Current methods of learning and teaching trabajo definitivo
CURRENT METHODS OF LEARNING ANDTEACHING: COOPERATIVE LEARNING ANDTASK-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHINGCOOPERATIVE LEARNING1. What is cooperative learning?1.1 Aims of cooperative learning.1.2 Five basic elements of cooperative learning.1.3 Three types of cooperative learning groups.2. Models of cooperative learning3. Application of cooperative learning to English class3.1 Basic principles of Kagan Structures.3.2 Sample Kagan Structures3.3 Advantages of Kagan Structur
CARLA DÍAZ DURÁN:1. What is cooperative learning?Cooperative learning is a strategy used to learn meaningfully. This strategy consists oncreating groups of students who have different levels of ability. Each member of a teamhas to learn and help teammates to learn.1.1 Aims of cooperative learningCooperative learning has three aims, which are going to be explained:- The first aim is to promote cooperation in spite of promoting competitive so that childrencan help each other.- The second aim is to develop communicative competence through interaction activities.- The last one and the main aim of cooperative learning is to create the conditions so thatstudents are able to work together since working together is easier, more interesting andmore affective.1.2 Five basic elements of cooperative learningNow, we are going to talk about five basic elements of cooperative learning:1. The first and most important element of cooperative learning is positiveinterdependence. That is, each member of group feels that all of them are linked witheach other in the same project and for this reason they have to do their bit to help. Ifthere is no positive interdependence, there is no cooperation.2. The second basic element of cooperative learning is interaction, preferably face to face.In this way, they argue about different topics and finally, they find a solution. But theprocess is the most important thing because in this process they have to interact withothers and they feel that every student has someone who is committed to helping him orher learn.3. The third basic element is individual and group responsibility as each member of grouptakes responsibility for contributing with his part of the work, and the group must beaccountable for achieving its goals.
4. The fourth basic element of cooperative learning is learning interpersonal and smallgroup skills, which are social skills. It is a hard task since they have to face twodifferent tasks: To participate simultaneously in task work and team work. For thisreason, cooperative learning is a more difficult strategy than competitive or individuallearning.5. The fifth and last element of cooperative learning is group processing or selfassessment. They have to analyze how members are working together and determininghow group effectiveness can be improved.1.3 Three types of cooperative learning groupsThere are three types of cooperative learning:- Formal cooperative learning groups: This kind of group is created to achieve sharedlearning goals for several weeks.- Informal cooperative learning groups: This kind of group is created to focus studentattention for few minutes.- Cooperative based groups: This kind of group is used to allow members to give eachother the help that they need to succeed for a long term.2. Four Leading ModelsWe can stand out four mayor models of cooperative learning:- Student Team Learning (STL): This model focuses on team goals and team success.Students are rewarded when they improve their performances so team scores areimportant incentives.- Learning Together: This model focuses on team-building activities and regulardiscussions about how the groups are working together.- Jigsaw: Each member of the group studies a section of a subject. Then, members fromdifferent teams who have studied the same sections meet in “expert groups” to discusstheir sections. Finally, pupils come back to their own groups and they try to explaineach section.- Group investigation: Each group chooses a topic and then, they make a presentation,which is shared with the entire class.
MARÍA SAÑUDO ORTIZ:3. Application of cooperative learning to English class.Doctor Spencer Kagan has adapted cooperative learning to Second Language learningand he has designed some structures, knowns as Kagan Structures. These structureshave been developed to increase levels of participation by students, promoting secondlanguage learning.Kagan Structures are based on four basic principles:• Positive Interdependence.• Individual Accountability.• Equal Participation.• Simultaneous Interaction.Now, I am going to explain each one:Positive Interdependence means that the students are on the same site. The success ofthe a student involve his partner gain and they can’t succeed without their partner’shelp.Individual Accountability implies that every students must perform individually andpublicly, to at least one of their partners.Equal participation means that all students must participate equally, while when othermethods are used, the students who perform are always the same.Simultaneous Interaction implies that a high percentage of the class is actingsimultaneously.While with other methods, only one student is acting at a time. Whenwe work in pairs, fifty percent of the class is producing language.There are over one hundred and fifty Kagan Structures, with different functions. I amgoing to try to explain four of them:
• Timed Pair Share is that one student talks while his partner listens him forspecific time. Later, they exchange roles.• Team Interview consist of each student on a team is interviewed by his mates.• Numbered heads together involves that the teacher ask a question, studentswrite their answers individually; them, discuss their respective answers ingroups. Each member of the team will already have a set number. When theteacher calls a number, the students than have this number will respond takinginto account the inputs from their mates.• Mix-N-Match consists of students circulating in the room with cards andexamining their partners, they must find the person who has the pair card. Forexample, the person who has the picture of a shoe searches for the one who hasthe word “shoe”.Finally, about Kagan Structures, we are going to indicate their advantages:• It is understable information, as students adapt their discourse to the level oftheir partners.• It creates a natural context, because the language used is the language of reallife.• It helps negotiation of meaning, students can adjust their language to ensurethat partners understand them.• It lowers affective filter, while it is hard for them to speak in public, talkingwith a supportive peer is easier for them.• The student get peer support, students support each other.• It increases motivation, because there are interaction sequences, and studentsneed understand their partners, there is high motivation to speak and listen.• It is a method which helps greater language use. Students have more time toindividual production of language.
TASK-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING1. Background.2.What is a task?3. What is task-based language teaching?4. TBLT Advocates.5. Real World Task/ Pedagogical Task.5.1. Some examples.6. Types of tasks.6.1. Some tasks examples.7. Learners roles.8. Teacher roles.9. Pedagogical materials.10. Advantages.11. Procedure.12. Conclusion.
PAULA INGELMO HIDALGO:1. BackgroundNow, my partner and me are going to talk about “Task-based language teaching”. Thismethod has itsorigins in Communicative Language Teaching. Two early applications of a task basedlearning within a communicative framework for language teaching were:- The Malaysian Communicational Syllabus (1975).- The Bangalore Project Prabhu (1987).2. What is a task?First of all we need to know what a task is. There are many definitions but one of themost used is David Nunan:“It is a piece of the classroom which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating,producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is principallyfocused on meaning rather than form”.3. What is task-based language teaching?Also there are many definitions, one of which is the following:“ Task- based language teaching is an approach to teaching a second foreign languagethat seeks to engage learners in interactionally authentic language use by having themperform a series of tasks”The aim of this method is to promote learning through real use of language in theclassroom and not just by learning theory as was done traditionally.
4. TBLT AdvocatesSome of the main representatives of Task-based language teaching are:- David Nunan: He is an Australian linguist who has focused on the teaching ofEnglish.- Rod Ellis: He is the deputy head of the Department of Applied Language Studies andLinguistics at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. He has published a number ofbooks on second language acquisition and teacher education. His main interest lies inthe application of second language theory and research to language teaching.- C. Candlin: is Senior Research Professor Emeritus in the Department of Linguisticsat Macquarie University, Sydney. He is interested in researching and teachingprofessional discourse, in the fields of language education, healthcare, management andlaw.5. Real-World Tasks/ Pedagogical tasksAccording to David Nunan we can distinguish between two types of tasks:- Real World Tasks: which are designed to emphasize those skills than learners need tohave so they can function in the real world.- Pedagogical tasks: which are intended to act as a bridge between the classroom andthe real world in that they serve to prepare students for real-life language usage. Thistype of task may also require the use of specific types of language as skills, grammarand vocabulary.
5.1. Some examplesNow I am going to show some examples that help us to understand.First, an example of Pedagogical Task would be a task in which two students have to tryto find the number of differences between two similar pictures.The task itself is notsomething that students would normally find in the real world. However theinteractional processes it requires provides useful input to language development.On the other hand, an example of a Real World Task would be a role-play in whichstudents can practise different types of situations presents in the real world as jobinterviews, how to sell a good job...7. Types of tasksAccording to Willis we can find six types of tasks:1. Listening: Brainstorming and fact-finding. An example would be: make a list ofthings that a student need to go camping.2. Ordering and sorting: sequencing, ranking, categorising and classifying. Anexample would be: Students work in pairs and make up a list of the most importantcharacteristics of an ideal holidays.3. Comparing: matching, finding similarities and finding differences. An examplewould be: Two students compare ads for two difference supermarket.4. Problem solving: analysing real situations, analysing hypothetical situations,reasoning and decision making. An example would be: Students read a letter to anadvice columnist un suggest a solution to the writter´s problem.
5. Sharing personal experiences: narrating, describing, exploring and explainingattitudes, opinions, reactions...An example would be: Students discuss their reactions toan ethical or moral problem.6. Creative tasks: brainstorming, fact-finding, ordering and sorting, comparing,problem solving a many others. An example would be: Students prepare plans forredecorating a house.
CARMEN ALONSO RUBÍN:7. Learners rolesWith the task-based approach a number of roles are assumed by the learners. Some ofthese roles are:· Group participant: some tasks are made in pairs, small or big groups, so the studentshave to adapt to this type of working.· Monitor: learners need to care not only to the message in the tasks, but also the form inwhich these messages came to them.· Risk-taker and innovator: many tasks require learners to create and interpret messages,so they need to practice in restating, paraphrasing, and so on.8. Teacher rolesWhat are the roles of the teacher in this approach?, some of them are:· Selector and sequencer of tasks: the teacher must select, adapt, and create the tasks,taking into account learners’ needs, interests, and language skill level.· Preparing learners for tasks: teachers should suggest some pre-tasks in order to preparethe students, and introduce them in the topic.· Consciousness-raising: learners need to attend to the characteristics of the language thatthey use and hear. It means that the teacher should use a variety of from-focusingtechniques, including attention-focusing pre-task activities, text exploration, and so on.9. Pedagogical materialsThe materials that can be exploited for instruction in Task-Based Language Teachingare limited only by the imagination of the teacher or task designer.Some proponents are in favor of the use of task supported by authentic materialswherever possible. Of course, popular media provide rich resources for such materials.Popular media include: Newspapers, television, Internet, etc.With popular media, we are going to see some activities that we could do:
Newspaper: “Students examine a newspaper, determine its sections, and suggest threenew sections that might go in the newspaper”.Television: “Students take notes during the weather report and prepare a map withweather symbols showing likely weather for the predicted period”“After watching an episode of an unknown soap opera, students list the characters andtheir possible relationship to other characters in the episode”Internet: “Given a book title to be acquired, students conduct a comparative shoppinganalysis of three Internet booksellers, listening prices, mailing times, and shippingcharges, and choose a vendor, justifying their choice.10. AdvantagesWithin this approach we can highlight some advantages:- The students are free of language control. In all three stages they must use all theirlanguage resourcesrather than just practising one pre-selected item.- A natural context is developed from the students experiences with the language that ispersonalised and relevant to them.- The students will have a much more varied exposure to language. They will beexposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well aslanguage forms.- The language explored rises from the students needs. This need dictates what will becovered in the lesson rather than a decision made by the teacher or the coursebook.- It is a strong communicative approach where students spend a lot of timecommunicating.- It is enjoyable and motivating.
11. ProcedureWith all of that we are going to see and example Task-Based Language Teaching, thereare a lot of different examples but we have chosen one that comes from a languageprogram and it is include in our article.This proposal includes:Pre-task activities: Learner first take part in a preliminary activity that introduces thetopic, such activities include brainstorming, ranking exercises, etc. Then, learners read adialogue on a related topic.Task activity: Learners perform a role play, in pairs with a task.Post-task activities: Learners listen to recording of native speakers performing the samerole-play task they have just practiced and compare differences between the way theyexpressed particular functions and meanings and the way native speakers performed.12. ConclusionIn conclusion, this method is a vehicle for promoting communication skills in a secondlanguage classroom, also the students work independently and in groups but alwaysconstructing their own knowledge. Moreover, the Task-Based Language Teachingapproach permits us to use a lot of methodologies because we can use different types ofactivities, materials, topics and groups-work.