Davidson_Geiziele e Williana

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Nouns_Determiners_Pronouns

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Davidson_Geiziele e Williana

  1. 1. Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais Disciplina: Est. Linguísticos V: Morfossintaxe (Ênfase em Inglês) Professora: Rosana E.S. Alunos: Davidson, Geiziele e Williana Belo Horizonte, 2011.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Pronouns, Nouns and Determiners </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pronouns <ul><li>Personal pronouns stand in place of the names of people or things: </li></ul><ul><li>Singular and : I You He She It </li></ul><ul><li>Plural: We You They </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>E.G.:   I have a sister. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Possessive pronouns  are used to indicate  possession  or ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>Singular: Mine Yours His Hers Its </li></ul><ul><li>Plural: OursYourTheirs </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>E.G.:  Those clothes are  mine. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Possessive adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Singular: My Your His Her Its </li></ul><ul><li>Plural: Our Your Their </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>E.G.:   I lost  my  wallet. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Demonstrative pronouns  distinguish the particular objects or people that are referred to from other possible candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Singular: This That </li></ul><ul><li>Plural: Thes Those </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>E.G.:   That  is her house. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Reflexive pronouns  are used when a person or thing acts on itself or they are used to emphasize the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Singular: Myself Yourself Himself Herself </li></ul><ul><li>Plural: Ourselves Yourselves Themselves </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>E.G.:  She talks to herself. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>E.G.:  They themselves closed the store. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Indefinite pronouns  refer to general categories of people or things. </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative: Somebody someone something some </li></ul><ul><li>Negative: Not any nobody no one </li></ul><ul><li>Interrogative: Any anybody anything anyone </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>E.G.:   Something  is better than  nothing .  </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Distributive pronouns  are used to refer to members of a group separately rather than collectively </li></ul><ul><li>Each either neither </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>E.G.:   Each of us was given a prize. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Relative pronouns  refer back to people or things previously mentioned. </li></ul><ul><li>Who that which what as </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>E.G.:  I saw a girl who was beautiful. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Interrogative pronouns  ask which person or thing is meant; </li></ul><ul><li>Who whom which what whose </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>E.G.:   What is it?  </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Reciprocal pronouns  they express a reciprocal relationship; </li></ul><ul><li>Each other </li></ul><ul><li>One other </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>E.G.:   The brothers love each other. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Noun <ul><li>A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns are usually the first words which small children learn. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns: </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Late last year our neighbours bought a goat. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>A noun can function in a sentence as a subject , a direct object , an indirect object , a subject complement , an object complement , an appositive , an adjective or an adverb . </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Noun Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Many common nouns, like &quot;engineer&quot; or &quot;teacher,&quot; can refer to men or women. Once, many English nouns would change form depending on their gender -- for example, a man was called an &quot;author&quot; while a woman was called an &quot;authoress&quot; -- but this use of gender-specific nouns is very rare today. Those that are still used occasionally tend to refer to occupational categories, as in the following sentences. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>David Garrick was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Noun Plurals <ul><li>Most nouns change their form to indicate number by adding &quot;-s&quot; or &quot;-es&quot;, as illustrated in the following pairs of sentences: </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>When Matthew was small he rarely told the truth if he thought he was going to be punished. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>There are other nouns which form the plural by changing the last letter before adding &quot;s&quot;. Some words ending in &quot;f&quot; form the plural by deleting &quot;f&quot; and adding &quot;ves,&quot; and words ending in &quot;y&quot; form the plural by deleting the &quot;y&quot; and adding &quot;ies,&quot; as in the following pairs of sentences: </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The harbour at Marble Mountain has one wharf. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Other nouns form the plural irregularly. If English is your first language, you probably know most of these already: when in doubt, consult a good dictionary. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Possessive Nouns <ul><li>In the possessive case , a noun or pronoun changes its form to show that it owns or is closely related to something else. Usually, nouns become possessive by adding a combination of an apostrophe and the letter &quot;s.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in &quot;s&quot; by adding an apostrophe and &quot;s,&quot; as in the following sentences: </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The red suitcase is Cassandra's. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that ends in &quot;s&quot; by adding an apostrophe alone or by adding an apostrophe and &quot;s,&quot; as in the following examples: </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>The bus' seats are very uncomfortable. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in &quot;s&quot; by adding an apostrophe and a &quot;s,&quot; as in the following examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The children's mittens were scattered on the floor of the porch. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does end in &quot;s&quot; by adding an apostrophe: </li></ul><ul><li>The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking, the ducks' quacking, and the babies' squalling. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Using Possessive Nouns <ul><li>When you read the following sentences, you will notice that a noun in the possessive case frequently functions as an adjective modifying another noun: </li></ul><ul><li>The miner's face was covered in coal dust. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Here the possessive noun &quot;miner's&quot; is used to modify the noun &quot;face&quot; and together with the article &quot;the,&quot; they make up the noun phrase that is the sentence's subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The concert was interrupted by the dogs' barking, the ducks' quacking, and the babies' squalling. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>In this sentence, each possessive noun modifies a gerund . The possessive noun &quot;dogs&quot;' modifies &quot;barking,&quot; &quot;ducks&quot;' modifies &quot;quacking,&quot; and &quot;babies&quot;' modifies &quot;squalling.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>The film crew accidentally crushed the platypus's eggs. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>In this example the possessive noun &quot;platypus's&quot; modifies the noun &quot;eggs&quot; and the noun phrase &quot;the platypus's eggs&quot; is the direct object of the verb &quot;crushed.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>My uncle spent many hours trying to locate the squirrels' nest. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>In this sentence the possessive noun &quot;squirrels&quot;' is used to modify the noun &quot;nest&quot; and the noun phrase &quot;the squirrels' nest&quot; is the object of the infinitive phrase &quot;to locate.&quot; </li></ul>
  46. 46. Types Of Nouns <ul><li>There are many different types of nouns. As you know, you capitalise some nouns, such as &quot;Canada&quot; or &quot;Louise,&quot; and do not capitalise others, such as &quot;badger&quot; or &quot;tree&quot; (unless they appear at the beginning of a sentence). In fact, grammarians have developed a whole series of noun types, including the proper noun, the common noun, the concrete noun, the abstract noun, the countable noun (also called the count noun), the non-countable noun (also called the mass noun), and the collective noun. You should note that a noun will belong to more than one type: it will be proper or common, abstract or concrete, and countable or non-countable or collective. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are interested in the details of these different types, you can read about them in the following sections. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Proper Nouns <ul><li>You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. A proper noun is the opposite of a common noun </li></ul><ul><li>In each of the following sentences, the proper nouns are highlighted: </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Many people dread Monday mornings. </li></ul><ul><li>Beltane is celebrated on the first of May. </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham appears in the Talmud and in the Koran. </li></ul><ul><li>Last year, I had a Baptist, a Buddhist, and a Gardnerian Witch as roommates. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Common Nouns <ul><li>A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense -- usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun. </li></ul><ul><li>In each of the following sentences, the common nouns are highlighted: </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>According to the sign, the nearest town is 60 miles away. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Sometimes you will make proper nouns out of common nouns, as in the following examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The tenants in the Garnet Apartments are appealing the large and sudden increase in their rent. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Concrete Nouns <ul><li>A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite of a abstract noun. </li></ul><ul><li>The highlighted words in the following sentences are all concrete nouns: </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>The judge handed the files to the clerk. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Abstract Nouns <ul><li>An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all abstract nouns: </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>I love my soon. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Countable Nouns <ul><li>A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count . You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>In each of the following sentences, the highlighted words are countable nouns: </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>We painted the table red and the chairs blue. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Non-Countable Nouns <ul><li>A non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and are the opposite of countable nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>The highlighted words in the following sentences are non-countable nouns: </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Joseph Priestley discovered oxygen. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Collective Nouns <ul><li>A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. </li></ul><ul><li>In each of the following sentences, the highlighted word is a collective noun: </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>The flock of geese spends most of its time in the pasture. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Determiners <ul><li>Determiners are words (as an article, possessive, demonstrative, or quantifier) that makes specific the denotation of a noun phrase. In Portuguese, they agree in gender with the noun. </li></ul>
  63. 63. They can clarify: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>to define something or someone; </li></ul><ul><li>to state the amount of people, things or other nouns; </li></ul><ul><li>to state possessives; </li></ul><ul><li>to state something or someone is specific; </li></ul><ul><li>to state how things or people are distributed; </li></ul><ul><li>to state the difference between nouns; </li></ul><ul><li>to state someone or something is not specific; </li></ul>
  64. 64. The definite article : the <ul><li>&quot; The dog barked at the boy.“ </li></ul>
  65. 65. Demonstratives : this, that, these, those <ul><li>“ This is my favorite book.” </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>“ That is my twin sister” </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>“ These are my best friends.” </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>“ Those are my old friends.” </li></ul>
  69. 69. Possessives : my, your, his, her, its, our, their <ul><li>“ Their bus was late.“ </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>“ I lost my keys” </li></ul>
  71. 71. The indefinite articles : a, an <ul><li>&quot; A man sat under an umbrella.“ </li></ul>
  72. 72. Quantifiers: few, a few, many, much, each, every, some, any, a little, a lot of, all, another, less, more, many, most, neither, every much, some… <ul><li>The general determiners are: </li></ul><ul><li>“ He has a lot of money.” </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>“ We bought a little bit of everything.” </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>“ He bought a few flowers for his mother.” </li></ul>
  75. 75. Numbers: one, two, three, twenty, forty <ul><li>“ I have three game’s tickets.” </li></ul>
  76. 76. Ordinals: first , second , 1st 2nd, 3rd, last , next . <ul><li>“ Bob is the first of the line.” </li></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>“ Rubinho was the last .” </li></ul>
  78. 78. Bibliografia <ul><li>http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/determinertext.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.orbilat.com/Languages/Portuguese/Grammar/Portuguese-Determiners.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.english-the-easy-way.com/Determiners/What_Are_Determiners.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.google.com.br/images?hl=pt-br&biw=1020&bih=563&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=imagens&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&oq = </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/nouns.html </li></ul><ul><li>Fevereiro de 2011. </li></ul>

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