My name is Rory Seeman , principal at West Fargo High School, and tonight I will be presenting information on how educational technology relates to optimal student achievement and output. This presentation is intended for the West Fargo School board and their approval on various potential technological equipment and it’s integration into our schools.
Again, in this presentation, I will be focusing on how the use of educational technology directly relates to an increase in student achievement and output. Optimal student achievement can be formulated around a variety of situations and circumstances involving technology in the classroom. The five areas I will be concentrating on in this presentation pertain to technology and how it: increases individual and whole-class instruction and interaction increases a higher order of thinking skills increases the connection to multiple learning styles increases the learning abilities of students with visual and hearing impairments provides students with workforce-preparation skills
Technology increases individual instruction and interaction by incorporating different ways students can use various equipment types and vehicles to better their educational environment. Past learning experiences in the classroom have been falling by the wayside. The day where using paper and pencil is diminishing rapidly. Numerous studies have emphasized how technology directly links to individualized learning outcomes. Student of all ages are more technologically sound than ever and it’s the job of educators and administrators to be aware of the future and what it may bring. More courses are now being offered online. The shift into the virtual classroom has been taking schools districts away from the traditional in-class lecture environment. Some high schools now are exclusively offered online. A high percentage of colleges and universities are offered many courses online due to the easily accessible and convenient use of the internet. There are a variety of ways that students can reflect on their experiences in the online environment. Students can post to the discussion board, email a private message, or respond to a quiz-like question. Reflection on a task or learning experience is crucial and is oftentimes included in many instructional strategies and repertoires. In the online environment, the threaded discussion board is the tool most commonly associated with reflection (Polhemus 2005) Teachers can customize their curriculum and pedagogy to fit individuals’ needs by using a variety of technological resources. Some of these tools include the internet, heart rate monitors in physical education class, and individual learning stations.
Like individualized learning, technology connects the chain with whole-class instruction and interaction as well. The relationship between student engagement and technology implementation has never been better in a classroom setting. Teachers can stand up front and guide each student in a technology-led discussion. Cooperative learning and active participation has increased dramatically from the implementation of class-led technology. Teachers can get their students to work with each other and the entire class more efficiently. A study done in 2005, involving third grade students from Ohio, used three technological devices that had a tremendous impact on student learning. The following teacher indicated: “ The students love viewing information on the large screen using Elmo [document camera] ! Students are able to view what is being presented because the items are much larger and above other students’ heads and they are able see without interference, therefore they are able to remain engaged in their own learning.” (Swan 2007) As you have heard, the journal mention an important piece of equipment utilized in the classroom. This particular teacher used a document camera, wireless writing pads, and a student response system. All three are directly linked to an increase in student attentiveness and achievement. This picture is an example of an English class that utilized Microsoft’s Word Track Changes tool. The whole class was working on correcting sentences in this particular document.
Educational technology also increases the probability of students using higher order of thinking skills toward their studies. Information and other material supporting this argument were taken from John Cradler’s article, How Does Technology Influence Student Learning? The article directly reflects how technology attracts a higher level of thinking. Higher learning attributes in people involve five interrelated components that act as a hierarchy for achievement. These five include : information research, comparing and contrasting, synthesizing, analyzing, and evaluating . The brain uses all five to determine the breakdown of any situation. Research and evaluation shows that technology tools for constructing artifacts and electronic information and communication resources support the development of higher-order thinking skill (Cradler 2002). Wenglinsky’s Study of Student Achievement was done to determined that technology can have a positive effect on students’ mathematics scores. His study used data of fourth- and eighth-grade students who took the math section of the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). That NAEP included questions about how computers are used in mathematics instruction. After adjusting for class size, teacher qualifications, and socioeconomics, Wenglinsky found that technology had more of an impact in middle schools than it did in elementary schools (Cradler 2007). The Higher Order of Thinking Skills (HOTS) Program was designed to specifically target the thinking skills of students. This pullout program connected technology to drama and Socratic dialogue. 10 – 15% of students were on the honor roll after the program. The students who used HOTS also increased performance on measures of reading comprehension, metacognition, writing, components of IQ, transfer to novel tasks, and grade point average (Cradler 2007).
To continue on with educational technology and how relates to student achievement, I want to present a brief overview of a couple uses of technology that have been utilized in different classrooms. These three powerful technologies are now available to significantly augment the skills necessary to convert data into information and transform information into knowledge. For example, interactive video programs have been demonstrated to increase problem-solving skills. Students across nine states who used Jasper video software as a centerpiece for mathematics instruction for three to four weeks were compared with students who did not. The comparative research demonstrated that the students in classrooms who used the Jasper video programs were better able to complete complex problem-solving tasks (Cradler 2007). In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, an intelligent-tutor software program , as part of the regular curriculum for ninth-grade algebra, supports a curriculum focusing on mathematical analysis of real-world situations and the use of computational tools. “On average, the 470 students in the experimental classes using the software outperformed students in comparison classes by 15% on standardized tests and 100% on tests targeting the curriculum-focused objectives” (Cradler 2007). Lastly, a study of 22 fourth- and sixth-grade classes in seven urban school districts involved 66 of the participating students in a civil rights curriculum using online communication and the Internet. The researchers assessed the effect of Internet use on student performance by looking at the benefits it had on student projects. According to the researchers, “students with access to Scholastic Network and the Internet produced better projects than students without online access.” Of the nine measures of performance, the online users received significantly higher scores relative to presenting their work, stating a civil rights issue, presenting a full picture (who, what, when, where, why, how), bringing together different points of view, and producing a complete project (Cradler 2007).
Education technology initiates a solid connection to multiple learning styles. It’s no mystery that every student learns differently. Whether one student is a visual learner and another a kinesthetic learner, both require a technology vehicle to increase achievement in school. The new technology environment for instruction, namely the online environment, presents learners with multiple learning styles, a new context for processing information. New tools and ways of interacting present learners with opportunities for learning in ways unattainable in the traditional, face-to-face classroom (Polhemus 2005). Kolb states that people prefer to grasp information either through apprehension or comprehension. In effect, he is saying that the grasping activity is either concrete or theoretical, or someplace in between. Once the information is grasped, people transform it into knowledge either through intention or extension (Polhemus 2005). Kolb emphasizes four learning styles. Two of those four directly relate to most students. A diverging learner prefers to have information presented to them in a detailed, systematic, and reasoned manner and combine feeling and watching by viewing a problem from various perspectives. In contrast, a converging learner prefers a hands-on approach to learning. There are many technological devices that can be associated with both types of learning. McCarthy developed this approach to designing instruction to address all types of learners. Oftentimes, instructors use one method of instruction, unintentionally neglecting some learners. When exercising McCarthy’s approach, a more comprehensive and structured way to design instruction is expected (Polhemus 2005). This approach contains eight events all learners can obtain. SMART Board technology can enhance a great deal of instruction just by being placed in the center of the room. Students who visually learn better will choose to use this board.
These two figures are a continuation of the last slide. Both describe how individuals learn in an educational environment and if technology is incorporated, the sky is the limit. (Figure 1) Kolb says that a learning experience designed for a specific learning style is optimal for the short run. However, he is also concerned about long term effects on problem solving and advocates that people learn to work in different ways to expand these skills. The Kolb Learning Cycle includes activities from all four quadrants. Starting with Concrete Experience, the cycle moves through Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization, and ends with Active Experimentation. The idea here is that each learner finds something attractive to his or her style, but is also exposed to the way other people learn. This exposure may result in gaining additional tools or styles for learning. McCarthy extends Kolb’s cycle with her 4MAT system. She divides each of Kolb’s quadrants in two, introducing consideration for left and right brain processing techniques (Polhemus 2005). (Figure 2) Learning styles, issues of interface, hyperlinking, and multimedia design were incorporated into the approach for designing online instruction. The purpose of 4MAT system is to not only explore student interaction with content, but to inform the development of new technologies (such as adaptive hypermedia tools) that aid instructors in tailoring course content to individuals. Over time, it is expected that the presentation of content will adapt to meet the needs of the student in some way. McCarthy’s all-style approach to designing instruction was developed for instructors who teach in face-to-face classrooms. This eight step process (or “wheel”) guides instructors in the development of a lesson to meet a particular learning objective (Polhemus 2005).
Students with visual or hearing impairments can both benefit from educational technology and it’s link to their overall achievement in the classroom. The technology benefits for both impairments can increase individual and group learning experiences, participation in discussions, and assist in self-guided learning opportunities. Karen Swan and Annette Kratcoski, both researchers at the Research Center for Educational Technology, describe four technology examples that directly relate to student achievement. When I describe these four, I want you to think about students with visual and hearing impairments and ways the equipment can meet their learning expectations. Wireless Writing Pads: Two to three students at a time could use wireless writing tablets to share their ideas and work on problems with their classmates during whole group instruction. Typically, one student could begin work on a problem on the wireless tablet while others commented on their approach, and then the tablet would be passed to another student for elaborations or follow through. The students are also able to interact with the computer, its software, and each other from their seats as the work was projected on a large screen in front of the classroom (Swan 2007). Student Response System: Students are given student response devices which they use to respond to teacher created questions embedded in whole class instruction. Typically, the teacher could present a concept using PowerPoint and then ask one or more questions designed to test students’ understanding of the concepts. Students could respond to the questions by either choosing a multiple choice answer or entering a number. A teacher could use both questions and graphs of student responses were projected to a large screen (Swan 2007). SMART Board Technology: The Smart Board operates as part of a system that includes the interactive whiteboard, a computer, a projector and whiteboard software. A teacher could use this technology to write various problems on the board and have the student come up and solve them. Document Camera: A teacher could use a document camera to project visual aids on a large screen and students were encouraged to share their work similarly. Typically students could come to the document camera to work through a problem (for example, a mathematics word problem or using guide words in the dictionary) as they talked through their reasoning (Swan 2007).
The last key element that relates to educational technology and student achievement is how technology provides students with work-force preparation skills. Going back to John Cradler’s article, Does Technology Influence Student Learning?, he explains that technology is an important ingredient for building a solid future career foundation for all students. Technology enhances career preparation by educating students around the idea of being technology savvy and creating a link between academic subjects and work experiences. Both points are crucial for the future of every student. A study of four health career programs in California demonstrated the effectiveness of work-based learning models such as Tech Prep and career academies that integrate students’ work experience with academic subjects such as math, English, science, and social studies. These programs allow high school students to gain valuable knowledge about how to conduct themselves in actual workplace environments. Reflection is an essential part of these work-based learning programs where teachers integrate a health care theme into academic assignments or interdisciplinary projects (Cradler 2007). Technology can be useful in linking work experiences with academic subjects. In a nationwide review of school-to-work programs , found programs where students were learning the new basics or basics plus skills. These skills include the ability to use technology to communicate ideas and information orally, as well as in writing. The new basics also include working in groups, solving problems when answers aren’t always self-evident, understanding how systems work, and collecting, analyzing, and organizing data (Olson 1998). In a report on the state of technology integration in Minnesota , schools document the benefits of using information technologies to bring the world of work into the classroom (Cradler 2007).
These seven educational tools for the workplace are software that are being utilized in the majority of schools across the United States. After leaving high school, most jobs require some technological background experience. Research shows that when students learn to use and apply applications used in the world of work, such as word processors, spreadsheets, computer-aided drawing, Web site development programs, and the Internet, they acquire some of the prerequisite skills for workforce preparedness. When content and problem-solving strategies meet accepted education standards, technology increases mastery of vocational and workforce skills and helps prepare students for work (Cradler, 1994). The following are different educational tools and their uses: Word-processing tools: developing variety of documents PowerPoint presentations: developing and implementing clear and informative presentations Basic internet search engines: provides a resource for any idea Computer-aided drawing software: provides basis artistic elements for creating ideas Website development programs: provides the foundation for individuals to build websites Data Spreadsheets: organizes multiple items neatly and efficiently for review Social-networking websites: offers a variety of advertising and networking opportunities
Technology equals optimal student achievement and output . Optimal student achievement can be formulated around a variety of situations and circumstances involving technology in the classroom. I found it ironic that this presentation was created with educational technology. I hope this painted a clear picture of how important technology is for the whole educational culture and beyond. To review, the five areas of thought I presented on in this PowerPoint pertain to technology and how it: increases individual and whole-class instruction and interaction increases a higher order of thinking skills increases the connection to multiple learning styles increases the learning abilities of students with visual and hearing impairments provides students with workforce-preparation skills Suggestions for future technological expansion in West Fargo were touched on in this presentation. I have a detailed list of technology ideas that could be added to the district, and with your approval, will be presented at the next Planning and Development Meeting. Does any board member have any questions or comments to add to the presentation? I want to thank everyone for your time and patience.
Rs persuasive argument presentation
Educational Technology and Student Achievement Audience: West Fargo School Board Rory Seeman June 3, 2010
Educational Technology Agenda <ul><li>Technology increases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual and whole-class instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher order of thinking skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection to multiple learning styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning abilities of students with visual and hearing impairments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology provides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students with workforce-preparation skills </li></ul></ul>
Individual Instruction and Interaction <ul><li>Past learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Technology linked to individualized learning </li></ul><ul><li>Course via online can maximize student reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher can customize pedagogy to individuals’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Types of technology tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate monitors - Physical Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Learning stations </li></ul></ul>
Whole-Class Instruction and Interaction <ul><li>Relationship between student engagement and technology implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning </li></ul><ul><li>Active participation </li></ul><ul><li>Student and teacher interviews (Swan 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of technology (Swan 2007) </li></ul>
Higher Order of Thinking Skills <ul><li>Higher Learning Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>1. Information Research </li></ul><ul><li>2. Comparing and Contrasting </li></ul><ul><li>3. Synthesizing </li></ul><ul><li>4. Analyzing </li></ul><ul><li>5. Evaluating (Cradler 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Wenglinsky’s Study of Student Achievement (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>The Higher Order of Thinking Skills Program (HOTS) </li></ul><ul><li>Student Pullout Program </li></ul><ul><li>Technology -- Student Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>10 – 15% achieved honor roll status in 1994 </li></ul>
Technologies to Attain Higher Learning <ul><li>Interactive Video Technology </li></ul><ul><li>- Increasing problem-solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>- Jasper Video Software </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent Tutor Software </li></ul><ul><li>- Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>- Mathematic curriculum supports analysis skills in students </li></ul><ul><li>Internet and Online Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Curriculum (CAST 1996) </li></ul>Online Use No Online Use Better work presentation Minimal audience effectiveness Analysis of issues Lack of analysis for end result Review different viewpoints outside of class In-class viewpoints Producing a complete project Less visually completed project
Connection to Multiple Learning Styles <ul><li>Description of Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it relates to technology and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kolb’s Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverging and Converging learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>McCarthy’s Instructional Events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build learning from the ground up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table 1 and Figure 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SMART Board Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual learners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Table 1: McCarthy’s Instructional Events </li></ul>Connect : create a concrete experience Examine/Attend : reflect on the experience and analysis Image : integrate experience and reflection into concepts Inform : define theories and concepts Practice : work on defined concepts and givens <ul><ul><ul><li>Extend : experiment and add something of oneself </li></ul></ul></ul>Refine : analyze application, judge results of experimentation Perform : apply learning personally and share with others
Kolb and McCarthy’s Influence in Education and Technology <ul><li>Kolb’s Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>McCarthy’s Instructional Events </li></ul>Figure 1 : The Four Kolb Learning Styles Figure 2 : McCarthy’s 4MAT Wheel Approach
Workforce-Preparation Skills <ul><li>Technology Enhances Career Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Research-driven data (Cradler 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving careers are influenced by technology savvy students </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in linking work experiences with academic subjects (Cradler 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>California Study </li></ul><ul><li>Tech Prep and career academics </li></ul><ul><li>Nation-Wide Review of School-to-Work Programs </li></ul><ul><li>New basics and basics plus skills concept (Olson 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Minnesota Schools </li></ul><ul><li>World of work into the classroom </li></ul>
Educational Tools in the Workplace (Different tools and their use) Word-processing tools: developing variety of documents PowerPoint presentations: developing and implementing clear and informative presentations Basic internet search engines: provides a resource for any idea Computer-aided drawing software: provides basis artistic elements for creating ideas Website development programs: provides the foundation for individuals to build websites Data Spreadsheets: organizes multiple items neatly and efficiently for review Social-networking websites: offers a variety of advertising and networking opportunities
Conclusion <ul><li>Technology = Optimal Student Achievement and Output </li></ul><ul><li>Review of 5 Emphasis Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for future technological expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Technology Agenda </li></ul>