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Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais Disciplina: Est. Linguísticos V: Morfossintaxe (Ênfase em Inglês) Profess...
<ul><li>Prepositions </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions </li></ul>
What is a Preposition? <ul><li>A  preposition  links  nouns ,  pronouns  and  phrases  to other words in a  sentence . The...
<ul><li>Place: AT, ON, IN. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositions of place </li></ul><ul><li>IN. </li></ul><ul><li>We use  in  whe...
<ul><li>A ball  in  the box. </li></ul>
<ul><li>We also use  in  when we think of a place as a point </li></ul><ul><li>A woodpecker  in  the woods. </li></ul>
<ul><li>*We use  in  when we think of the place itself </li></ul><ul><li>He’s got a flat  in  Milan. </li></ul>
<ul><li>AT. </li></ul><ul><li>We use at when we think of a place as a point. </li></ul><ul><li>At the supermarket. </li></ul>
<ul><li>I waited  at  the bus stop for twenty minutes. </li></ul>
<ul><li>with cities, towns and villages, we use  at  when we think of the place as a point e.g. a point on a journey. </li...
<ul><li>ON. </li></ul><ul><li>We use  on  when we think of a place as a surface </li></ul><ul><li>A rabbit on the rock. </...
<ul><li>We also use  on  when we think of a place as a line. </li></ul><ul><li>Brighton is  on  the south coast of England...
<ul><li>*With addresses, we use  at  when it gives the house number; in British English, we use  in  when it just gives th...
Place and movement:  In, Into, Out, Of. <ul><li>Sally is  in  her pool. </li></ul>
<ul><li>I fell  into  the pool . </li></ul>
<ul><li>She came  out of  pool . </li></ul>
On, Onto, Off. <ul><li>The cat is  on  the table. </li></ul>
<ul><li>He jumped  onto  the table. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Take your cat  off  the table. </li></ul>
Inside, outside <ul><li>He was inside the safe. </li></ul>
<ul><li>He was outside the safe. </li></ul>
Place and movement: Below, above. <ul><li>We use  above  and  below  when one thing is not directly over or under another ...
<ul><li>The cat is  above  the dog.  </li></ul><ul><li>The dog is  below  the cat </li></ul>
In front of, Behind <ul><li>The orange cat is  behind  of the bookcase.  </li></ul><ul><li>The yellow cat is  in front of ...
Opposite, between <ul><li>There is a TV  between  the pets. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The man is  opposite  the woman. </li></ul>
Near, next to, by, beside   <ul><li>They live  near  the sea. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A ghost  next to  the sofa. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Come and sit  beside  me. </li></ul>
Along, across/over, through <ul><li>He ran  along  the street. </li></ul>
<ul><li>A pretty woman goes  across/over  the river. </li></ul>
<ul><li>*we use both across and over to mean ‘ on the other side of or ‘to the other side of. </li></ul><ul><li>We drove  ...
UP, DOWN <ul><li>They went  up  the stairs. </li></ul>
<ul><li>They came  down  the stairs . </li></ul>
Past, Around <ul><li>The policeman just walked  past  the man. </li></ul>
<ul><li>We use around for position or movement in a circle or in a curve. </li></ul><ul><li>He ran  around  the tower </li...
From, To <ul><li>We flew  from  Paris  to  Madrid. </li></ul>
Time: During <ul><li>We can use  during  to refer to a period of time.  </li></ul><ul><li>We were in Rome  during  the sum...
After, before   <ul><li>I’ll be home  before  6 o’clock. </li></ul>
<ul><li>After  dinner we went for a walk. </li></ul>
With <ul><li>We can use  with  to say what someone or something has.   </li></ul><ul><li>He is a tall man with brown hair ...
Within <ul><li>1  —used as a function word to indicate enclosure or containment </li></ul><ul><li>2  —used as a function w...
<ul><li>Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Main Entry:  beyond   </li></ul><ul><li>Function:  preposition   </li></ul><ul><li>Date: ...
<ul><li>1   :  on or to the farther side of  :   </li></ul><ul><li>at a greater distance than  </li></ul><ul><li>< beyond ...
<ul><li>2 a   :  out of the reach or sphere of <a task  beyond  his strength>  </li></ul><ul><li>b   :  in a degree or amo...
<ul><li>3   :  in addition to  :   </li></ul><ul><li>besides  <doing work  beyond  his regular duties. </li></ul>
Without <ul><li>Children without food to eat. </li></ul>
<ul><li>1 :  outside 2:  —used as a function word to indicate the absence or lack of something or someone  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Back </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I'm  back  from work!“ </li></ul>
<ul><li>CONJUNCTIONS </li></ul>
What is a conjunction? <ul><li>A conjunction is a joiner,  </li></ul><ul><li>a word that  connects  (conjoins) parts of a ...
AND   <ul><li>To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another: &quot;Tashonda sent in her applications  ...
BUT   <ul><li>To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause:  </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Joey lost a ...
OR   <ul><li>To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other: &quot;You can study hard fo...
The others... <ul><li>The conjunction  NOR  is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions, ...
<ul><li>He is neither sane  nor  brilliant.  </li></ul><ul><li>That is neither what I said  nor  what I meant. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The word  YET  functions sometimes as an adverb and has several meanings:  </li></ul><ul><li>in addition (&quot;ye...
<ul><li>John plays basketball well,  yet  his favorite sport is badminton.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>The word  FOR  is most often used as a preposition, of course, but it does serve, on rare occasions, as a coordina...
<ul><li>Most of the visitors were happy just sitting around in the shade,  for  it had been a long, dusty journey on the t...
<ul><li>The conjunction  SO  can sometimes connect two independent clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it can't.  </...
<ul><li>Soto is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his brother, sister, and his Uncle Chet. </li></ul>
Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>A  Subordinating Conjunction  (sometimes called a dependent word or subordinator) comes...
<ul><li>He took to the stage  as though  he had been preparing for this moment all his life.  </li></ul><ul><li>Because  h...
Correlative Conjunctions <ul><li>Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called  correlative conjuncti...
<ul><li>She led the team  not only  in statistics  but also  by virtue of her enthusiasm.  </li></ul><ul><li>Polonius said...
Conjunctive Adverbs <ul><li>The  conjunctive adverbs  such as  </li></ul><ul><li>however, moreover, nevertheless, conseque...
Bibliografia: <ul><li>http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm   </li></ul><ul><li>06 de Março de 2011. </l...
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Davidson_Geiziele_Williana-Prepositions and Conjunctions

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Prepositions and Conjunctions

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Davidson_Geiziele_Williana-Prepositions and Conjunctions

  1. 1. Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais Disciplina: Est. Linguísticos V: Morfossintaxe (Ênfase em Inglês) Professora: Rosana Espírito Santo Alunos: Davidson, Geiziele e Williana Belo Horizonte, 2011.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Prepositions </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Preposition? <ul><li>A preposition links nouns , pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence . The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Place: AT, ON, IN. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositions of place </li></ul><ul><li>IN. </li></ul><ul><li>We use in when we think of a place as </li></ul><ul><li>three-dimensional. </li></ul><ul><li>A ball in the box. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A ball in the box. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>We also use in when we think of a place as a point </li></ul><ul><li>A woodpecker in the woods. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>*We use in when we think of the place itself </li></ul><ul><li>He’s got a flat in Milan. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>AT. </li></ul><ul><li>We use at when we think of a place as a point. </li></ul><ul><li>At the supermarket. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>I waited at the bus stop for twenty minutes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>with cities, towns and villages, we use at when we think of the place as a point e.g. a point on a journey. </li></ul><ul><li>Our train stops at Brighton. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>ON. </li></ul><ul><li>We use on when we think of a place as a surface </li></ul><ul><li>A rabbit on the rock. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>We also use on when we think of a place as a line. </li></ul><ul><li>Brighton is on the south coast of England. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>*With addresses, we use at when it gives the house number; in British English, we use in when it just gives the name of the street. </li></ul><ul><li>I live at 42 East Street/ I live in East Street </li></ul>
  14. 14. Place and movement: In, Into, Out, Of. <ul><li>Sally is in her pool. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>I fell into the pool . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>She came out of pool . </li></ul>
  17. 17. On, Onto, Off. <ul><li>The cat is on the table. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>He jumped onto the table. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Take your cat off the table. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Inside, outside <ul><li>He was inside the safe. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>He was outside the safe. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Place and movement: Below, above. <ul><li>We use above and below when one thing is not directly over or under another thing. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The cat is above the dog. </li></ul><ul><li>The dog is below the cat </li></ul>
  24. 24. In front of, Behind <ul><li>The orange cat is behind of the bookcase. </li></ul><ul><li>The yellow cat is in front of the bookcase </li></ul>
  25. 25. Opposite, between <ul><li>There is a TV between the pets. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The man is opposite the woman. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Near, next to, by, beside <ul><li>They live near the sea. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>A ghost next to the sofa. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Come and sit beside me. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Along, across/over, through <ul><li>He ran along the street. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>A pretty woman goes across/over the river. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>*we use both across and over to mean ‘ on the other side of or ‘to the other side of. </li></ul><ul><li>We drove through the city. </li></ul>
  33. 33. UP, DOWN <ul><li>They went up the stairs. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>They came down the stairs . </li></ul>
  35. 35. Past, Around <ul><li>The policeman just walked past the man. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>We use around for position or movement in a circle or in a curve. </li></ul><ul><li>He ran around the tower </li></ul>
  37. 37. From, To <ul><li>We flew from Paris to Madrid. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Time: During <ul><li>We can use during to refer to a period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>We were in Rome during the summer. </li></ul>
  39. 39. After, before <ul><li>I’ll be home before 6 o’clock. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>After dinner we went for a walk. </li></ul>
  41. 41. With <ul><li>We can use with to say what someone or something has. </li></ul><ul><li>He is a tall man with brown hair (= he has brown hair) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Within <ul><li>1 —used as a function word to indicate enclosure or containment </li></ul><ul><li>2 —used as a function word to indicate situation or circumstance in the limits or compass of: </li></ul><ul><li>Within a year </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Main Entry: beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Function: preposition </li></ul><ul><li>Date: before 12th century </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>1 : on or to the farther side of : </li></ul><ul><li>at a greater distance than </li></ul><ul><li>< beyond the horizon> </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>2 a : out of the reach or sphere of <a task beyond his strength> </li></ul><ul><li>b : in a degree or amount surpassing <beautiful beyond measure> </li></ul><ul><li>c : out of the comprehension of <his reasoning is beyond me> </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>3 : in addition to : </li></ul><ul><li>besides <doing work beyond his regular duties. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Without <ul><li>Children without food to eat. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>1 : outside 2: —used as a function word to indicate the absence or lack of something or someone </li></ul><ul><li><fight without fear> </li></ul><ul><li><left without him> </li></ul><ul><li><looks without seeing> </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Back </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I'm back from work!“ </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>CONJUNCTIONS </li></ul>
  51. 51. What is a conjunction? <ul><li>A conjunction is a joiner, </li></ul><ul><li>a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence. </li></ul>
  52. 52. AND <ul><li>To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another: &quot;Tashonda sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest that one idea is the result of another: &quot;Willie heard the weather report and promptly boarded up his house.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another (frequently replaced by but in this usage): &quot;Juanita is brilliant and Shalimar has a pleasant personality. </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest an element of surprise (sometimes replaced by yet in this usage): &quot;Hartford is a rich city and suffers from many symptoms of urban blight.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally (usually the first clause is an imperative): &quot;Use your credit cards frequently and you'll soon find yourself deep in debt.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a kind of &quot;comment&quot; on the first clause: &quot;Charlie became addicted to gambling — and that surprised no one who knew him.&quot; </li></ul>
  53. 53. BUT <ul><li>To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Joey lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way (sometimes replaced by on the contrary ): </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of a sage investment counselor.“ </li></ul><ul><li>To connect two ideas with the meaning of &quot;with the exception of&quot; (and then the second word takes over as subject): </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Everybody but Goldenbreath is trying out for the team.&quot; </li></ul>
  54. 54. OR <ul><li>To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other: &quot;You can study hard for this exam or you can fail.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives: &quot;We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers. </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a refinement of the first clause: &quot;Smith College is the premier all-women's college in the country, or so it seems to most Smith College alumnae.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a restatement or &quot;correction&quot; of the first part of the sentence: &quot;There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a negative condition: &quot;The New Hampshire state motto is the rather grim &quot;Live free or die.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative (see use of and above ): &quot;They must approve his political style or they wouldn't keep electing him mayor.&quot; </li></ul>
  55. 55. The others... <ul><li>The conjunction NOR is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions, so it might feel a bit odd when nor does come up in conversation or writing. Its most common use is as the little brother in the correlative pair, neither...nor (see below ): </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>He is neither sane nor brilliant. </li></ul><ul><li>That is neither what I said nor what I meant. </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>The word YET functions sometimes as an adverb and has several meanings: </li></ul><ul><li>in addition (&quot;yet another cause of trouble&quot; or &quot;a simple yet noble woman&quot;), </li></ul><ul><li>even (&quot;yet more expensive&quot;), </li></ul><ul><li>still (&quot;he is yet a novice&quot;), </li></ul><ul><li>eventually (&quot;they may yet win&quot;), </li></ul><ul><li>and so soon as now (&quot;he's not here yet&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>It also functions as a coordinating conjunction meaning something like &quot;nevertheless&quot; or &quot;but.&quot; The word yet seems to carry an element of distinctiveness that but can seldom register. </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>John plays basketball well, yet his favorite sport is badminton. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>The word FOR is most often used as a preposition, of course, but it does serve, on rare occasions, as a coordinating conjunction. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people regard the conjunction for as rather literary. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning a sentence with the conjunction &quot;for&quot; is probably not a good idea, except when you're singing e.g.&quot;For he's a jolly good fellow. </li></ul><ul><li>Its function is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause: </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Most of the visitors were happy just sitting around in the shade, for it had been a long, dusty journey on the train. </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>The conjunction SO can sometimes connect two independent clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it can't. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Soto is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his brother, sister, and his Uncle Chet. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Subordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>A Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word or subordinator) comes at the beginning of a Subordinate (or Dependent) Clause and establishes the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence. It also turns the clause into something that depends on the rest of the sentence for its meaning. </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>He took to the stage as though he had been preparing for this moment all his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies. </li></ul><ul><li>Unless we act now, all is lost. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Correlative Conjunctions <ul><li>Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions . They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal. </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>She led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of her enthusiasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Polonius said, &quot; Neither a borrower nor a lender be.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your best. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Conjunctive Adverbs <ul><li>The conjunctive adverbs such as </li></ul><ul><li>however, moreover, nevertheless, consequently, as a result </li></ul><ul><li>are used to create complex relationships between ideas. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Bibliografia: <ul><li>http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/conjunctions.htm </li></ul><ul><li>06 de Março de 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>The Heinemann English grammar </li></ul><ul><li>An intermediate reference and practice book-Autor: Beaumont, Digby </li></ul><ul><li>www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>14 de Setembro de 2009. </li></ul>

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