The changing functions of art through time

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The changing functions of art and the role of artist through time

The changing functions of art through time

  1. 1. The changing functions of art through time MA Rosa M. Brito
  2. 2. Chinese Horse, cave painting, Lascaux Caves, Dordogne, France. c.15,000-10,000 b.c.During the Paleolithic era, man sculpts and paintswith a magical purpose: to promote its huntingactivities, to transmit rites and legends and tostate his emerging religiosity. MA Rosa M. Brito
  3. 3. In Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures, the craft artists setup their workshops in temples and palaces. The priests andnobles controlled the production of the craft artists andbenefited from it. Egypt highlights the figure of "architect",builder of temples, tombs and palaces. Khufu Pyramid yand Great Sphinx, Giza, Egypt, c.2600 b.c. MA Rosa M. Brito
  4. 4. The Parthenon, Acropolis, Atenas, Grecia, c.447 b.c. In Greece, the artworks are destined to be contemplated and admired, also to serve religious and funeral purposes. The artist is now a craftsman. His social dignity depends on his greater or lesser participation in manual labor. In Greek society, only dance, music and poetry are considered noble activities. MA Rosa M. Brito
  5. 5. During the Hellenistic period (emergence of classicalculture), the taste for art develops and so collectionism.As in earlier times, the artist works for the political andeconomic power. Dying Gaul, c.240 b.c. MA Rosa M. Brito
  6. 6. In Rome, the use of art as a disseminatorof the state´s power (the image isinformation, illustration, news), leads tocollectionism of art pieces among theruling classes. The Roman houses are filledwith original artworks and reproductions,some as trophies of war, others purchasedart. At that time, the artist sought to educate himself in all sciences, specifically arithmetic and geometry, to enhance its role in Roman society, which gave artists the same social level as cooks, blacksmiths, and barbers. MA Rosa M. Brito
  7. 7. Catacumba, Good Shepherd, Orants, and the story of Jonah, 4th century a.d. RomeChristianity gives art a didactic, educational andpropagandistic value MA Rosa M. Brito
  8. 8. In Byzantium, art accompanies the theocratic power topresent its religious-political and flamboyant character. Madonna and Child with the Emperors Justinian and Constatine, A.D. 986-94, Hagia Sophia, Instanbul, Turkey. MA Rosa M. Brito
  9. 9. In the Middle Ages, from the 6th century to the 14thcentury, the art is associated with the Church and withpolitical power.At the beginning of this period, the monks wereresponsible for the artistic production.During this period, Monasterios dewomen were excluded San Juan de lafrom the Arts because Peña, Españathey were not allowed c.922to learn the knowledgeand skills of the artistThe Gothic, 13th-14th century, presents an abandonment ofthe monastic art, but a development of the guilds ofcraftsmen. It establishes a commercial bourgeoisie and anexpansion of the area of art´s consumption. In addition tothe Church and the monarchy as controllers and consumersof art, new groups of royal courts and bourgeois merchantsjoin in. MA Rosa M. Brito
  10. 10. With the Renaissance, 15th century, the hedonistic andeconomic value of the classic art of the Roman period isrecovered.The artworks´commissions are for buyers from the royalcourts and the middle class citizen; also, commission artserves as donations to the Church. To own works of art ofrenowned artists meant a source of social prestige.A new attitude towards theartwork of past periodsdevelops: the historical and Mona Lisa, Leonardo daaesthetic value is appreciated. Vinci, c.1503-06 MA Rosa M. Brito
  11. 11. During the Mannerism, 16th century, (a protest against the“search for balance” of the Renaissance period), the art ismore linked to intellectual circles from the Papal Court, tothe economically powerful and influential bourgeoisie, or tothe ancient families of the royal court. Parmigianino, The Madonna with the long neck, c, 1535 El Greco, El martirio de San Mauricio, 1580 MA Rosa M. Brito
  12. 12. It is during the Renaissance period that the first arttheories appear. Giorgio Vasari, architect, painter andItalian theorist published in 1568 his work The Lives, atreaty about the artistic period, theories of art, artists,and anecdotes. Theorists like Vasari established theguidelines of art´s aesthetics and artists. The Palace Uffizi (Palace of the offices) in Florence, designed by Vasari is the first building intented to house a museum. MA Rosa M. Brito
  13. 13. Academies are developed in the mid-16th century. The firstone was the Accademia del Disegno, directed by Vasari andsponsored by Cosimo de Medeci. It was founded in Florencein 1563, with Micheangelo at the head of the institution,and 36 other artists. The craftsman is slowly considered an artist. The ideal figure of the painter is that of a scholarly man with full training. Artists teach their disciples in their own workshops. MA Rosa M. Brito
  14. 14. In the Baroque period, 17th century, art is linked to the Catholic Church and the Protestant Church (promoter of certain criteria of freedom in artists and consumers), to the absolute monarchies and the bourgeoisie. The demand for artworks affects the artist both in the expression and theme of his work. Collectors buy artwork not only for social prestige, but also for contemplative and personal taste. Rubens, Daniel in the Lions´Den,Gian Lorenzo Bernini, c. 1613David, 1623 MA Rosa M. Brito
  15. 15. At the end of the 17th centuryand 18th century, ItalianRenaissance-style gives way to theFrench Age of Reason andEnlightenment. The academicismappears in the artistic sense andthe art is called to intellectualizeitself. This period of history andcultural movement aims to dispel"the darkness of humanity" withthe "light of reason". Theaesthetic expression of these Elizabeth Vigée Le Brun,intellectual and cultural movements Baroness Anna Sergeevna Stroganovawill be called Neo-classicism. and Her Son Sergey, 1793 MA Rosa M. Brito
  16. 16. "Since the end of the 18th century, new art sponsors appear. Untilthen, traditional patrons have been the State and the Church, andthe art has basically been commissioned. From now on, with thecreation of academies, the art market changes: artists, on the onehand, are "forced" to find new buyers for their paintings andsculptures (reason why to organized annual exhibitions and salons,where they could show their works), and on the other hand, theywill try to create and produce to the likes of their potentialbuyers. Thus, we can affirm that the artist enjoys freedom ofcreation, but at the same time, must be aware of the viewer-sponsor that judges and interpretes his work." Historia del Arte(Figueroba) Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lady Elizabeth Hamilton, 1758 Thomas Gainsborough, The Blue Boy, c.1770 MA Rosa M. Brito
  17. 17. The cries for creative freedom began to spread with theFrench Revolution, culminating with Romanticism, early 19thcentury. It is at this point, that the contemporary artist isbornEugene Delacroix,The Lion Hunt,1860-61 MA Rosa M. Brito
  18. 18. The Romantics advocated free creativity; therefore, theyrejected all control over their art: public and privatesponsors as well as art academies, which, according to theromantics, blocked the formation of the artist heading for astylistic stiffness that left no room for inspiration,originality and freedom in the creative process. The Romantic painter returns to his workshop, called Studio, which facilitates his creativity having a direct, personal relationship, in solitude, with his work. In this period, numerous portraits and self- portraits are created, that represent the artist at his work place. This fact reinforces the idea of the personal genius Gustave Courbet, The Artist´s Studio, 1855 MA Rosa M. Brito
  19. 19. In the mid-19th century, Paris opens the first Salons(systematic exposition of paintings). Paris, the world´s heartof art and capital of a nation that had suffered many politicaland economic changes, creates and exalts an art consumerbourgeoisie, with a broader participation of the middle class.The Salons facilitated the closeness of the demand to the offer andgave publicity to art. The role of advertising was very importantbecause it encouraged the artistic taste of the society and led to thebirth of the art critic. MA Rosa M. Brito
  20. 20. The contemporary world, 20th century, bears witness to theemergence and presence of innovative artists with more orless self-taught and independent training, which favours thedevelopment of the stylistic avant-garde in the ParisianSalons, and the process that will run until the Second WorldWar.Quoting Antonio Figueroba (Historia del Arte, 1997)At present time, the image we have of the artist enjoying a great deal ofcreative freedom, may be unreal. A series of servitudes and conditioningshave emerged which favor the creation of a social setting dominated bythe commercialization of art, the evaluative domain of critique, and thepressure of social taste. The history of the artists of the 20th century isfinding the balance between creative independence and commitment tothe historical conditioning factors. MA Rosa M. Brito
  21. 21. BIBLIOGRAFÍA Y REFERENCIASArte Paleolítico. (n.d.). ARTE EN ESPAÑA. Retrieved July 10, 2012, from http://www.arteespana.com/paleolitico.htmBiografía de Giorgio Vasari. (n.d.). Biografías y Vidas .com. Retrieved July 10, 2012, from http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/v/vasari.htmFigueroba, A., Madrid, M. T., & Flores, M. T. (1997). Historia del arte, 2o. de bachillerato. Madrid [etc.: MacGraw-Hill.Paris Salon « Blogging Manets Olympia in 1865. (n.d.). Blogging Manets Olympia in 1865. Retrieved July 10, 2012, from http://olympia1865.wordpress.com/paris-salon/APA formatting by BibMe.org.

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