Lesson1

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Lesson1

  1. 1. ICDL/ECDL Information Technology Lesson 1 Overview In this lesson on Information Technology you will be introduced to what IT is, what IT encompasses with respect to computer hardware, software, and the associated services and personnel Objectives By the time this lesson is completed, you will be able to: 1. Explain the meaning and purpose of IT 2. Identify the major components of hardware, software, and services is IT 3. List and explain the five major components of acomputer system 4. Describe in detail the hardware associated with input, processing, output, memory, and control Information Technology Meaning of “Information Technology (IT)”: A general term which includes all of the computer system hardware, software, and services associated with computer operation. Definitions: Hardware: The objects that are what you see after turning off the power switch. Software: The instructions that tell the computer what to do with the supplied data.
  2. 2. Services: The activities provided by the IT specialists which are crucial to the entire operation. Copyright © Norman T. Bell, 2007 Types of Computers Two Major Categories of Computers 1. Mainframe Computers—large, powerful, very expensive. 2. Microcomputers—small, powerful, inexpensive. Three Major Categories of Microcomputers 1. Desktop Computers. 2. Laptop or Notebook Computers. 3. Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). Major Uses of the Major Categories of Microcomputers 1. Desktop: all types of applications available. 2. Laptop: all types of applications available for use on the road. 3. PDA: fewer applications, use while away from desktop/laptop3. The Block Diagram of the Computer System Control Input Processing Output Memory 2
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  4. 4. Input Devices Keyboard Scanners (flatbed and 35mm slide) Trackball, Mouse, Touch Pad Modem; Network plug-in Internal Drives (hard and 3.5” floppy) CD/DVD External Hard Drive, Thumb Drive Camera/Microphone for Internet Printer with Camera Card Reader SlotsTouch Screen (Possible) Processing Calcule (+ and -) Control components Controls Operational logic Speed Megahertz = 1,000,000 Contains RAM for calculations operations per second 4
  5. 5. Output Devices Monitor (2nd monitor, digital projector) Modem, Network Plug-In Printer with Card Slots Speaker System Internal Drives (hard and 3.5” floppy) CD/DVD Recorder External Hard Drive Thumb Drive Memory Devices Read-Only Memory (ROM): Memory that permanently retains operating system info. Random Access Memory (RAM): Memory that temporarily stores data; volatile, in that the data disappear when the system is powered-down. Measurement of Memory: bit (0 or 1), byte (8 bits), kilobyte (210 or 1024 bytes), megabyte (1024 Kbytes or approx. 1 million bytes); gigabyte (1024 megabytes, or approx. 1 billion bytes; terabyte (1 million megabytes, or approx. 1 trillion bytes) Control 5
  6. 6. Control Processing Input Output Memory Operating Systems—Windows XP (Mac: OS; MSDOS; Linux) Applications Programs—Microsoft Office (PageMaker, Photoshop) Specialized Programs on ROM—Plug-in games Review of Key IT Terms IT Information Technology Input Putting information into the computer Processing Doing something with the information put into the computer Output Getting information out of the computer Memory Storing and retrieving information in the computer Control Directing input, processing, memory, and output Monitor A visual display of information stored in memory CPU The central processing unit Applications Programs developed to produce products (Word, Photoshop) System Software The programs that perform system operations (save, print, etc.) Byte 8 bits (a string of eight zeros and/or ones) CD-ROM Compact Disk-Read Only Memory Diskette A storage device holding 1.2 megabytes of data Digital Discrete, as opposed to analogous Analog Analogous, representing relative size e-Commerce Business conducted on the Internet e-Mail Mail sent and received via the Internet Freeware Computer software which is free to the user Bit A zero or a one Touchscreen A special display that outputs video and inputs location of 6
  7. 7. Touch. Review of Key IT Terms, continued Mouse A means by which any area of the screen can be reached Trackball An alternative to the mouse Touchpad Another alternative to the mouse, mostly on notebook com Computers. Modem A means by which data can be sent and received via the Telephone. Megahertz A measure of speed; approximately a million cycles per Second. Gigahertz Another measure of speed; approximately a trillion cycles per Second. Kilobyte A measure of quantity; 210 = 1024 Megabyte A measure of quantity; 1024 Kbytes, approx. 1 million bytes Hardware The physical parts of the computer and peripherals PDA A hand-held computer Summary In this lesson you have considered the following topics: 1. Explanation of the meaning and purpose of IT 2. Identification of the major components of hardware, software, and services in IT 3. A listing and explanation of the five major components of a computer system 4. A description in detail of the hardware associated with input, processing, output, memory, and control 5. Definitions of terms associated with IT Quick Quiz Directions: Using the system explained by your instructor, answer the following questions related to Information Technology. 1. Which of the following are included as part of the concept, Information Technology? 7
  8. 8. Measure ment of a. Hardware c. Personnel Memory b. Software d. All of the above responses : bit (0 2. Which of the following peripherals functions as both an input and output device? a. mouse c. trackball b. touch screen d. touchpad 3. What you see after turning off the computer’s main power switch is termed a. hardware c. software b. systems applications d. user applications 4. That computer component which tells the computer what to do with supplied data is called a. firmware c. software b. directions d. all of the above 5. The smallest of the various types of general purpose computers is called the a. calculator c. programmable calculator b. memory-based calculator d. PDA 6. Which of the following would be classified as input devices? a. touchpad c. trackball b. touch screen d. all of the above 7. A flat-bed scanner is classified as a/n ____________ device a. processing c. control b. memory d. input 8. Which of the following are both input and output devices? a. 3.5” floppy drive c. DVD player b. CD player d. all of the above 9. The device which is used to modulate and de-modulate signals is called a/n a. modem c. de-modulator b. modulator d. converter 10. Which of the following is a task of the central processing unit? a. calculations c. control logic b. control components d. all of the above 11. A central processing unit, the heart of the computer, is approximately how large? 8
  9. 9. a. 1 foot by 1 foot c. less than 4” square b. 8” by 12” d. no more than .25” square 12. The speed of the CPU is measured in a. cycles/minute c. cycles/hour b. operations/second d. all of the above 13. In terms of output devices, which of the following is probably the most used? a. monitor c. printer b. CD-writer d. tape recorder 14. ROM stands for _______________ memory a. random operational c. read-only b. read-once d. recursive operational 15. Which of the following is true of RAM? a. It is permanent c. It is highly volatile b. It is extremely expensive d. all of the above 16. Which of the following is a good definition of a “bit”? a. a zero or a one c. one-eighth of a byte b. a binary digit d. all of the above 17. Memory is measured in bytes. What is the definition of a byte? a. eight zeros or ones c. 1/10,000 of a terabyte b. 2 bits 10 d. 10 bits 18. A kilobyte is a. exactly 1024 bytes c. 25 bits b. one million bits d. exactly 1024 bits 19. A terabyte is one million megabytes or approximately ____________ bytes. a. one thousand c. ten million b. one hundred thousand d. one trillion 20. Windows XP is an example of a/n a. MS Office application c. Operating System b. Off-line storage system d. all of the above 21. Which of the following would be classified as an application program? a. Word c. Photoshop 9
  10. 10. b. PowerPoint d. all of the above 22. The type of monitor that can serve not only as an output device but also as an input device is called a/n a. touchscreen c. touchpad b. trackscreen d. input/output video display 23. Which of the following can be read from a CD-ROM? a. word processing files c. digital pictures b. digital movies d. all of the above 24. The CPU is the central processing unit. With a desktop computer, CPU also may refer to the a. box, either metal or plastic, that contains the CPU and peripherals b. control-program unit c.. monitor, the visual output display d. main memory (both RAM and ROM) 25. Which of the following can function as an output device? a. mouse c. trackball b. CD-ROM reader d. monitor Activity 1-1 Directions: In this first activity you will be exploring the Information Technology employment opportunities. You will first have the opportunity to read about such opportunities by means of a search on the Internet. You will see in this activity what the actual employment opportunities are and what are the needed skills for those desiring such employment. 1. Study the following excerpts from the classified ads, announcements of job opening which are all in the area of information technology. What are some of the major conclusions you can draw from announcements such as these? Results of an Internet search related to jobs in the IT field. 10
  11. 11. Note that the Category is Information Technology and 39,319 job postings were found. These jobs are listed in the “Newest jobs first” order, and the names of the companies and locations are indicated. Further exploration of this website produces the Job Title/Description, Company, Location, and Date Found categories for each of the opportunities listed. Continued exploration of any of these job postings will provide information concerning the details of the job and the required background. 11
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  13. 13. Scrolling further down the required experience/knowledge is listed. Note that in this class, you will be studying Windows XP, one of the requirements. Contestación a la Actividad 1-1: Actualmente existe una gran demanda de empleos relacionados con la tecnología de la información. La sociedad requiere que los miembros que la componen sean capaces de manejar aparatos electrónicos como lo son la computadora; ya que la tecnología facilita la realización de las tareas a llevar a cabo en diferentes áreas. Por ejemplo: en una tienda por departamento que se dedica a la venta de muebles; el computador acelera el proceso de crear, despachar y guardar las órdenes de los clientes. Con la tecnología de la información el ser humano tiene la oportunidad de adquirir los conocimientos necesarios para poder cumplir con las funciones que exige la sociedad para no quedar al margen de esta. Activity 1-2 Be on the lookout for job listings in the area of Information Technology. Such listing may be found in newspapers, magazines related to Information Technology, and on the Internet. Be prepared for the next class session to share your findings concerning preparation for employment in the IT field. 13

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