Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Chapter 1 introduction (student)

815 views

Published on

0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

• Be the first to like this

Views
Total views
815
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
7
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

### Chapter 1 introduction (student)

1. 1. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS Mechanical Energy1.1 Understanding Physics PHYSICS Mechanical Energy Study of the natural phenomena and the properties of matter. Heat Energy Light Energy Solid Matter Energy Wave Energy Liquid states forms Electrical Energy Gas Nuclear Energy Chemical Energy Properties of Relationship Relationship Properties of Matter with with Energy energy matter in the fields of Mechanics Heat Wave Electronics Properties Light Electricity & Atomic Physics of matter Electromagnetism & Nuclear 1
2. 2. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________1.2 PHYSICAL QUANTITIESBase quantity1 A physical quantity is ……………………………………………………………………..2 Examples of scientific instruments :………………………………………………………3 A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities.4 Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured. The list of physical quantities : 1. ………………………………………. 2. ………………………………………. 3. ………………………………………. 4. ………………………………………. 5. ………………………………………. 6. ………………………………………. 7. ………………………………………. 8. ………………………………………. bat t er y5 List of 5 basic physical quantities and their units. Base quantity Symbol S.I. Unit Symbol for S.I. Unit Length Mass Time Current Temperature6 Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are : i) …………………………..unit ………….. ii) ………………………. unit…………….. 2
3. 3. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________Standard Form1 Standard form = A x 10n , 1 < A < 10 and n = integer2 Standard form is used to …………………………………………………………………...3 Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following quantities in standard form : a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =…………………………………………………. b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg =………... c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m = ……………………………………………………… b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = …………………………………………... c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = ……………………………………………..Prefixes1. Prefixes are usually used to ………………………………………………………………...2. It will be written ……………………………………………………………………………3. The list of prefixes : Eg : 10 12 Tera (T) 1 Tm = ……………………………………. 109 Giga (G) 3.6 mA = ……………………………………. 106 Mega (M) 2 10 3 How to change the unit ; 101 kilo (k) Hekto (ha) 10 Deka (da) 1. Mega to nano 10-1 0 10-2 10 desi (d) centi (s) 10-3 mili (m) 10-6 micro (µ) 2. Tera to micro 10-9 nano (n) 10-12 pico (p) 3. piko to Mega4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the quantities in standard prefixes: a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = …………………………………………. b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m = ……………………………………………… c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m = ……………………… d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg = ……………………… 3
4. 4. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________Derived quantities1 A derived quantity is …….………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………2 Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities. Derived Name of Formula Derived unit quantity derived unit area area = length x width m x m = m2 – volume volume = length x width x height m x m x m = m3 – mass density density = – volume displacement velocity velocity = – time momentum momentum = mass x velocity kg m s-1 – change in velocity Acceleration acceleration = – time Force force = mass x acceleration kg m s-2 Newton (N) force pressure pressure = area weight weight = mass x gravitational acceleration work work = force x displacement work power power = time 1 kinetic energy K.E = × mass × velocity 2 2 potential P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height Kg ms-2 Joule (J) energy charge charge = current x time Ampere second Coulomb (C) (As) work voltage voltage = J C-1 Volt (v) charge voltage resistance resistance = v A-1 Ohm (Ω) currentNote that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement,perimeter, radius and diameter are equivalent to length. 4
5. 5. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________1.3 SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES1 Scalar quantities are ……………………………………………………………………… Examples : …………………………………………………………………………………2 Vector quantities are………………………………………………………………………... Examples : …………………………………………………………………………………3 Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require magnitude, direction or both to specify them. Description of events Magnitude Direction 1. The temperature in the room is 25 0C 2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the north-west of Johor Bahru 3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W 4. A car is travelling at 80 km h-1 from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur1.4 MEASUREMENTSUsing Appropriate Instruments to Measure1 There are various types of………………………………………………………………….2 We must know how to choose the appropriate instrument to ……………………………..3 Examples of instrument and its measuring ability. Measuring instrument Range of measurement Smallest scale division Measuring tape Meter rule Vernier caliper Micrometer screw gauge4 Sample of measuring instruments : 4.1 Ammeter incorret reading 1 2 3 correct 1 2 3 0 4 reading 0 4 pointer mirror pointer 4.2 Measuring cylinder mirror Pointer’s image can be seen wrong position of eye Pointer’s image is behind the pointer Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale) wrong position of eye 5
6. 6. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ water 4.3 Ruler wrong right wrong 10 11 12 13 14 15 Reading = ……………… cm 4.4 Vernier calliper A venier calliper is used to measure : a. ………………………………………………b. …………………………………………. c. ………………………………………………d. …………………………………………. A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of ..…. …..cm. inside jaws cmVernier scale 0 1 2 3 4 Main SKALAscale UTAMA 0 outside jaws 5 10 Main scale in cm Length of vernier scale = ……… cm 0 1 Vernier scale is divided into 10 divisions 0 5 10 Vernier scale Length of the divisions = ………. cm The differenct between the main scale and vernier scale is = ……………………………. cm 0 1 cm Main scale = …………………. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Find the division of Vernier scale = ………………….. vernier scale which is coincides with any part of Final reading = ………………….. the main scale The diagram below shows a vernier calliper with reading. 6
7. 7. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 0 5 10 Vernier calliper reading = ……………. cm 4.5 Micrometer screw gauge. A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure : a. ……………………………………………… b. …………………………………………. c. ……………………………………………… One complete turn of the thimble (50 division) moves the spindle by 0.50 mm. Division of thimble = ………………….. = ………………….. Sleeve scale : …………… A accuracy of micrometer screw gauge = …………….. Thimble scale : …………. Total reading : ………….. Example : Sleeve scale : …………… Thimble scale : …………. Total reading : …………... 4.6 Some others measuring instruments : ……………………… …………………… ……………………… ……….. 7
8. 8. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ ………………………. …………………….. ……………… Hands-on activity 1.1 on page 1 of the practical book to learn more about choosing appropriate instruments. Exercise: Vernier Callipers And Micrometer Screw Gauge1. Write down the readings shown by the following (a) 7 8 Answer: …………….. 0 5 10 4 5 (b) A B P Q Answer: …………….. 0 5 10 (c) 6 7 Answer: …………… 0 5 1 0 (d) Answer: …………….. 0 1 0 5 102. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed. 0 1 0 5 10 Zero error = ………… cm (b). The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are 40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws. 5 6 8 0 5 10
9. 9. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ Reading shown = ……….cm Corrected reading = ………..cm3. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges. (a) (b) 40 0 35 0 5 5 10 35 30 Answer: …………………………. Answer:………………….. (c) (d) 0 25 0 5 20 20 15 Answer:………………………… Answer:…………………….4. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges. 0 0 5 0 45 0 Zero error = …0.02…….. mm Zero error = …0.03…….. mm (b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges. 5 0 5 20 0 0 9
11. 11. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________1. Accuracy : …………………………………………………………………………………2. Consistency : ………………………………………………………………………………3. Sensitivity : ………………………………………………………………………………… target ………………………… ……………………… …………………………….. target …………………….. …………………………….. ……………………………… Hands-on activity 1.2 on page 2 of the practical book to determine the sensitivity of some measuring instruments.Errors in measurements1. All measurements are values ………………………………………………………………2. In other word, it is a matter of ……………………………………………………………3. This is because ……………………………………………………………………………4. Two main types of errors: 4.1 …………………………………………… Occurs due to : a) ……………………………………………………………………………………… b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… c) ……………………………………………………………………………………… Examples : a) ……………………………………………………………………………………… b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… c) ………………………………………………………………………………………Absolute error :………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
12. 12. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….Example :Parallax error : ……………………………………………………………………………… 0 1 cm 0 1 cm 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Zero error = Zero error =Zero error : …………………………………………………………………………………...Correct reading = observed reading – zero error Positive zero error negative zero error Horizontal Horizontal reference 3 divisions above reference 2 divisions below horizontal reference horizontal reference Zero error of screw meter gauge Positive zero error Zero error = Zero error = 4.2 …………………………………………….. Occurs due to a) ……………………………………………………………………………………… b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… c) ……………………………………………………………………………………… Example : a) …………………………………………………………………………………..… 12
13. 13. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ b) …………………………………………………………………………………….. .....................................................................................................................1.5 SCIENCETIFIC INVESTIGATION Steps Explanation Making 1 observation Drawing 2 inferences Identifying 3 and controlling variables Formulating a 4 hypothesis Conducting 5 experimentsPlan and report an experiment 13
14. 14. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in a playground. It is found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different. Steps Example : refer to the situation above 1 Inference 2 Hypothesis 3 Aim 4 Variables 5 List of apparatus and materials 6 Arrangement of the apparatus 7 Procedures 14
15. 15. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 Tabulate the data 9 Analyse the data Discussion Precautions : 1 1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a steady 0 state. 2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy. 3. Discussion (refer to given questions) Conclusion 1 The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases. 1 Hypothesis accepted.Reinforcement Chapter 1Part A :Objective Question 2. Which of the following is a derived1. Which of the following is a base SI quantity? quantity? A Length B Mass A Weight B Energy C Temperature D Voltage C Velocity D Mass 3. Which of the following is not a basic 15
16. 16. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ unit? A mili, senti, mikro, desi A Newton B kilogram B mikro, mili, senti, desi C ampere D second C mili, mikro, desi, senti D desi, mikro, mili, senti4. Which of the following quantities cannot be derived? 12. Velocity, density, force and energy are A Electric current B Power A basic quantities C Momentum D Force B scalar quantities C derived quantities5. Which of the following quantities is D vector quantities not derived from the basic physical quantity of length? 13. Which of the following shows the A Electric charge B Density correct conversion of units? C Velocity D Volume A 24 mm3 =2.4 x 10-6 m3 B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7 m36. Initial velocity u, final velocity v, C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10-2 m3 time t and another physical quantity k D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10-4 m3 is related by the equation v - u = kt. The unit for k is 14. Which of the following measurements A m s-1 B m-1 s is the shortest ? -2 C ms D m2 s-2 A 3.45 x 103 m B 3.45 x 104 cm7. Which of the following has the C 3.45 x 107 mm smallest magnitude? D 3.45 x 1012 µm A megametre B centimetre C kilometre D mikrometre 15. The Hitz FM channel broadcasts radio waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz in8. 4 328 000 000 mm in standard form is the north region. What is the frequency A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 m of the radio wave in Hz? C 4.328 x 106 m D 4.328 x 109 m A 9.28 x 104 B 9.28 x 105 7 C 9.28 x 10 D 9.28 x 10109. Which of the following measurements is the longest? 16. An object moves along a straight line A 1.2 x 10-5 cm B 120 x 10-4 dm for time, t. The length of the line, s is C 0.12 mm D 1.2 x 10-11 km 1 2 given by the equation s = gt . The 210. The diameter of a particle is 250 µm. SI unit of g is What is its diameter in cm? A m2 s2 B m s-2 -1 A 2.5 x 10-2 B 2.5 x 10-4 C s D s-2 m C 2.5 x 10 -6 D 2.5 x 10-8 Part B : Structure Question11. Which of the following prefixes is arranged in ascending order?1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1 from town P to town Q in 2 hours as shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the two towns. P Q 16
17. 17. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 1 (a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective SI units. ……………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) State a derived quantity and its SI unit. ……………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Convert the value 1 . m to standard form. 5 x 10-3 (c) Complete Table 1 by writing the value of each given prefix. Table 1 (d) Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power in terms of its basic units. (e) Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12 cm height in m3 and convert its value in standard form.2. Figure 2 shows an ammeter of 0—3 A range. 17
18. 18. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 2 (a) (i) Name component X. ………………………………………………………………... (ii) What is the function of X? …………………………………………………………. (b) Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students. Table 2 (i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ..…………………………………. (ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i). ………………………………………………………………………………………3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye positions while measuring the volume of the water. (a) (i) Which of the eye positions is correct while taking the reading of the volume of water? ……. ……………………………………Figure 3 (b) The water in the measuring cylinder is replaced with 30 cm3 of mercury. (i) In Figure 4, draw the meniscus of the mercury in the measuring cylinder. Figure 4 (ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i). ………………………………………………………………………………………SPM - Format Paper 2A1. 18 Figure 1(a) /Rajah 1a Figure 1(b) / Rajah 1b
19. 19. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________1. Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show two instruments used by the students in the laboratory. Rajah 1(a) dan 1(b) menunjukkan alat -alat yang digunakan di dalam makmal oleh pelajar-pelajar.a) (i) Name the instrument in figure 1(a). Namakan alat dalam rajah (1a). ………………………………………………………………..……………..(1 mark ) (ii) For the instrument in figure 1(b),what is the function of ratchet ? Bagi alat dalam rajah 1(b), apakah fungsi ratchet? ……………………………………………………………………………....( 1 mark )(b) Between the instruments in figures 1(a) and 1(b) , Antara alat dalam rajah 1(a) dan 1(b) , i) Which instrument is more sensitive? Alat manakah yang lebih peka? …………………………………………………………………………….(1 mark ) ii) State one reason for your answer in 1 (b ) (i) Nyatakan satu sebab untuk jawapan dalam 1 (b) (i) …………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………..…............... ( 1 mark ) 19
20. 20. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________2. Diagram 1.1 shows the vernier callipers. Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan sebuah angkup vernier. Beaker Main Scale Bikar Skala utama DIAGRAM 1.1 (a) Name the physical quantity measured by the vernier callipers. Namakan kuantiti fizik yang diukur oleh angkup vernier. …………………………………………………………………………………... [1mark] (b) Name the part labelled X. Namakan bahagian berlabel X. …………………………………………………………………………………… [1mark] (c) State the function of the X. Nyatakan fungsi X. ................................................................................................................................ [1 mark] (d) What is the accuracy for the vernier callipers. Berapakah kepekaan bagi angkup vernier . …………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] 20
21. 21. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Diagram 1 shows the instrument which is used to measure the outer diameter of a cylinder, S. X (a) Name the instrument in Diagram 1 …………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (b) What is the function of X? …………………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (c) (i) What is the sensitivity of this instrument? ……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (ii) What is the diameter of the object above? ……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] 21
22. 22. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________4. Diagram 1.1 shows an electric circuit.(a) (i) Name the measuring instrument B. ……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (ii) What is the function of the measuring instrument A in the circuit? ……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark](b) Diagram 1.2 shows an electrical meter. (i) The instrument has zero error. What is zero error? ……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (ii) What is the accuracy of the instrument? ……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] 22
23. 23. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________5 Diagram 1.1 shows a liquid-in-glass thermometer. Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan satu termometer cecair-dalam–kaca. DIAGRAM 1.1 (a) (i) Name the liquid P used in the thermometer. Namakan cecair P yang digunakan dalam termometer . ................................................................................................................. [ 1 mark] (ii) State the physical change in the liquid when the temperature increases. Nyatakan perubahan sifat fizikal pada cecair bila suhu bertambah. ................................................................................................................. [ 1 mark] (b) Diagram 1.2 shows two types of thermometers. Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan dua jenis termometer. DIAGRAM 1.2 (i) Which thermometer is more sensitive ? Termometer yang manakah yang lebih peka ? ....................................................................................................................... [ 1 mark] (ii) State one reason for your answer in 1 (b) (i). Nyatakan satu sebab bagi jawapan di 1 (b) (i). ........................................................................................................................ [ 1 mark] 23
24. 24. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________6.Diagram 1 shows the circuit that a student uses to find the resistance of a combination of threeidentical lamps.Rajah 1 menunjukkan sebuah litar elektrik yang digunakan oleh seorang pelajar untuk menentukanrintangan bagi gabungan tiga mentol yang serupa (a) Name the measuring instrument Q, Namakan alat pengukur Q. ........................................................................................................................ [ 1 mark] (b) What is the type of the circuit? Apakah jenis litar elektrik tersebut? ........................................................................................................................ [ 1 mark] (c) Compare the brightness of the lamps J, K and L. Tick () one below. Bandingkan kecerahan mentol J, K dan L. Masukkan satu () pada kotak yang berkenaan. The brightness of lamp J > lamp K > lamp L Kecerahan mentol J > mentol K > mentol L The brightness of lamp L > lamp K > lamp J Kecerahan mentol L > mentol K > mentol J The brightness of lamp J = lamp K = lamp L Kecerahan mentol J = mentol K = mentol L [1 mark] (d) State the energy transformation that take place in the lamps. Nyatakan perubahan tenaga yang berlaku di dalam lampu-lampu itu ........................................................................................................................ [ 1 mark] 24
25. 25. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Diagram 1.1 shows the distance-time graph for the motion of a runner who is running along astraight line. Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan graf jarak-masa bagi gerakan seorang pelari yang berlari dalam satu garis lurus. ss / m /m 25 20 B C 15 10 5 A t/s 0 5 10 t/s DIAGRAM XX DIAGRAM 1.1 / RAJAH 1.1 (a) Based on Diagram 1.1, what is the distance travelled by the runner after 10 s? Berdasarkan Rajah 1.1, berapakah jarak yang dilalui oleh pelari itu selepas 10 s? …...………..……………………………………………..…………………………….. [1 mark] (b) What physical quantity is given by the gradient of the graph in Diagram 1.1? Apakah kuantiti fizik yang diberikan oleh kecerunan graf pada Rajah 1.1? …...………..……………………………………………..…………………………….. [1 mark] (c) Describe the motion of the runner, Huraikan gerakan pelari itu, (i) from A to B / dari A ke B, ……...……………………………………..…………………………………….. [1 mark] (ii) from B to C / dari B ke C. ……...……………………………………..…………………………………….. [1 mark]8. A radioactive source emits two rays P and Q is placed in front of an electric field and the radioactive path is shown in Diagram 1. Suatu sumber bahan radioaktif memancarkan sinar P dan Q diletakkan di dalam suatu medan elektrik dan lintasan radioaktif ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 1. 25
26. 26. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ (a) Name the material of container X. Namakan bahan bagi bekas X. ……...……………………………………..…………………………………….. [1 mark] (b)(i) Complete this sentence by underlining one correct phrase in the box. Lengkapkan pernyataan berikut dengan menggariskan satu frasa dalam kotak berikut. ……...……………………………………..…………………………………….. [1 mark] (ii) Give the reason for your answer in (a) (i). Berikan sebab bagi jawapan anda di (a)(i) ……...……………………………………..…………………………………….. [1 mark] (c) Why the size of deflection of ray P is greater than ray Q? Mengapakah saiz pesongan sinar P lebih besar daripada sinar Q? ..……………………………………..…………………………………….. [1 mark] 9. Figure 1 shows a vernier calipers used to measure the external diameter of a hollow PVC pipe. 26
27. 27. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure 1 (a) (i) Name the part labelled Y --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ 1 mark ] (ii) What is the function of Y ? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ 1 mark ] The external diameter of the PVC pipe is measured at four different places, the readings are recorded in the Table 1. External diameter (cm) Relative deviation ( % ) 4.25 4.26 4.25 4.28 0.94 (b) Why is the external diameter measured four times ? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ 1 mark ] (c) What is the purpose of calculating relative deviation ? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ 1 mark ] 27
28. 28. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Diagram below shows two different ammeter. (a) Give the use for an ammeter. Berikan kegunaan ammeter. …………………………………………………………………………………. (1 mark) (b) Which ammeter is more sensitive? Ammeter manakah lebih sensitif? ………………………………………………………………………………. (1 mark) (c) State the reason for your answer in (b). Nyatakan sebab bagi jawapan anda dalam (b) ………………………………………………………………………………. .....……………………………………………………………………………. 28
29. 29. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Diagram 1.1 shows light passing through a convex lens. Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan cahaya melalui satu kanta cembung. Convex Lens / Kanta Cembung Diagram 1.1/ Rajah 1.1 (a) Label the principal focus on Diagram 1.1. Labelkan fokus utama pada Rajah 1.1. [1 mark] (b) Measure the focal length from the Diagram 1.1. Ukurkan panjang fokus dari Rajah 1.1. f = …………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark] (c) State a characteristic of the image formed in Diagram 1.1. Nyatakan satu ciri imej yang dihasilkan dalam Rajah 1.1. ………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark] (d) State a optical instrument in which the convex lens is used to form a real image. Nyatakan satu alat optik yang mana kanta cembung digunakan untuk menghasilkan satu imej nyata. ………………………………………………………………………………….. [1 mark] 29
30. 30. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________12.1. Diagram 1 shows a micrometer screw gauge used to measure the diameter of a wire. Diagram 1 (a) (i) Name the part labelled P. …………………………………………………………………………………... [1mark] (ii) State the function of P. …………………………………………………………………………………... [1mark] (b) The diameters of the wire at three different places are shown in table 1. Diameter, d (mm) 1 2 3 3.120 3.20 3.2 Table 1 (i) Which of the reading is written correctly when using micrometer screw gauge? ………………………………………………………………………………… [1mark] (ii) Why is the diameter measured three times? ………………………………………………………………………………… [1mark] 30
31. 31. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________12.1. Diagram 1 shows a micrometer screw gauge used to measure the diameter of a wire. Diagram 1 (a) (i) Name the part labelled P. …………………………………………………………………………………... [1mark] (ii) State the function of P. …………………………………………………………………………………... [1mark] (b) The diameters of the wire at three different places are shown in table 1. Diameter, d (mm) 1 2 3 3.120 3.20 3.2 Table 1 (i) Which of the reading is written correctly when using micrometer screw gauge? ………………………………………………………………………………… [1mark] (ii) Why is the diameter measured three times? ………………………………………………………………………………… [1mark] 30
32. 32. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________12.1. Diagram 1 shows a micrometer screw gauge used to measure the diameter of a wire. Diagram 1 (a) (i) Name the part labelled P. …………………………………………………………………………………... [1mark] (ii) State the function of P. …………………………………………………………………………………... [1mark] (b) The diameters of the wire at three different places are shown in table 1. Diameter, d (mm) 1 2 3 3.120 3.20 3.2 Table 1 (i) Which of the reading is written correctly when using micrometer screw gauge? ………………………………………………………………………………… [1mark] (ii) Why is the diameter measured three times? ………………………………………………………………………………… [1mark] 30
33. 33. JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4 Students Copy Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics_________________________________________________________________________________________12.1. Diagram 1 shows a micrometer screw gauge used to measure the diameter of a wire. Diagram 1 (a) (i) Name the part labelled P. …………………………………………………………………………………... [1mark] (ii) State the function of P. …………………………………………………………………………………... [1mark] (b) The diameters of the wire at three different places are shown in table 1. Diameter, d (mm) 1 2 3 3.120 3.20 3.2 Table 1 (i) Which of the reading is written correctly when using micrometer screw gauge? ………………………………………………………………………………… [1mark] (ii) Why is the diameter measured three times? ………………………………………………………………………………… [1mark] 30