In this lesson on Information Technology you will be introduced to
what IT is, what IT encompasses with respect to computer hardware,
software, and the associated services and personnel
By the time this lesson is completed, you will be able to:
1. Explain the meaning and purpose of IT
2. Identify the major components of hardware, software, and
services is IT
3. List and explain the five major components of acomputer system
4. Describe in detail the hardware associated with input, processing,
output, memory, and control
Meaning of “Information Technology (IT)”: A general term which
includes all of the computer system hardware, software, and services
associated with computer operation.
Hardware: The objects that are what you see after turning off the
Software: The instructions that tell the computer what to do with
the supplied data.
Keyboard Scanners (flatbed and 35mm slide)
Trackball, Mouse, Touch Pad Modem; Network plug-in
Internal Drives (hard and 3.5” floppy) CD/DVD
External Hard Drive, Thumb Drive Camera/Microphone for Internet
Printer with Camera Card Reader SlotsTouch Screen (Possible)
Calcule (+ and -) Control components
Controls Operational logic Speed Megahertz = 1,000,000
Contains RAM for calculations operations per second
Monitor (2nd monitor, digital projector) Modem, Network Plug-In
Printer with Card Slots Speaker System
Internal Drives (hard and 3.5” floppy) CD/DVD Recorder
External Hard Drive Thumb Drive
Read-Only Memory (ROM): Memory that permanently retains operating system
Random Access Memory (RAM): Memory that temporarily stores data; volatile, in
that the data disappear when the system is powered-down.
Measurement of Memory: bit (0 or 1), byte (8 bits), kilobyte (210 or 1024 bytes),
megabyte (1024 Kbytes or approx. 1 million bytes); gigabyte (1024 megabytes, or
approx. 1 billion bytes; terabyte (1 million megabytes, or approx. 1 trillion bytes)
Operating Systems—Windows XP (Mac: OS; MSDOS; Linux)
Applications Programs—Microsoft Office (PageMaker, Photoshop)
Specialized Programs on ROM—Plug-in games
Review of Key IT Terms
IT Information Technology
Input Putting information into the computer
Processing Doing something with the information put into the computer
Output Getting information out of the computer
Memory Storing and retrieving information in the computer
Control Directing input, processing, memory, and output
Monitor A visual display of information stored in memory
CPU The central processing unit
Applications Programs developed to produce products (Word, Photoshop)
System Software The programs that perform system operations (save, print,
Byte 8 bits (a string of eight zeros and/or ones)
CD-ROM Compact Disk-Read Only Memory
Diskette A storage device holding 1.2 megabytes of data
Digital Discrete, as opposed to analogous
Analog Analogous, representing relative size
e-Commerce Business conducted on the Internet
e-Mail Mail sent and received via the Internet
Freeware Computer software which is free to the user
Bit A zero or a one
Touchscreen A special display that outputs video and inputs location of
Review of Key IT Terms, continued
Mouse A means by which any area of the screen can be reached
Trackball An alternative to the mouse
Touchpad Another alternative to the mouse, mostly on notebook com
Modem A means by which data can be sent and received via the
Megahertz A measure of speed; approximately a million cycles per
Gigahertz Another measure of speed; approximately a trillion cycles per
Kilobyte A measure of quantity; 210 = 1024
Megabyte A measure of quantity; 1024 Kbytes, approx. 1 million bytes
Hardware The physical parts of the computer and peripherals
PDA A hand-held computer
In this lesson you have considered the following topics:
1. Explanation of the meaning and purpose of IT
2. Identification of the major components of hardware, software, and
services in IT
3. A listing and explanation of the five major components of a computer
4. A description in detail of the hardware associated with input,
processing, output, memory, and control
5. Definitions of terms associated with IT
Directions: Using the system explained by your instructor, answer the following questions
related to Information Technology.
1. Which of the following are included as part of the concept, Information
ment of a. Hardware c. Personnel
Memory b. Software d. All of the above responses
: bit (0
2. Which of the following peripherals functions as both an input and output device?
a. mouse c. trackball
b. touch screen d. touchpad
3. What you see after turning off the computer’s main power switch is termed
a. hardware c. software
b. systems applications d. user applications
4. That computer component which tells the computer what to do with supplied
data is called
a. firmware c. software
b. directions d. all of the above
5. The smallest of the various types of general purpose computers is called the
a. calculator c. programmable calculator
b. memory-based calculator d. PDA
6. Which of the following would be classified as input devices?
a. touchpad c. trackball
b. touch screen d. all of the above
7. A flat-bed scanner is classified as a/n ____________ device
a. processing c. control
b. memory d. input
8. Which of the following are both input and output devices?
a. 3.5” floppy drive c. DVD player
b. CD player d. all of the above
9. The device which is used to modulate and de-modulate signals is called a/n
a. modem c. de-modulator
b. modulator d. converter
10. Which of the following is a task of the central processing unit?
a. calculations c. control logic
b. control components d. all of the above
11. A central processing unit, the heart of the computer, is approximately how large?
a. 1 foot by 1 foot c. less than 4” square
b. 8” by 12” d. no more than .25” square
12. The speed of the CPU is measured in
a. cycles/minute c. cycles/hour
b. operations/second d. all of the above
13. In terms of output devices, which of the following is probably the most used?
a. monitor c. printer
b. CD-writer d. tape recorder
14. ROM stands for _______________ memory
a. random operational c. read-only
b. read-once d. recursive operational
15. Which of the following is true of RAM?
a. It is permanent c. It is highly volatile
b. It is extremely expensive d. all of the above
16. Which of the following is a good definition of a “bit”?
a. a zero or a one c. one-eighth of a byte
b. a binary digit d. all of the above
17. Memory is measured in bytes. What is the definition of a byte?
a. eight zeros or ones c. 1/10,000 of a terabyte
b. 2 bits
d. 10 bits
18. A kilobyte is
a. exactly 1024 bytes c. 25 bits
b. one million bits d. exactly 1024 bits
19. A terabyte is one million megabytes or approximately ____________ bytes.
a. one thousand c. ten million
b. one hundred thousand d. one trillion
20. Windows XP is an example of a/n
a. MS Office application c. Operating System
b. Off-line storage system d. all of the above
21. Which of the following would be classified as an application program?
a. Word c. Photoshop
b. PowerPoint d. all of the above
22. The type of monitor that can serve not only as an output device but also as an
input device is called a/n
a. touchscreen c. touchpad
b. trackscreen d. input/output video display
23. Which of the following can be read from a CD-ROM?
a. word processing files c. digital pictures
b. digital movies d. all of the above
24. The CPU is the central processing unit. With a desktop computer, CPU also may
refer to the
a. box, either metal or plastic, that contains the CPU and peripherals
b. control-program unit
c.. monitor, the visual output display
d. main memory (both RAM and ROM)
25. Which of the following can function as an output device?
a. mouse c. trackball
b. CD-ROM reader d. monitor
Directions: In this first activity you will be exploring the Information Technology
employment opportunities. You will first have the opportunity to read about such
opportunities by means of a search on the Internet. You will see in this activity what
the actual employment opportunities are and what are the needed skills for those
desiring such employment.
1. Study the following excerpts from the classified ads, announcements of job opening
which are all in the area of information technology. What are some of the major
conclusions you can draw from announcements such as these?
Results of an Internet search related to jobs in the IT field.
Note that the
Information Technology and 39,319 job postings were found. These jobs are listed in
the “Newest jobs first” order, and the names of the companies and locations are
Further exploration of this website produces the Job Title/Description, Company,
Location, and Date Found categories for each of the opportunities listed.
Continued exploration of any of these job postings will provide information
concerning the details of the job and the required background.
Scrolling further down the required experience/knowledge is listed.
Note that in this class, you will be studying Windows XP, one of the requirements.
Contestación a la Actividad 1-1:
Actualmente existe una gran demanda de empleos relacionados con la tecnología de la
información. La sociedad requiere que los miembros que la componen sean capaces de
manejar aparatos electrónicos como lo son la computadora; ya que la tecnología facilita
la realización de las tareas a llevar a cabo en diferentes áreas. Por ejemplo: en una
tienda por departamento que se dedica a la venta de muebles; el computador acelera
el proceso de crear, despachar y guardar las órdenes de los clientes. Con la tecnología de
la información el ser humano tiene la oportunidad de adquirir los conocimientos
necesarios para poder cumplir con las funciones que exige la sociedad para no quedar al
margen de esta.
Be on the lookout for job listings in the area of Information Technology. Such listing may
be found in newspapers, magazines related to Information Technology, and on the
Internet. Be prepared for the next class session to share your findings concerning
preparation for employment in the IT field.