and the Ongoing Struggles ofControversy, Accessibility, and Control A presentation by Rory Mallette
HINT: Click or press →, ↓, or SPACE to advance! 1957 The United States of America creates the Advanced Research Projects Agency in response to the USSR’s Sputnik launch.
1968ARPANET is launched as a datapacket sharing network forARPA projects. 1972 Ray Tomlinson creates the world’s first email system as a subset of ARPANET.
1973Work begins on TCP/IP, the next stepfrom ARPANET, which allows fordifferent computers and networks tocommunicate with each other. 1974 The term “Internet” is first used to describe the TCP/IP, in a paper by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn (two of the “Fathers of the Internet”).
1984Now more developed, a newsection of APARNET is created formilitary usage, called MILNET.NSFNET follows shortly thereafter,for the National Science Foundation. 1990 Advanced Network & Services, a non-profit corporation, was founded to progress research and development of high-speed networking.
1992The “World-Wide Web” is released,soon followed by an internetdirectory for the hundreds ofthousands of new domains thatwere added within the next fewyears. 1996 Sprint, AT&T, and various other ISPs have begun carrying the majority of internet traffic. 1998 launches, soon becoming the world’s most popular online search engine, surpassing Yahoo! (launched in 1995)
1999802.11b, commonly known today asWi-Fi, is introduced and soonbecomes a standard feature ofportable computers and handhelds.
Present-Day Statistics:• ~800,000,000 active Facebook users• ~170,000,000 active Twitter users• ~34,000 Google searches per second• ~8 years of content uploaded to YouTube per day• 4,110,045 English-language articles on Wikipedia
Global Digital DivideInternet availability differs greatly across the globe, fromcountry to country. Source: International Telecommunications Union
CanadaInternet users: 27,757,450% of population: 81.6%
United States of America Internet users: 245,203,319 % of population: 78.3%
MexicoInternet users: ~42,000,000% of population: 36.5%
Falkland IslandsInternet users: 2,908% of population: 96.4%
SwedenInternet users: 8,270,742% of population: 91.0%
ChinaInternet users: ~513,100,000% of population: 38.4%
Internet CensorshipA serious social justice issue, internet censorship is thesuppression of publication or access to the internet.This can be done through a variety of different means,such as IP blocking (preventing access to specificwebsites), URL filtering, and connection resets – all ofwhich are used as part of the “Great Firewall of China,”the colloquial name for the government of China’s strictcontrol over internet censorship.Other notable examples of internet censorship includeits usage by the Egyptian government during the ArabSpring movement and its current employment by theSyrian government.
LEARN MORE ABOUTRECENT INTERNET CONTROVERSIES HINT: Click the hyperlinks for more information.Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA)http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/01/17/why-is-there-going-to-be-a-wikipedia-blackout-and-what-is-sopa/Internet Service Blackout in Syriahttp://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-11-29/world/35585439_1_syrian-people-hama-opposition-coalitionUnited Nations Control over the Internethttp://thehill.com/blogs/floor-action/house/271153-house-approves-resolution-to-keep-internet-control-out-of-un-hands
REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATIONhttp://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/material/excel/Individuals%20using%20the%20Internet2000-2011.xls“Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000-2011”, International TelecommunicationUnionhttp://www.investintech.com/content/historyinternet/“The History of the Internet”, Investintech PDF SolutionsDutton, William H.; Dopatka, Anna; Law, Ginette; Nash, Victoria. (2011). Freedom of connection, freedom of expression: the changing legal and regulatory ecology shaping the internet. 1-103. UNESCO, Paris, France.Wells, John; Lewis, Laurie. (2006). Internet access in U.S. public schools and classrooms: 1994-2005. 1-83. Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.