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Avant-garde art: the
aesthetics of anguish,
modernism and social utopia.
Second part

MA Rosa M. Brito
Dada: the outbreak of the crisis

Dadaísm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qWBAnsPRnko
After WWI: rejection of logic and love for the absurd
Tristan Tzara, (1896-1963) French poet born in Rumania,
founder of d...
Dadaism
Characteristics a) It seeks to provoke through propaganda
b) It criticizes art itself, culture and the
bourgeoisie...
Richard Huelsenbeck,
German artist
Photomontage
and collage

Dada Almanach

Kurt Schwitters,
German artist
Frances Picabia, Italian artist

Daughter Born without Mother, 1916-17

Amorous Parade, 1917
MA Rosa M. Brito
Marcel Duchamp, French artist, 1887-1968
• In 1913 he invented the ready-made concept: everyday
objects as works of art.
•...
The Secret of Marcel Duchamp,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leUv-GZbE54
Dadaist influence in Literature
“To make a Dadaist poem:
Take a newspaper. Take a pair of
scissors.
Choose an article as l...
Activity
• Work in pairs.
• In a sheet of paper write
both names.
• Engage in a dynamic where
both of you take turns to sa...
Surrealism: the awakening of the
unconsciousness

In the words of Breton,
(Surrealist Manifest,
1924), surrealism is

"pur...
Characteristics:
• Origins: Paris, 1920´s. Evolves from Dadaism, but it is more
artistic, less violent in its proposals. I...
The surrealist group of 1930
Joan Miró, 1893- 1983, the abstract vision of surrealism:
metaphor landscapes

Paisaje Catalán, 1924-25
René Magritte (1898-1967), Belgian painter

“A painter transmits his ideas through art. He appeals to the
intelligence of ...
Carte Blanche, 1965
René Magritte, a retrospective
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ASc1OWbQSQ
Museum Rene Magritte, Brussels, Belgium
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SyhccqYewAE

MA Rosa M. Brito
Salvador Dalí, 1904-1989, Catalan painter
“The only difference between me and the Surrealists is that I
am Surrealism. “ D...
Dalí´s interview by Soler Serrano, 1977
http://youtu.be/OwIrVqENy1k
Sueño causado por el vuelo
de una abeja alrededor de
una granada unos segundos
antes de despertar,
1944
La Tentation de Saint Antoine, 1946

Galatea de las Esferas,
1952

El Gran Masturbador, 1929

MA Rosa M. Brito
Un chien andalou, Dalí and Buñuel, 1928
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pib9zv1dHcE
Surrealist expressions
Jacek Yerka, polish
painter, 1952http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=yrMKY3EFJOQ
Rafal Olbinski, Friend...
Activity
• Read the poem by Federico García Lorca or the poem by
Tristan Tzara.
• Choose some elements from the poem and c...
Tristan Tzara (1896-1963)

The Great Lament Of My Obscurity Three
where we live the flowers of the clocks catch fire and t...
The road to abstraction
In 20th. Century painting, the object has been subjected to all
types of experiments:

• reduced t...
The abstract artists get rid of figurative elements to
concentrate in the expressiveness of shapes and colors with no
rela...
Neoplasticism.
The cubist revolution develops in The Netherlands thanks to
the constitution of a group of artists around t...
Piet Mondrian, 1872-1944, Dutch artist
• Mondrian style goes beyond reducing reality to form and
color. His sense of abstr...
Piet Mondrian
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5kZL6_920g
Mondrian´s fashion
MA Rosa M. Brito
The Bauhaus School
One of the most impressive phenomenon of the 20´s was the
creation of the Bauhaus School, in Weimar, Ge...
The Chair Machine
• “In the beginning of the 1920's the German-Hungarian
architect Marcel Breuer created an armchair with ...
Referencies and Bibliography
Dadaismo . (n.d.).
YouTube
- Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://ww...
Primer Manifiesto Surrealista – André Breton | . (n.d.). El Taller Literario - Blog para escritores. Retrieved October ...
Second part, avant garde art, the aesthetics of anguish, modernism and social utopia, 1900-1945
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Second part, avant garde art, the aesthetics of anguish, modernism and social utopia, 1900-1945

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Avant-garde art movements of the first decades of the 20th Century: dadaism, surrealism, neoplasticism

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Second part, avant garde art, the aesthetics of anguish, modernism and social utopia, 1900-1945

  1. 1. Avant-garde art: the aesthetics of anguish, modernism and social utopia. Second part MA Rosa M. Brito
  2. 2. Dada: the outbreak of the crisis Dadaísm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qWBAnsPRnko
  3. 3. After WWI: rejection of logic and love for the absurd Tristan Tzara, (1896-1963) French poet born in Rumania, founder of dadaism (1916) along with Hugo Ball and Hans Harp, first in Zurich in the Cabaret Voltaire, then in Paris. Dadaist Manifesto, Tristan Tzara, May 28, 1918: "... I am neither for, nor against, and also do not explain it, because I hate common sense ... Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 MA Rosa M. Brito
  4. 4. Dadaism Characteristics a) It seeks to provoke through propaganda b) It criticizes art itself, culture and the bourgeoisie c) It criticizes politics, and it´s anticapitalist and anti-fascist militancy d) This trend will lead to Surrealism, Conceptual Art and Pop Art Techniques Photomontage Collage “Ready made” MA Rosa M. Brito
  5. 5. Richard Huelsenbeck, German artist Photomontage and collage Dada Almanach Kurt Schwitters, German artist
  6. 6. Frances Picabia, Italian artist Daughter Born without Mother, 1916-17 Amorous Parade, 1917 MA Rosa M. Brito
  7. 7. Marcel Duchamp, French artist, 1887-1968 • In 1913 he invented the ready-made concept: everyday objects as works of art. •Duchamp places ordinary objects in unusual places. •The object is not important, but the idea behind it. MA Rosa M. Brito
  8. 8. The Secret of Marcel Duchamp, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leUv-GZbE54
  9. 9. Dadaist influence in Literature “To make a Dadaist poem: Take a newspaper. Take a pair of scissors. Choose an article as long as you are planning to make your poem. Cut out the article. Then cut out each of the words that make up this article and put them in a bag. Shake it gently. Then take out the scraps one after the other in the order in which they left the bag. Copy conscientiously. The poem will be like you. And here you are a writer, infinitely original and endowed with a sensibility that is charming though beyond the understanding of the vulgar.” Tristan Tzara, Seven Dada Manifests (1924) Darrel Elmore Oct. 31 of name with North means exhibit Greenland Northwest of "the people," vast masks material tribes and Kwakiutl Haida Arctic peoples areas the regions Through an Labrador dealing the across Coast exhibit inhabit Nootka and arts second A Alaska Native books Americans the the and of honors Canada the and of and who the includes Inuit of whose and Dada poems, Alberto Rios, Magical Realism MA Rosa M. Brito
  10. 10. Activity • Work in pairs. • In a sheet of paper write both names. • Engage in a dynamic where both of you take turns to say the first word that comes to your mind. Write them down until you have a least 10 unrelated words. • On the side of your listing, draw the visual concept of your words, trying NOT find logic or make sense of it. • You have done a dadaist drawing ! Dadaism, Argentinian animated short from Universidad de Buenos Aires MA Rosa M. Brito
  11. 11. Surrealism: the awakening of the unconsciousness In the words of Breton, (Surrealist Manifest, 1924), surrealism is "pure psychic automatism, by which an attempt is made to express, either verbally, in writing or in any other manner, the true functioning of thought. The dictation of thought, in the absence of all control by reason, excluding any aesthetic or moral preoccupation." Bruce Holwerda, Synchronicity, 2005 Paraphrase Betron´s words MA Rosa M. Brito
  12. 12. Characteristics: • Origins: Paris, 1920´s. Evolves from Dadaism, but it is more artistic, less violent in its proposals. It emerges from the literary world. • Theoretical base: Freud´s interpretation of dreams , its psychoanalytical methods and the study of the subconscious , were adopted by the surrealists. Freud cites The Talmud "A dream that is not interpreted is like a letter that is not opened" . • Themes, rupture with the conventional social: introduction of metaphor landscapes, unconscious desires, rejection of the academy, psychoanalysis, dreams and their interpretation, paradox, the subconscious, rejection of logic. MA Rosa M. Brito
  13. 13. The surrealist group of 1930
  14. 14. Joan Miró, 1893- 1983, the abstract vision of surrealism: metaphor landscapes Paisaje Catalán, 1924-25
  15. 15. René Magritte (1898-1967), Belgian painter “A painter transmits his ideas through art. He appeals to the intelligence of the viewer not to the human eye. “ René Magritte The Lovers, 1928 MA Rosa M. Brito
  16. 16. Carte Blanche, 1965
  17. 17. René Magritte, a retrospective http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ASc1OWbQSQ
  18. 18. Museum Rene Magritte, Brussels, Belgium http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SyhccqYewAE MA Rosa M. Brito
  19. 19. Salvador Dalí, 1904-1989, Catalan painter “The only difference between me and the Surrealists is that I am Surrealism. “ Dalí declares when he is expelled from the surrealist group in Paris “…Don´t be afraid of perfection, you will never reach it…” Persistence of Memory, 1931 MA Rosa M. Brito
  20. 20. Dalí´s interview by Soler Serrano, 1977 http://youtu.be/OwIrVqENy1k
  21. 21. Sueño causado por el vuelo de una abeja alrededor de una granada unos segundos antes de despertar, 1944
  22. 22. La Tentation de Saint Antoine, 1946 Galatea de las Esferas, 1952 El Gran Masturbador, 1929 MA Rosa M. Brito
  23. 23. Un chien andalou, Dalí and Buñuel, 1928 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pib9zv1dHcE
  24. 24. Surrealist expressions Jacek Yerka, polish painter, 1952http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=yrMKY3EFJOQ Rafal Olbinski, Friendly Persuasion Ben Goossens, Lost Roots Inception, Christopher Nolan, movie 2010 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zz80yYvnWg4 Escher, Relativity, 1953
  25. 25. Activity • Read the poem by Federico García Lorca or the poem by Tristan Tzara. • Choose some elements from the poem and combine them in a surrealist drawing. • The elements in your drawing should connect with one another and with the poem. MA Rosa M. Brito
  26. 26. Tristan Tzara (1896-1963) The Great Lament Of My Obscurity Three where we live the flowers of the clocks catch fire and the plumes encircle the brightness in the distant sulphur morning the cows lick the salt lilies my son my son let us always shuffle through the colour of the world which looks bluer than the subway and astronomy we are too thin we have no mouth our legs are stiff and knock together our faces are formeless like the stars crystal points without strength burned basilica mad : the zigzags crack telephone bite the rigging liquefy the arc climb astral memory towards the north through its double fruit like raw flesh hunger fire blood
  27. 27. The road to abstraction In 20th. Century painting, the object has been subjected to all types of experiments: • reduced to color in Fauvism, • geometrized in Cubism, • distorted in Expressionism, • ridicule in Dadaism • transformed to metaphor in Surrealism Now, the abstract art proceeds to the elimination of the object altogether. MA Rosa M. Brito
  28. 28. The abstract artists get rid of figurative elements to concentrate in the expressiveness of shapes and colors with no relation to a visual reality: • the artwork acquires an autonomous reality, • no connection with nature, • no representation of humans, landscapes, nor objects. About this new language of color and form, the Rusian artist, Wasily Kandinsky said: “in painting, a round spot can be more expressive and meaningful than a human figure” Black and purple, 1924 (Artelista.com) MA Rosa M. Brito
  29. 29. Neoplasticism. The cubist revolution develops in The Netherlands thanks to the constitution of a group of artists around the publishing of a magazine De Stijl (The Style), published between 1917 and 1926. Its objective was to look for reality through its escence. “De Stijl aspired to a universal expression” (translated from Arte de España) Characteristics of Neoplasticism: • Geometric forms • Primary colors • Straight lines • Perpendicular planes • “The theme loses all relevance, line and color are the only vehicles to express the content of a painting” (translated from MA Rosa M. Brito Arte en España)
  30. 30. Piet Mondrian, 1872-1944, Dutch artist • Mondrian style goes beyond reducing reality to form and color. His sense of abstraction took him to vertical and horizontal lines, opposed and in equilibrium, forming right angles. • He worked with primary colors: blue, red and yellow, and the absence of color: black, white and grey. MA Rosa M. Brito
  31. 31. Piet Mondrian http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5kZL6_920g
  32. 32. Mondrian´s fashion
  33. 33. MA Rosa M. Brito
  34. 34. The Bauhaus School One of the most impressive phenomenon of the 20´s was the creation of the Bauhaus School, in Weimar, Germany, in 1919, by the architect Walter Gropius (1883-1969) “The Bauhaus believes the machine to be our modern medium of design and seeks to come to terms with it” “Architects, painters, and sculptors must recognize anew the composite character of a building as an entity…Together let us conceive and create the new building of the future, which will embrace architecture and sculpture and painting in one unity and which will rise one day toward heaven from the hands of a million workers like the crystal symbol of a new faith” (The Bauhaus Manifest and Program, Walter Gropius, 1919) MA Rosa M. Brito
  35. 35. The Chair Machine • “In the beginning of the 1920's the German-Hungarian architect Marcel Breuer created an armchair with a framework of nickeled tubular steel and a seat of leather”. MA Rosa M. Brito
  36. 36. Referencies and Bibliography Dadaismo . (n.d.). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A5eQnzn6-DI Bernardez, C. (2000). Historia del arte primeras vanguardias. México: Planeta. Bruce Holwerda, surrealismo al borde del delirio. | . (n.d.). Suburbios Utopicos. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.suburbiosutopicos.com/2008/04/25/bruce-holwerda-surrealismo-al-borde-del-delirio/ CyberShaman420. (n.d.). MONDRIAN . YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 17, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5kZL6_920g Dada Poems. (n.d.). Arizona State University. Retrieved March 11, 2011, from http://www.public.asu.edu/~aarios/magicalrealism/studentwk01/dadapoems/ FolkmetalerO. (n.d.). DadaÃ-smo . YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1lZu-bnXAM&playnext=1&videos=6J8poxokJ08&feature=mfu_in_order Francis Picabia - Olga's Gallery. (n.d.). Olga's Gallery - Online Art Museum.. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.abcgallery.com/P/picabia/picabia.html Iván Rebroff - Kalinka- Jacek Yerka . (n.d.). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uK9QvJRagI4&feature=player_embedded#! La Página de los Cuentos - Texto 'Para hacer un poema dadaista (Tristán Tzara)' de Zama. (n.d.). La Página de los Cuentos - Tu comunidad de cuentos en Internet.. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www4.loscuentos.net/cuentos/link/347/34763/ Magritte Foundation . (n.d.). Magritte Foundation l Fondation Magritte. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.magritte.be/ Marcel Duchamp World Community . (n.d.). Marcel Duchamp World Community - Dada - Surrealism . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.marcelduchamp.net/ Micheli, M. D. (2000). Las vanguardias artisticas del siglo XX. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, S.A.. Miró: Tierra. Exposición en el Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza | . (n.d.). Revista de Arte - Logopress. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.revistadearte.com/2008/05/20/miro-tierra-exposicion-en-el-museo-thyssen-bornemisza/ NEOPLASTICISMO. (n.d.). ARTE EN ESPAÑA. Retrieved October 17, 2010, from http://www.arteespana.com/neoplasticismo.htm Nuevo Museo Magritte - . (n.d.). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-fhgywtqCo OvationTV. (n.d.). The Secret of Marcel Duchamp . YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leUv-GZbE54 Poemas dadaÃ-stas |. (n.d.). La Magia de la Palabra | Expresión y compromiso. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://edem314lamagiadelapalabra.wordpress.com/2008/11/27/poemas-dadaistas/ Primer Manifiesto DadaÃ-sta. (n.d.). Mason academic research system (mason.gmu.edu). Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://mason.gmu.edu/~rberroa/manifiestodadaista1.htm MA Rosa M. Brito
  37. 37. Primer Manifiesto Surrealista – André Breton | . (n.d.). El Taller Literario - Blog para escritores. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://eltallerliterario.com.ar/libros/primer-manifiesto-surrealista-andre-breton Rene Magritte, a retrospective . (n.d.). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ASc1OWbQSQ Salvador Dali entrevistado por Zabludovsky 1 de 3 . (n.d.). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJtv7z-TP88&p=05B0745F4D3E0748&playnext=1&index=7 Salvador DalÃ- - Citas. (n.d.). Salvador Dali: Biography, painting, galleries, posters, and anaglyph. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.3d-dali.com/spanish-dali.htm The Origins of Surrealism. (n.d.). The Lilith Gallery of Toronto. Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/surrealism/Origins-of-Surrealism.html Un chien andalou, DalÃ--Buà uel . (n.d.). YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved October 12, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1VHzx6C_HHc WebMuseum: Kandinsky, Wassily. (n.d.). ibiblio.org - Storytelling . Retrieved October 17, 2010, from http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/kandinsky/ artelist.com. (n.d.). artelist.com. Retrieved October 17, 2010, from http://www.artelist.com APA formatting by BibMe.org. MA Rosa M. Brito

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