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Group dynamics

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Group dynamics

  1. 1. Organizational Behavior: Group Dynamics and ROOPA TEMKAR V. Teamwork
  2. 2. SSeeccuurriittyy SSttaattuuss What Makes People Join Groups? Self- Esteem Affiliation PPoowweerr Goal Achievement ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  3. 3. Defining and Classifying Groups ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  4. 4. FFuunnccttiioonnss ooff FFoorrmmaall GGrroouuppss OOrrggaanniizzaattiioonnaall FFuunnccttiioonnss IInnddiivviidduuaall FFuunnccttiioonnss 1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals. 2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions. 3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts. 4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments. 5. Implement complex decisions. 6. Socialize and train newcomers. 1. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation. 2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity. 3. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality. 4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerless-ness. 5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems. ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  5. 5. TTuucckkmmaann’’ss FFiivvee--SSttaaggee TThheeoorryy ooff GGrroouupp DDeevveellooppmmeenntt Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Forming Return to Independence Dependence/ interdependence Independence ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  6. 6. Tuckman’s FFiivvee--SSttaaggee TThheeoorryy ooff GGrroouupp DDeevveellooppmmeenntt ((ccoonnttiinnuueedd)) Individual Issues ROOPA TEMKAR V. Forming Storming Norming Performing “How do I fit in?” “What’s my role here?” “What do the others expect me to do?” “How can I best perform my role?” Group Issues “Why are we here?” “Why are we fighting over who’s in charge and who does what?” “Can we agree on roles and work as a team?” “Can we do the job properly?”
  7. 7. Stages of Group Development ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  8. 8. Stages of Group Development (cont’d) ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  9. 9. Stages of Group Development ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  10. 10. An Alternative Model: For Temporary Groups with Deadlines Sequence of actions: 1. Setting group direction 2. First phase of inertia 3. Half-way point transition 4. Major changes 5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity Sequence of actions: 1. Setting group direction 2. First phase of inertia 3. Half-way point transition 4. Major changes 5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  11. 11. Group Behavior Model ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  12. 12. External Conditions Imposed on the Group Imposed Conditions: • Organization’s overall strategy • Authority structures • Formal regulations • Resource constraints • Selection process • Performance and evaluation system • Organization’s culture • Physical work setting Imposed Conditions: • Organization’s overall strategy • Authority structures • Formal regulations • Resource constraints • Selection process • Performance and evaluation system • Organization’s culture • Physical work setting ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  13. 13. Group Member Resources • Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities – Interpersonal skills • Conflict management and resolution • Collaborative problem solving • Communication – Personality Characteristics • Sociability • Initiative • Openness • Flexibility ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  14. 14. Group Structure - Roles • Formal Leadership – Leadership that is imposed on the group by the organization. – Leaders who derive their power from the positions they occupy in the organizational structure. – Formal leaders may or may not also be the informal leaders of the groups in which they function. ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  15. 15. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  16. 16. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  17. 17. Group Structure - Norms Classes of Norms: • Performance norms • Appearance norms • Social arrangement norms • Allocation of resources norms Classes of Norms: • Performance norms • Appearance norms • Social arrangement norms • Allocation of resources norms ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  18. 18. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  19. 19. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  20. 20. Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  21. 21. Group Structure - Status GGGGrrrorooouuuupppp N NNoooorrrmrmmmssss SSSSttatataattututuussss E EEqqqquuuuiittiiytytyy CCCCuuuullttllututuurrrereee GGrroouupp MMeemmbbeerr GGrroouupp MMeemmbbeerr SSttaattuuss SSttaattuuss ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  22. 22. Group Structure - Size Group Size Performance Expected Actual (due to loafing) Other conclusions: • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. Other conclusions: • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  23. 23. Group Structure - Composition ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  24. 24. Group Structure - Cohesiveness Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. Make the group smaller. 2. Encourage agreement with group goals. 3. Increase time members spend together. 4. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. Physically isolate the group. Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. Make the group smaller. 2. Encourage agreement with group goals. 3. Increase time members spend together. 4. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. Physically isolate the group. ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  25. 25. Group Processes ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  26. 26. Group Tasks • Decision-making – Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks. – Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks. – Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well. ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  27. 27. Group Decision Making (cont’d) ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  28. 28. Group Decision-Making Techniques ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  29. 29. High-performance Teams PPaarrttiicciippaattiivvee LLeeaaddeerrsshhiipp AAlliiggnneedd oonn AAttttrriibbuutteess ooff hhiigghh--ppeerrffoorrmmaannccee TTeeaammss PPuurrppoossee HHiigghh CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn CCrreeaattiivvee TTaalleennttss SShhaarreedd RReessppoonnssiibbiilliittyy FFuuttuurree FFooccuusseedd RRaappiidd RReessppoonnssee FFooccuusseedd oonn TTaasskk ROOPA TEMKAR V.
  30. 30. Evaluating Group Effectiveness ROOPA TEMKAR V.

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