong habitat sensitivity of the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey, their occurrence (or absence) may be a direct indicator of habitat conditions and ecosystem health. Talk with your neighbor for two minutes about what those habitat sensitivities are. 5. What flora and fauna (plants and animals) do you think might be the most sensitive in our lake environment? Dr. Rebecca Lewison & Jennifer Feltner Biology Department SDSU
  63. 63. 6. Make a list with a neighbor of all the flora and fauna that we have seen up to this time at our lake. Now, with the whole class, let’s make our list as complete as possible. Are there any that seem out of place to you?
  64. 64. Next go to http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12- Understanding-Biodiversity/ and download the book called Biodiversity.
  65. 65. On page 7 of that text you will find this – The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL; http://www.eol.org/ , and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6NwfGA4cxJQ ) It’s a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9+ million living species known to science. It is aggregated or compiled from existing scientific databases, and from contributions by experts and non-experts world-wide. Its goal is to build one ―infinitely expandable‖ page for each species, including videos, sound, images, graphics, and text. Check them out!
  66. 66. We will be using the CK-12 book as a guide and create a Biodiversity book of your own. Our book will document the community of Jacumba where our campus is located. Since our school has students from Jacumba and Boulevard we will also do a Boulevard section for those of you who wish to include flora and fauna from home. During class though, we are only able to visit our campus and the lake areas.
  67. 67. We will also be involved in a phenology project. Check this out at http://budburst.org/ Phenology is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and inter-annual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation). The word is derived from the Greek "to show, to bring to light, make to appear", and "study, discourse, reasoning" and indicates that phenology has been principally concerned with the dates of first occurrence of biological events in their annual cycle. Examples include the date of emergence of leaves and flowers, the first flight of butterflies and the first appearance of migratory birds, the date of leaf coloring and fall in deciduous trees, the dates of egg-laying of birds and amphibians, or the timing of the developmental cycles of temperate-zone honey bee colonies. In the scientific literature on ecology, the term is used more generally to indicate the time frame for any seasonal biological phenomena, including the dates of last appearance (e.g., the seasonal phenology of a species may be from April through September).
  68. 68. This will be a year-long, whole school project. We will be looking at what the researchers are learning in China. We will be discussing a payment system used to keep people out of the preserve and what you think about it and how it works. We will be collecting plants to press and display in our classroom and the public library. We will be building our own online community biodiversity book with a collection of pictures and videos. We will be hosting a radio show and sharing our classroom activities.
  69. 69. You are to come up with additional vocabulary words for this biodiversity project. I have a PowerPoint on our class website that you should add slides to containing the new words and in the same fashion as I have begun. How many does she want?
  70. 70. The following pages can be printed as handouts, six slides to a page, cut apart and used to play a vocabulary game the same way concentration is played. Six slides, one after the other, can be created to make the backs of the ―cards‖. Make sure the last slide number is a multiple of six! These should be laminated, or run back to back on card stock, so they will last.
  71. 71. Ecology
  72. 72. The scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environment, organisms have with each other, and with their abiotic environment. Topics of interest to ecologists include the diversity, distribution, amount (biomass), number (population) of organisms, as well as competition between them within and among ecosystems. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  73. 73. Behavioral Ecology
  74. 74. The study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  75. 75. Habitat Ecology
  76. 76. The study of the area or natural environment in which an organism or population normally lives. A habitat is made up of physical factors such as soil, moisture, range of temperature, and availability of light as well as biotic factors such as the availability of food and the presence of predators. A habitat is not necessarily a geographic area—for a parasitic organism it is the body of its host or even a cell within the host's body. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  77. 77. Conservation Biology
  78. 78. The scientific study of the nature and status of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. It is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on sciences, economics, and the practice of natural resource management. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  79. 79. Flora and Fauna
  80. 80. Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the "Sonoran Desert fauna" or the "Burgess Shale fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  81. 81. Phenology
  82. 82. The study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and inter-annual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (such as elevation). The word is derived from the Greek "to show, to bring to light, make to appear", amongst others "study, discourse, reasoning" and indicates that phenology has been principally concerned with the dates of first occurrence of biological events in their annual cycle. Examples include the date of emergence of leaves and flowers, the first flight of butterflies and the first appearance of migratory birds, the date of leaf coloring and fall in deciduous trees, the dates of egg-laying of birds and amphibians, or the timing of the developmental cycles of temperate- zone honey bee colonies. In the scientific literature on ecology, the term is used more generally to indicate the time frame for any seasonal biological phenomena, including the dates of last appearance (e.g., the seasonal phenology of a species may be from April through September). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  83. 83. Folivorous
  84. 84. Folivore: eats foliage; includes arboreal folivores— animals whose diet consists largely of tree foliage.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  85. 85. Biodiversity
  86. 86. The degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, biome, or planet.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  87. 87. Diurnal
  88. 88. A plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day and sleeping at night.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  89. 89. Semi-terrestrial
  90. 90. Living mostly on land but requiring a moist environment or nearby water, especially as a breeding site.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  91. 91. Arboreal
  92. 92. Adapted for living and moving about in trees.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  93. 93. Endemic
  94. 94. Native to or confined to a certain region.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
  95. 95. Epidemic
  96. 96. An epidemic (from epi, meaning "upon or above" and demos, meaning "people") occurs when new cases of a certain disease, in a given population, and during a given period, substantially exceed what is expected based on recent experience. Epidemiologists often consider the term outbreak to be synonymous to epidemic, but the general public typically perceives outbreaks to be more local and less serious than epidemics. Epidemics of infectious disease are generally caused by a change in the ecology of the host population. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki

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