31st July 2007


The report and findings of the
Mallin Basketball Review
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2.3 Recommendations
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2.5 Next step...
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UK Government Report on the State of Basketball

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Mallin Review Copy

  1. 1. 31st July 2007 The report and findings of the Mallin Basketball Review
  2. 2. 2 Mallin Basketball review report
  3. 3. Mallin Basketball review report Chairman’s introduction 3 Chairman’s Introduction I accepted the position of Chairman of the Basketball Review Group because I believe that basketball has significantly more potential than any other sport to dramatically increase the level of participation in sport across England at all levels. I would like to express my personal thanks to everyone who has contributed through the consultation process.My special thanks to the members of the Basketball Review Group who have provided their time and professional expertise to contribute the insights and recommendations contained within this report: Paul Buxton,Performance Programme Consultant, UK Sport Perry Crimmins, Project Manager, Sport England John Eady, Managing Director, Knight, Kavanagh and Page Trudi Else, Client Manager, Sport England Martin Henlan, Broadcaster/Journalist UKTV ex England and GB International Basketball , David Henwood, Management Consultant, ex Deputy CEO Gloucester RFC Tony Mallin (Chair), CEO, STAR Capital Partners Stephen Redwood, President and CEO (UK), Mercer Delta Consulting Michael Sorkin,Vice Chairman, N M Rothschild & Sons Dr Neil Tunnicliffe, Principal,Wharton Consulting, former CEO Rugby Football League Lisa Wainwright, Head of National Sport, Sport England There are 5 key recommendations: 1. Appoint a high calibre Chairperson 2. Reform the governing body 3. Provide sufficient funding 4. Grow sustainable grass roots participation 5. Develop World-Class British teams These recommendations directly address the challenges identified during the Review Group’s consultation. We must not lose time in implementing them if we wish to see a fundamental increase in participation and an improvement in the performance of basketball. Tony Mallin
  4. 4. 4 Endorsements / Glossary Mallin Basketball review report Endorsements the sport in the UK.The Euroleague looks forward to supporting the positive change that will come out of Derek Mapp,Chairman,Sport England,“In our aim this review process.” to increase participation by 2 million in sport by 2012, basketball is ideally placed to contribute significantly to Phil Beard,CEO O2 Dome,formerly LOCOG, this,particularly engaging priority groups.With strong “The vision of London 2012 is to stage inspirational Games vision,leadership and innovation through delivery of that capture the imagination of young people around the the recommendations in this report,I hope we will see world and leave a lasting legacy.Basketball has the potential the sport flourish and achieve its full potential” in this country to help achieve this.With these changes,and with the infrastructure we are developing,we could put on Jennie Price,Chief Executive,“Sport England welcomes events that would be the envy of the world.” this review,and will continue to provide active support to the sport of basketball to provide a platform to help it rise to the significant challenge of delivering a step change in participation.” Liz Nicholl,Director of Performance,UK Sport, “UK Sport is reliant on a strong,effective and well resourced England governing body to underpin our investment in the British team and deliver a legacy for 2012.We therefore welcome the recommendations in the review that seek to ensure such a structure is now in place.” Luol Deng,Chicago Bulls,“As pleased as I am to be Glossary included in this review,I am even more excited to play a AfPE Association for Physical Education leading role in the continuing development of the sport of AOTTs Adults other than teachers basketball in the UK.England gave me my first opportunity BBF British Basketball Federation to succeed in this sport and opened many doors for me. BBL British Basketball League Every suggestion this review has outlined shows a new BCA Basketball Coaches Association commitment towards excellence for the future of BOA British Olympic Association basketball.I am committed to teach the game and help BSF Building Schools for the Future develop the sport throughout the UK.With the 2012 CCDP Community Club Development Programme Olympic Games in London we have an opportunity that CSC Community Sports Coach has to be seized! I am confident that our team will deliver CSN Community Sports Network success on the international stage and in turn raise the CSP County Sports Partnership profile of the sport at the same time” CPD Continuous Professional Development Pops Mensah-Bonsu,Dallas Mavericks,“This will be DCMS Department for Culture,Media and Sport an opportunity to expose and develop athletes within a EB England Basketball dormant sport in the UK,leaving generations of young ESBBA England Schools Basketball Association people participating in one of the fastest growing sports FE/HE Further Education/Higher Education in the world.Developing new talents through grass FIBA The International Basketball Federation roots programmes such as the Leaders In Training Pro GB Great Britain Development Basketball Academy,which will develop GBB Great Britain Basketball future elite athletes for London 2012 and years after. LA Local authority It will also give us the contingency to create one of the NBA National Basketball Association best development leagues in Europe as we haven’t really NGB EB or any successor organisation established one in England.” P4S Partnerships for Schools David Stern,Commissioner,NBA,“The 2012 Olympics PDM Partnership Development Manager provide an enormous opportunity to improve basketball RDA Regional Development Agency in the UK and at the national and international level,as SCW Sports Council for Wales well as use the sport to bring together diverse communities. SCUK Sports coach UK The NBA fully supports the need for this fundamental SE Sport England review of the sport,and we look forward to seeing SSP School Sport Partnership significant positive changes in the near future." TASS Talented Athlete Scholarship Scheme Jordi Bertomeu,CEO,Euroleague,“The review of UKCC UK Coaching Certificate basketball is an extremely positive step in developing YST Youth Sport Trust
  5. 5. Mallin Basketball review report Table of Contents 5 Table of Contents 1. Background 6 1.1 Terms of Reference 6 1.2 Consultation 7 2. Executive Summary 8 2.1 The case for investing in basketball 9 2.2 Challenges 10 2.3 Recommendations 11 2.4 Targets 15 2.5 Next Steps 17 3.The Case for Investing in Basketball 18 3.1 Basketball today 18 3.2 The participation (grass roots and club) potential 21 3.3 The performance (elite and international level) potential 22 4. Challenges 23 4.1 Organisation 24 4.2 Participation 25 4.3 Performance 31 5. Recommendations 33 5.1 Appoint a high calibre Chairperson to implement this report in its entirety 34 5.2 Reform the governing body 34 5.3 Provide sufficient funding 39 5.4 Grow sustainable grass roots participation 40 5.5 Develop World-Class British teams 43 6.Targets 44 7. Next Steps 48 8.Appendices 49 APPENDIX 1: List of Consultees 49 List of Figures Figure Title Page 1. Role of respondents in the online survey 7 2. EB 2006 and 2007 proposed funding requirement 14 3. % UK adults participating in sport at least once a month 2006 19 4. Relative basketball participation:France,Italy, Germany and England 19 5. FIBA 2006 World Basketball Rankings 20 6. Key success factors for basketball 23 7. Chart indicating the extent of agreement or disagreement with a set of statements describing England Basketball 24 8. Quality rating of teaching and coaching in basketball 26 9. England Basketball ‘affiliated’club distribution 27 10. England Basketball ‘Clubmark’club distribution 27 11. Rating of officials in UK basketball 28 12. Chart indicating the extent of agreement or disagreement with a set of statements describing the British Basketball League 32 13. Reformed National Governing Body:proposed Board structure 35 14. Reformed National Governing Body:proposed Management Team 37 15. Reformed National Governing Body:proposed Participation Directorate 38
  6. 6. 6 1. Background Mallin Basketball review report 1. Background 1.1 Terms of Reference The task set for the Mallin Basketball Review Group (‘the Review Group’) by the then Sports Minister Richard Caborn,was to review the structure and governance of basketball in England and to propose a series of recommendations to1: • Improve and enhance the governance, structure and strategic direction of the sport. • Develop and grow participation at grass roots and club levels. • Establish a mechanism to build and sustain improved performance at international level.
  7. 7. Mallin Basketball review report 1. Background 7 1.2 Consultation Additionally an online survey3 was conducted which attracted more than 400 respondents;findings were The consultation process has enabled the Review Group consistent with direct consultation interviews. to develop and propose a series of recommendations that are designed to overcome the obstacles which currently • Data was collected via online survey between 1 stand in the way of building a thriving basketball culture September and 16 October 2006. in Britain. • A range of contacts were invited to participate. We would like to express our sincere thanks to over Contact details were provided by 500 individuals who through consultation or the online EB/BCA/ESBBA/BBL,via the Mallin Basketball survey have provided their views to the Review Group. Review website and via direct email contact. • 411 individuals completed the survey and many Agency consultation others provided comments via email. The Review Group has been encouraged by the interest, • The survey site was accessed via the Mallin Basketball enthusiasm and evident commitment of participants in Review website www.mallinbasketballreview.org every level of the sport.In particular they have been (which was accessible from the Sport England and reassured by the high degree of unanimity about the Hosana websites).Over the review period 25,413 challenges we face.An exceptionally good representation hits were recorded. of parties has been achieved: A wide and varied view was captured through ensuring • Over 80 individuals representing more than 30 agencies diversity in the demographics of the survey respondents concerned with basketball have been consulted. (see figure 1 below). • Most aspects of basketball functions were represented2. • Views have also been received from England Basketball, Existing policies FIBA,the NBA and other UK/England NGBs. The report reflects the principles of UK Sport’s ‘Investing in Change’and Sport England’s ‘Self Assurance Model’templates.It recognises that,in the investment strategy for Beijing 2008 and London 2012,UK Sport has adopted a 'no compromise' approach to funding and support. Figure 1: Role of respondents in online survey Source:Online Basketball Survey 2006 (it should be noted that many respondents have more than one role) 1 The report does not cover wheelchair basketball.This is classed as a separate sport and NGB. 2 E.g.paid and voluntary,domestic and international,participation,coaching,education,media,‘street basketball’,officiating and administrative capacity 3 Source:Mercer Delta Consulting
  8. 8. 8 2. Executive Summary Mallin Basketball review report 2. Executive Summary • Is easy to play and enjoy at any age,available both indoors and outdoors. • Can attract grass roots participation in deprived areas and so has strong potential to create bonds and friendships across communities and reduce street crime. • Can help to combat health issues such as youth obesity. • Is attractive to young people,having strong links with fashion and music. • More than other sports is equally attractive to boys and girls.
  9. 9. Mallin Basketball review report 2. Executive Summary 9 2.1 The case for investing in basketball Basketball has the potential to become a major participation sport in Britain,generating levels of involvement to match Basketball is played by more people than any other sport those achieved in Europe.Even with the stronger presence in the world except football.It is hugely popular in Europe, of other sports such as football,rugby and netball in the the Americas,Australasia and Asia.As of August 2006,the UK,there is no inherent cultural reason that explains why International Basketball Federation (FIBA) had 213 member participation in basketball in this country is so much lower federations,and is now responsible for a sport that has more than our main European counterparts. than 400 million players world-wide.However participation in England,at 25,000 registered players,is significantly below Performance (Elite and International Level) Potential that of its peers in Europe. It is widely believed that by removing specific barriers to national representation we have the potential to access a Some success has been achieved in major competitions, stock of talented GB athletes from which successful most notably the 2006 Commonwealth Games where national teams can be produced.There is currently a both England’s men’s and women’s teams won bronze growing number of British players playing in the NBA, medals.However,home nation teams (England,Scotland the NCAA and others who are contracted to professional and Wales) currently rank outside the top 75 (for men) teams in Europe.All could add enormously to the quality and 64 (for women) in the world . of what is already shaping up as a strong GB team.With The Review Group believes that,given the situation of support from high profile players for British basketball basketball today and the large potential for the sport,more there has never been a better opportunity to impact on can be achieved through investing in the development GB performance. of basketball than any other team sport in England both Sufficient performance funding from UK Sport can also in terms of elite performance and wider participation. enable basketball to establish an elite player development This is based on the scale of improvements possible programme and invest in British representative teams at compared with European peers,the impact on a range of a level that has simply not been available before. social factors,health benefits and the time required to achieve significant improvement - relative to any other sport. If we were to be represented by the very best British players from around the world,there is every chance that Participation (grass roots and club) potential GB could achieve comparable world rankings to those Basketball is an inclusive sport.It assists in breaking down of our European peers within a relatively short timeframe cultural and social barriers where they exist.It is a sport that: and aim to achieve success on the Olympic stage in 2012. • Is easy to play and enjoy at any age,available both Putting this in perspective,France (silver medallists at the indoors and outdoors. Sydney Olympics) has 4 NBA players and is ranked in • Can attract grass roots participation in deprived areas the top 10 in the world. and so has strong potential to create bonds and friendships For the past 20 years or so Britain has been identified across communities and reduce street crime. within the basketball world as the country that will • Can help to combat health issues such as youth obesity. sooner or later tap into the exceptionally high level of • Is attractive to young people,having strong links talent available.There is,therefore,a real opportunity to with fashion and music. improve GB’s international performance and,like other • More than other sports is equally attractive to countries,generate significant investment and income at boys and girls. elite performance levels.Staging the 2012 Olympic Games gives the GB basketball teams an opportunity to qualify In England,basketball has less than a quarter of the number for the final stages of the Olympics for the first time since of registered players compared with other traditional team 1948.This can be used as a platform to dramatically increase sports such as hockey and netball,despite a large unaffiliated the attractiveness of the sport to a wider pool of current player following.In addition we still lack the club network and potential players. of our European peers.England has less than 20% of the number of basketball clubs in France,Italy or Spain. Basketball is an exciting team sport and it is extremely attractive as a television and sponsorship proposition. To improve this we must ensure we have good management A high profile national team would only encourage and co-ordination particularly where new facilities are further commercial investment. already planned,e.g.,aligning with the Building Schools for the Future (BSF) programme for school infrastructure renewal.If better managed and coordinated and linked to national programmes,basketball can really deliver substantial value for money. 4 Rankings published on the FIBA website December 2006
  10. 10. 10 2. Executive Summary Mallin Basketball review report 2.2 Challenges The facts above,and the views expressed to the Review Group during the consultation process,confirm that there are many challenges to address.The investment case for basketball needs to be justified based on a strategic plan that addresses all of the following challenges. Strategic direction Participation (grass roots and club level) • Under supported vision: Despite published plans, • Poor access to facilities:The sport,at all levels, the consultation process suggested that the vision for has insufficient access to affordable facilities of the basketball is not well understood and could be much right standard. better bought into at all levels. • Limited presence in schools:Young people in Structure and governance primary schools have insufficient opportunities to play • Organisation unsuitable: The current organisation basketball.The quantity and quality of the teaching and of basketball in England is ill suited to face the coaching of basketball in secondary schools does not challenges ahead.The wider basketball community clearly lead into both recreational and competitive games. has reservations about EB’s ability to take the sport • Inadequate coaching capacity and capability: forward.Many problems exist in relation to the structure Co-ordination and distribution of coaches is limited. and governance of the sport.To address these problems There are too few good,qualified coaches working in and meet the challenges ahead,we believe change to basketball,and a structure ill suited to making any the constitution,powers,scope and obligations of fundamental improvements. the governing body is vital. • The club base of basketball is limited and geographically inconsistent: Compared to European • Disparate governance: Management and co-ordination neighbours,e.g.,France,Italy or Germany,England is hampered by the fact that different facets of the sport has less than 20% of the number of clubs. are managed and operated separately (coaches,BBL, • Limited player pathways:There are too few known independent leagues and camps).The ongoing unease and easily accessible opportunities for players to progress between and within these bodies has been a from participation at school and/or clubs to higher levels hindrance to progress. of performance.The partnerships to improve this are • Weak execution:This is the third review of the sport not managed to achieve their full potential. commissioned since 2000;none appears to have resolved • Inadequate competitions: Club competitions the issues covered in this report.Many blockages to could be much better organised so as to make it easy progress remain and key bodies in basketball lack focus or affordable for clubs to complete in enough areas. on a performance culture. Performance (international level) Investment • Weak domestic professional league (BBL): • Under-funded: Given the task ahead insufficient The professional league is commercially weak,widely funding is channelled into the sport.There is also distrusted and the competition is of a much lower no clear strategy to reduce funding dependence playing standard than our European counterparts. and increase income from commercial sources. • Barriers to a high performance national team: • Funding not allocated optimally: Funding is not Contractual release of Great Britain international players systematically focused on high impact areas. located in all countries needs better forward planning. Elite performers are not presently provided with the level of support they require to take part and perform well. The level at which coaches currently operate does not support the improvement of international performance, or set a culture of success for the team.
  11. 11. Mallin Basketball review report 2. Executive Summary 11 2.3 Recommendations Despite these challenges there is no insurmountable barrier to generating significant expansion in grass roots participation or to increasing levels of performance. Review Group recommendations are encapsulated in 5 themes which need to be implemented rapidly (with 24 specific recommendations detailed in section 5) in order to deliver a key objective: “By 2012,double basketball participation and create GB teams that qualify for the Olympic quarter finals.” 1. Appoint a high calibre Chairperson to implement this report in its entirety 2. Reform the governing body 3. Provide sufficient funding 4. Grow sustainable grass roots participation 5. Develop World-Class British teams 1) Appoint a high calibre Chairperson to implement this report in its entirety A leader is needed who is able to drive an organisation that can deliver the vision for the sport.This should be a person of stature with commitment to the sport and strong business acumen who will have the skills and character to unite the sport and implement all the recommendations in this report. This appointment will be a major step towards bringing the recommendations in this report to life and meeting our key targets.We must make the appointment as quickly as possible if we wish to capitalise upon this unique window of opportunity.
  12. 12. 12 2. Executive Summary Mallin Basketball review report 2) Reform the governing body Progress has been made in the sport over the last few years and plans have been put in place by the home nations to develop a GB team.England Basketball has also become more financially stable and this is a significant achievement that deserves acknowledgement. Despite this,the Review Group’s finding is that many problems continue to exist in relation to the structure and governance of the sport and that the Whole Sport Plan does not realise the full potential of basketball. Its view is that fundamental change to the constitution, The NGB should create an environment and culture with powers,scope and obligations of the governing body is a strong sense of belonging for those who participate in required and that the governing body needs to reform in basketball.It must operate a target based performance order to help the sport realise this potential.If EB does culture and control key leadership aspects of the sport in not commit to and is unable to undertake such changes England.In particular,to ensure that the sport grows and within a reasonable timescale (no more than 12 months strengthens at all levels,it must have an impact upon the from publication of this report) we believe it would be in following factors: the best interest of basketball for a new governing body • increase the presence of basketball in schools entity to be formed to replace the existing entity. • the number,quality and distribution of clubs EB must be set up to attract and retain the best people to • levels of access to affordable facilities run the sport within an appropriate management structure. • the management and co-ordination of quality coaches Existing EB employees should be given the opportunity • relationships with the professional game to apply for all posts within the new structure5. • commercial and philanthropic sources of funding The NGB should have the vision for the sport in England. The Review Group accepts that,although highly desirable, It should build upon existing published plans and align it is not practical at this time to attempt to create a single all relevant bodies around these.It should be able to fight British governing body for the whole of basketball. basketball’s corner effectively with renewed vigour. However,the NGB must have a close working relationship At both national and local level it should re engage and with Scotland and Wales,and positively contribute to a work with enthusiasts across the country to build grass British agenda. roots participation and develop the game;supporting GB national teams to compete at the highest level with distinction. 5 All recommendations in this report concerning staff of EB are subject to any impact (if applicable) of the Transfer of Undertakings Protection of Employment (TUPE) Regulations or similar legislation or statement of practice and/or other employee consultation requirements.
  13. 13. Mallin Basketball review report 2. Executive Summary 13 In order to ensure the continuity of funding to the elite It should be provided on the understanding that,over time, development programme,UK Sport and the Review income generated via other means will account for a Group agreed that as a temporary and interim measure steadily increasing proportion of annual expenditure. UK Sport would form a subsidiary company to manage Following the implementation of recommendation 2, and fund basketball’s elite performance operations.Its role the proposed higher budget should be made available for a will include defining the desired player pathway for elite minimum of 3 years.The first three years of the reformed performance,elite coaching,and the GB national team NGB operation should be reviewed in the light of progress culture and development.This action has DCMS and against set targets Treasury consent and the subsidiary company was set up in early 2007. Total income required to run the NGB as envisaged in recommendation 2 will be around £3.25m per annum. It is planned that the British Basketball Federation This has been calculated on a bottom up basis and should (if and when recognised),acting on behalf of the three enable the headcount to increase from around 20 to about home country basketball associations,will delegate 40 staff.It will allow the NGB to attract greater levels of responsibility for the formation and fielding of British expertise and skills from within the marketplace. senior and Under 20 teams to the subsidiary company. In seeking recognition from the sports councils,BBF must Commercial income (including membership fees) should have representatives from each of English,Scottish and provide up to £1m based on EB’s current income from Welsh Basketball in membership.The Review Group these sources,thereby leaving £2.25m to be funded recommends that,in addition,the CEO of the NGB elsewhere. should become the Chairperson of the BBF. The recommendation is that Sport England should provide We must ensure that the NGB and the elite basketball annual funding to the NGB totalling at least £1.7m per agenda remain firmly aligned.If recognised,BBF must annum.This is an additional £1.2m in funding per annum agree how the performance function is to be managed. above the planned £0.5m funding to EB for 07/08 Whole UK Sport will set out its requirements in this respect along Sport Plan. the lines of the template agreed with other British sports UK Sport will provide a further £1.5m per annum to the that predominantly compete at home nation level such as subsidiary company for GB elite performance basketball. hockey,badminton,table tennis,volleyball and boxing. The subsidiary company will require a central overhead If and when BBF is recognised by the Sports Councils capability to function effectively.The NGB should provide as the body with responsibility for overseeing elite this support and should be compensated at a fair market performance basketball,it is recommended that it should rate,which we estimate to be £150K. delegate responsibility for operational management of the This leaves a funding gap of £0.40m to which the NGB GB elite performance basketball function to the NGB will need to find an early solution.£0.25m is a result of via a service level agreement.This will replace the existing the fact that the cost of the elite youth activity does not arrangement between BBF and the subsidiary company appear to fall within the remit of either UK Sport or Sport and allow the transfer of the subsidiary company to England for which a contingency reserve of £0.15m the NGB. has been added. In the interim,in order to ensure effective working The Review Group believes that the strategy it is practices and communication,the NGB and the subsidiary recommending will in time lead to the NGB generating company managing the elite basketball programme should significant commercial revenues over and above the be co-located. public funding outlined above.As commercial revenues If our first two recommendations are not implemented develop and are reinvested in basketball,the Review in full then we believe there is little prospect of additional Group recommends that public funding must be funding bearing fruit. maintained and not reduced as long as targets are being achieved.This will enable basketball to grow at an 3) Provide sufficient funding accelerated pace towards the benchmarks set by major Without sufficient funds it is highly unlikely that success European countries such as Spain,France and Germany. will be achieved.Basketball must be empowered to make the required step change by being allocated a level of Formal funding discussions have taken place with Sport funding support to achieve this,directly tied to interim England and we are encouraged by the support it has given. evaluation of performance. The first formal task of the new Chairperson will be to submit funding applications to Sport England. The NGB should have a structure capable of making a step change in the development of the sport.This will require funding significantly in excess of that presently allocated.
  14. 14. 14 2. Executive Summary Mallin Basketball review report Figure 2: EB 2006 funding and NGB 2007-09 proposed funding requirements Note Sport England totals include: Formal funding discussions have taken place with Sport 05/06 - £650k Whole Sport Plan,£85k PESSCL club links school England and we are encouraged by the support it has given. programme,£65k UK Coaching Certificate,£473.5k Commonwealth The first formal task of the Chairperson will be to submit Games Funding funding applications to Sport England. 06/07 - £650k Whole Sport Plan,£97.5k PESSCL club links school programme,£66k UK Coaching Certificate 07/08 - £500k Whole Sport Plan,£87.75k PESSCL club links school programme. Source:Sport England Over the next five years the NGB will need to derive substantially more income from both commercial and philanthropic activity at national and local level. Over the next five years the NGB will need to A programme should be designed and actively managed derive substantially more income from both commercial to produce consistently higher coach quality,availability and philanthropic activity at national and local level. and distribution.The NGB should (working closely with Staff should be hired with professional skills in rights the subsidiary company) implement processes to enhance management to ensure that commercial opportunity and understanding of performance requirements,identify value is maximized.EB should work with the temporary and develop effective talent and put in place appropriately subsidiary company,the professional league (assuming that structured and available competition. it accepts the need for substantial reform and improvement) The NGB management structure should ensure that and clubs to split the rights in an equitable way,using other partnerships are more effectively managed.Increased federations as examples of how this might work. staff numbers at regional level will ensure a seamless 4) Build sustainable grass roots participation player pathway between school,club and higher levels Strong processes to drive basketball’s access to existing of performance. and planned facilities are required.These should be underpinned by a carefully planned and conducted audit of present levels of basketball facility access, affordability and security of tenure.The club base needs to be expanded and to be geographically diverse to offer quality opportunities to many more local communities.
  15. 15. Mallin Basketball review report 2. Executive Summary 15 5) Develop World-Class British team Specific activities could include entering a composite The NGB should work closely with UK Sport and team in the Euroleague.There is an argument for housing the subsidiary company to significantly improve the this team elsewhere but,for maximum commercial impact, performance of GB elite basketball.Together they will London is the natural home.There would be a requirement remove barriers to national representation;address issues to centrally fund the British core of the team with a further such as release planning for contracts and costly insurance; 2 or 3 high standard foreign nationals as necessary and coach and implement a satisfactory talented player pathway. selection is of critical importance.The British core would The outcome should be the very best GB squad drawn be placed with existing clubs for domestic competition and together from British elite talent around the world. would be built around the national elite squad.It would add considerable value to the commercial and media Furthermore,the professional league,together with the propositions/opportunity for the sport.There would be NGB,should set up a working group with the aim of a requirement for special dispensation from Euroleague, co-ordinating activity to support the development of but this should not be a major barrier. basketball throughout the country.Specifically this will ensure that it plays an increasing and more beneficial role in grass roots development and talent pathways and become an integral part of the talented/elite player development system. 2.4 Targets An independent evaluation of performance against targets A focused and unified approach is required to meet the should be conducted on an annual basis in order to vision for basketball.The NGB should operate through determine the NGB’s progress and to define a timescale a target based performance culture to achieve this. to delegate elite Great Britain performance operations to the NGB.In additional to the key targets 1-20 below, further targets are contained in section 6 numbered 1-33. Organisation Targets Measurement Organisation 1) By Dec 2007 Chairperson,CEO and management team appointed and reformed organisational Mallin Review Group & Sport structure in place England progress appraisal 2) By Dec 2008 achieve a clear and aligned sense – Jan 08 and Jan 09 of direction,driven by an organisation that is accountable for and better equipped to deliver the required improvements 3) By Jun 2008 all staff appointed to NGB (staff Baseline online survey 2006 complement should rise from c20 to c40) Governance 4) The sport should be managed by a reformed governing body with a remit to manage all facets Re-conduct online survey 2008 of the game in England including future delegated elite performance operations Professional staff 5) Attract and retain the best people to run the sport Mallin Review Group & Sport Funding 6) By Dec 2007 agree recommended funding from England progress appraisal – Jan 08 Sport England and UK Sport and submit all relevant funding applications
  16. 16. 16 2. Executive Summary Mallin Basketball review report Participation Targets Measurement Players 7) By 2012 to double the number of registered players. Baseline EB P&L 2006 Teams / clubs 8) By 2012 to double the number of registered NGB P&L 2007> teams/clubs. Participation 9) Bring the sport into the national ‘top 10’as measured Baseline Sport England ‘Active via Sport England’s ‘Active People’survey by 2012 People’Survey 2006 Facilities 10) By 2008 agree facilities target Survey >2007 11) By 2012 deliver facilities target Conduct Audit of Facilities Performance Targets Measurement World Ranking 12) By end of 2007 GB men’s team to be promoted to A division of the Eurobasket. 13) June 2008 GB men’s team performing well in A division Baseline FIBA Rankings 2006 14) End 2008 GB women’s team leading the B division of the Eurobasket. FIBA Rankings 2007 > 15) By the end of 2009 GB women’s team to be promoted to the A division of the Eurobasket. 16) By the end of 2011 British teams to secure the right to compete in the Olympic Games. 17) GB men’s team to qualify for the quarter final at the London 2012 Olympics Professional league 18) Build strong partnership with the professional league in order to create a high quality,viable Mallin Review Group & Sport professional league driving involvement in England progress appraisal – Jan 08 European club competition 19) Enter a composite team in the Euroleague Competition 20) By 2014 attract 2 major world class basketball events to UK e.g.Euroleague Finals,FIBA Eurobasket 2013,FIBA 2014 World Champs. 20) By 2014 attract 2 major world class basketball events to UK e.g. Euroleague Finals,FIBA Eurobasket 2013,FIBA 2014 World Champs.
  17. 17. Mallin Basketball review report 2. Executive Summary 17 2.5 Next steps 1.Agree with all key stakeholders the recommendations within this report. 2. Secure funding. • Submit funding application to secure £1.7m from Sport England. • Agree market rate £0.15m of overhead provision for the subsidiary company. • Create a plan for generating £1m commercial income. • Create a plan to fill £0.4m funding gap. 3. Begin the formal process to appoint a Chairperson of the NGB for a 4 year term. His/her immediate role should be to: • Implement the recommendations in this report in its entirety. • Oversee the reform of the NGB. • Appoint a CEO to the NGB. • Put in place a systematic performance management framework within the NGB. • Outline a remuneration approach to incentives and reward staff performance. 4. Establish a quarterly report by the NGB CEO to Sport England and UK Sport on the implementation of this plan. 5. Sport England to make available funds totalling £300k to initiate implementation of the recommendations of this report.
  18. 18. 18 3.The Case for Investing in Basketball Mallin Basketball review report Main Report 3.The Case for Investing in Basketball 3.1 Basketball today It is hugely popular in Europe,the Americas,Australasia Basketball is played by and Asia.As of August 2006,the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) had 213 member federations,and is more people than any now responsible for a sport that has more than 400 million players world-wide. other sport in the world Whilst we estimate that the number of unaffiliated players paints a more positive picture (see Figure 3) participation except football. in England,at 25,000 registered players,is significantly below that of other team sports such as hockey 85,000 and netball 59,000 as well as its peers in Europe (Italy,France,Spain and Germany).
  19. 19. Mallin Basketball review report 3.The Case for Investing in Basketball 19 Figure 3: % UK adults participating in Sport at least once a month 2005 Source:Sport England 2006 In addition England lacks the club network of our European peers.It has less than 10-20% of the number of clubs compared with France,Italy or Germany and our facilities are also substantially less available and affordable. Figure 4: Relative basketball participation:France,Italy,Germany,Spain and England. Sources:France,Italy data from EB Accounts 2005-06,Germany and Spain data from Sport England,all countries population and GDP data from CIA World Fact Book 2006 Numbers (rounded up/down) Country Population GDP Registered Registered Unregistered per capita clubs/teams players players France 63 million US$30,100 4,545 409,000 1,650,000 Italy 58 million US$29,700 3,700 199,000 340,000 Germany 82 million US$31,400 2,000 197,417 5,000,000 Spain 40 million US$27,000 23,145 303,696 4,350,000 England 49 million US$31,400 7056 25,000 Unknown
  20. 20. 20 3.The Case for Investing in Basketball Mallin Basketball review report We have had some limited success most notably the 2006 Commonwealth Games where both England’s men’s and women’s teams won bronze medals,however: The international ranking of British teams is very low; England, the highest ranked home nation, is not ranked in the top 75 men’s teams or the top 64 women’s teams in the world7. • The professional game is,at present,considered to be largely irrelevant to the development of talented young British players who tend to look to Continental Europe/USA to progress their careers. • We have not accessed further ‘latent’talent in Great Britain.4 British men play in the NBA and others are contracted to professional teams in Europe. • 5 television broadcasters currently deliver basketball programming every week yet none feature British basketball as a core proposition;the sport is exceedingly attractive to television and also commercial sponsors/partners.The sport is popular with a target audience for basketball – males aged 16 to 24 - and current exposure is achieved with no promotion by the sport itself.This situation is unique in television. Figure 5: FIBA 2006 World Basketball Rankings FIBA ‘06 World Rankings Country Men Women Spain 3 8 Italy 7 46 France 8 5 Germany 9 35 GB > 75 > 64 6 Number affiliated in June 2006 (figure supplied by England Basketball). 7 Rankings published on the FIBA website December 2006
  21. 21. Mallin Basketball review report 3.The Case for Investing in Basketball 21 The Review Group’s belief is that,given the situation of basketball today and the large potential for the sport, “more can be achieved “more can be achieved through investing in the development of basketball than any other team sport in through investing in the UK”both in terms of elite performance and wider participation.This is based on the scale of improvement possible compared with European peers,the impact on the development of a range of social factors such as health benefits,and the time required to achieve significant improvement. basketball than any other team sport in the UK.” 3.2 The participation (grass roots and club) potential Basketball has a strong,relevant and inclusive image which makes growth in mass participation highly achievable.It is a sport that: It is a sport that: A rethink of the infrastructure (clubs and facilities) • Is easy to play and enjoy at any age. offers the opportunity to tap into missed • Is attractive to young people having strong links with growth opportunities fashion and music.Perhaps more than most other sports Access to facilities is a problem.Where facilities exist, it is equally attractive to boys and girls. availability of court space at peak times cost of court use • Has tremendous potential to help address health issues and cost to travel to both centres and competitions present such as youth obesity. additional and unnecessary constraints to participation. • Can create bonds and friendship across communities At dedicated centres (e.g.,Nottingham,Barrow and and assist in breaking down cultural and social barriers Manchester) the sport tends to thrive.Where basketball where they exist. is innovative and is ‘in the right place at the right time’ • Has 25,000 registered players,although the number of (e.g.,Newcastle) good access to school facilities can unaffiliated players is estimated to be considerably greater. underpin a strong participation structure and tap into youth (under 12’s included) and attract more girls and women. Strength in other sports will not necessarily constrain participation growth Appropriately directed and better resourced help from the Basketball has the potential to become a major participation NGB will make a great difference to struggling ‘would be’ sport in Great Britain,generating levels of involvement basketball players and local organisations. to match those achieved in Europe.Notwithstanding the stronger presence of other sports such as football,rugby and netball,there is no inherent cultural reason that explains why participation in basketball in this country is so much lower than our main European counterparts.For example, both Football and Rugby have comparable grass roots standing in countries where basketball is successful, such as France.
  22. 22. 22 3.The Case for Investing in Basketball Mallin Basketball review report Youth basketball at Jesse Boot Wildcats Arena in Bakersfield This is a dedicated,club managed,2-court basketball centre,in Nottingham We should step up our approach to working in We must ensure we have good partnerships where we miss strategic and implementation opportunities management and coordination Engagement with ‘unaffiliated’providers and operators particularly where new facilities appears to be limited.Through these there is an opportunity are already planned e.g.aligning to tap into further grass roots participation which is currently fragmented.We can do more with agencies with the Building Schools for the by increasing our regional and local presence,in particular Future programme for school linking into schools basketball activity and growing infrastructure renewal. the club base. If we join together many of the existing or planned efforts basketball can really deliver substantial value for money. 3.3The performance With extra funding and strong execution,this can be rapidly achieved.Sufficient performance funding from UK Sport can (elite and international level) potential also enable basketball to establish an elite player development It is widely believed that by removing specific barriers to programme and invest in senior British representative teams at national representation we have the potential to access a stock a level that has simply not been available before. of talented GB athletes from which successful national teams If we were to be represented by the very best British players can be produced.There are British players currently in the from around the world,there is every reason we could achieve NBA,the NCAA and others contracted to professional teams comparable world rankings to those of our European peers in Europe.There are high profile players keen to support within a relatively short timeframe and be successful on the British basketball and there has,as a result,never been a better Olympic stage in 2012.Putting this in perspective,France opportunity,on a number of fronts to: (silver medallists at the Sydney Olympics) has 4 NBA players • Achieve on-court success. and is ranked in the top 10 in the world. • Bolster the sport and attract world class competitions, For the past 20 years or so Britain has been identified within e.g.European championships in 2013 and World the basketball world as the country that will sooner or later tap Championships in 2014. into the exceptionally high level of talent available.There is a • Develop British heroes to not only inspire new players real opportunity to improve GB’s international performance but also encourage the retention of talented players who and like other countries,attract significant investment and may otherwise drop out of the sport. income at elite performance levels.Staging the 2012 Olympic Games gives basketball an opportunity to qualify for the final stages of the Olympics for the first time since 1948.
  23. 23. Mallin Basketball review report 4. Challenges 23 4. Challenges There is clear alignment on the key success factors for the sport.Although stakeholders consider all these areas important for the development of the sport they have rated some as ‘very important’,helping to prioritise future efforts (see figure 6). Figure 6: Key success factors for basketball. Source:Online Basketball Survey 2006, Mercer Delta Consulting
  24. 24. 24 4. Challenges Mallin Basketball review report While acknowledging the hard work of the existing These challenges are described in the following administration to put EB back on a sound financial three sub-sections: footing and progress made in other areas,the Review 1.Organisation – Strategic direction, Group assessment is that it has not overcome all the organisational capability,role and governance barriers limiting the growth and development of the sport.Many challenges remain in most of these areas. 2.Participation – Facilities,coaches,clubs, competitions and partnerships 3.Performance – Elite performance and the professional league 4.1 Organisation As stated earlier some progress has been made in the last few years.The sport has a vision in published plans and EB is now more financially stable.However,despite this the overall vision for basketball is neither well understood nor bought into. The Review Group’s assessment,based on results from both the consultation and survey,is that the current organisation of basketball is unsuitable on many fronts (see figure 7).The wider basketball community has reservations about the capacity of EB in its present form (and of the other bodies:notably BBL) to take the sport forward.Too many issues exist in relation to the structure and governance of basketball.To address these issues and meet the challenges ahead a change to the constitution,powers, scope and obligations of the governing body is vital. Figure 7: Source:Online Basketball Survey Please indicate the extent you agree or disagree with 2006,Mercer Delta Consulting each of the following statements as a description of Notes:Percentages are based on England Basketball. those expressing an opinion (‘Don’t Knows’are excluded). Those responding ‘neither/nor’ are not shown here.
  25. 25. Mallin Basketball review report 4. Challenges 25 Factionalism and “infighting”within basketball has clearly been a major hindrance to progress and there is also a perception that EB and BBL sometimes Management and co-ordination is hampered by the put their own self interests above the wider interests of fact that different facets of the sport - the,coaches, the sport.Two further specific organisational issues were BBL,independent leagues and camps – are managed, highlighted in the consultation and review process: and operate,separately.The perception is that EB has • The lack of focus on commercial capability not focused on this wide range of interests in the best within the existing organisation to maximize interests of basketball as a whole.The NGB needs to be revenue from commercial sources. responsible for driving,developing and improving all • A lack of ‘corporate influence’with aspects of basketball.Accountability can thus be improved. Government,business and other key national, This is the third review of the sport commissioned since regional and local agencies. 2000.Weak execution and the lack of a strong performance culture have not resolved many of the key blockages to Both of these shortcomings have weakened basketball. progress covered in this report.The governing body’s work These challenges could be rectified via amended Board must be better targeted,adequately resourced,properly composition and improved staff skills.Recruitment measured and assessed. mechanisms for new board members (to EB) must be improved upon and be transparent.Staffing structures Given the task that the NGB will face to build the sport, and job roles,as presently configured,are also not sufficient a substantially increased budget will be needed. to address these challenges.New skills and additional staff are required to take the sport to a higher level. 4.2 Participation There are many challenges in English basketball today that affect grass roots participation.Key amongst these are: • Facilities • Coaches • Clubs • Competitions • Partnerships Access to affordable facilities was (by some distance) considered to be the most important issue in the online survey (see figure 6) .
  26. 26. 26 4. Challenges Mallin Basketball review report Facilities Un-coordinated management of public sector facilities and Access to affordable facilities was (by some distance) poor partnership between basketball and local authorities, considered to be the most important issue in the online trusts and private contractors that manage them,makes it survey (see figure 6).This is supported by views gained more difficult for them to accommodate existing clubs, in the consultation process.Facilities are essential to and support the development of new facilities. the growth of the sport. Coaching In England,3,763 courts are located in 3,473 sport halls Availability of well trained,motivated coaches,operating across 3,392 facilities8.Most secondary schools in England at the right level,in the right locations with the right players have an indoor court although quality and availability is essential to increasing participation,retaining players and varies.There is some evidence of basketball gaining access feeding elite programmes. to further education and university facilities. The co-ordination and distribution of coaches is limited Schools’facility stock should improve as a result of BSF and the organisation has not been effective in making and over the next 15 years,schools without indoor courts the required fundamental improvements.Whilst there is should get one and most of the remainder will be rebuilt concern for coaching we also still lack the ability to or upgraded.Notwithstanding whole sport plan statements, optimise impact in priority areas such as inner cities via basketball is pursuing a productive strategy to gain and the targeted allocation of staff and resources. retain use of appropriate facilities.This fundamentally affects the viability and sustainability of clubs and the growth of the sport as a whole. There is still very limited access to basketball facilities for competition,training and player development: • Many clubs cannot secure programme time in facilities for training/competition. • Regional/national squads are unable to gain appropriate access to affordable facilities. • Some commentators suggest that there is a shortage of suitable arena venues for the accommodation of the professional game and international matches. Figure 8: Source:Online Basketball Survey 2006, Quality rating of teaching and coaching in UK basketball Mercer Delta Consulting 8 Data from Sport England Active Places
  27. 27. Mallin Basketball review report 4. Challenges 27 Commentators at all levels confirm that the quality Clubs and availability of coaches at club level across the A strong,sustainable club base (outside of school) is vital country is inconsistent and affecting the sustainability to the provision of basketball for players of all abilities and quality of basketball: and is the key to training and developing the most gifted. However,the club base of basketball is limited and,in the • Qualified coach presence in schools and SSPs,and the main,is unable to provide the required natural progression number of qualified basketball coaches working in for young people from school.The affiliated9 club base of education would appear to be small. the sport is re-building from a low ebb,three years ago. • There appears to be only a limited number of As of March 10 2007,Basketball has 65 Clubmark10 clubs basketball qualified CSCs. and several professional league clubs have achieved • At higher levels of performance,many national squad Clubmark status11. coaches work on a voluntary basis.There are few elite coaches and full time coaches are a rare commodity. Figure 9: The sport has no clear policy on coaching or coach EB ‘affiliated’club distribution development: • There is no elite coach identification and development programme.Processes to qualify new,and develop the skills of existing,coaches are inadequate e.g.coach qualification is not linked to affiliation,thus restricting capacity to communicate with coaches and manage their development, allocation and availability. • There are options to gain paid employment as a coach in a range of environments.This is,however,not linked to the governing body in the context of quality control, accreditation and continuous improvement. • There is a lack of career structure for basketball coaching, despite employment opportunities.There is also a lack of coaches with significant international experience. Figure 10: The BCA is not considered to be particularly effective and EB ‘Clubmark’club distribution review responses confirm that its relationship with EB is strained.There is some confusion across the sport about which agency manages what for coaches.There is no structure to develop or manage links between coaches operating at a high level (with professional teams or national squads) and those working at other levels in the context of skills,techniques and styles of play. Sources:England Basketball 2006 9 Affiliated clubs are those that have ‘joined’the governing body but are not accredited against Clubmark criteria 10Clubmark clubs are those which have been accredited under 4 specific criteria to prove they are safe,effective and child friendly 11As of December 2006 – source England Basketball
  28. 28. 28 4. Challenges Mallin Basketball review report Where clubs exist they do not have capacity or struggle to Competition gain access to facilities.It is no surprise that in England, Competitions are not sufficiently comprehensive to make basketball has a much smaller club base than other sports. it easy or affordable for clubs in enough areas to compete. It has,for example,just 23% of the number of affiliated Club competition clubs/teams of netball. The quality of club competition at adult and junior levels However,the comparison is most stark alongside is variable and in some areas of the country and age groups European basketball peers: it is relatively low.In order to increase the attractiveness of the sport to both young people and adults we need to • England has just 16% of the number of registered clubs build a system which reduces travel times and which builds and 7% of the number of registered players involved in upon demonstrated interest in central venue leagues to the sport compared with France 12. raise and sustain participation.We must also strengthen the • Compared with Italy,England has 19% of the number processes by which competition structures can play a role of registered clubs and 11% of the players.In England in providing platforms to spot the talented.Competition many clubs are simply single teams whose viability structures must be reviewed and strengthened to provide /sustainability is in some cases questionable.They tend attractive,affordable options for players,of all ages and not to have capacity to support development and there levels.Particular attention needs to be paid to improving is a significant issue related to those that can cater for competition opportunities for girls and women. young people,especially those less than 12 years of age. Club-based options for girls are even scarcer and this Schools competition worrying fact is borne out by evidence of a decline in School competition structures must be reviewed and the number of women’s national league clubs. strengthened.Basketball in schools must be better orchestrated,promoted and supported to ensure that a Best practice can be gleaned from some successful clubs comprehensive,quality offer is made to young players, and this should provide a basis on which to transform the of both gender,all ages and levels of ability. current club landscape: • Clubs that operate from,or have regular affordable Officials access to,their own,or a sympathetically managed and The general consensus of opinion is that little has programmed,indoor facility,tend to thrive;Manchester been done (or certainly achieved) in the context of Magic and Mystics and Nottingham Wildcats are increasing the number of officials over recent years. testament to this.Programmes operated by professional The review survey and consultation indicated a clear clubs for example Milton Keynes Lions,Westfield need to increase the numbers and quality of referees Sheffield Sharks and Newcastle Eagles;demonstrate and table officials in the sport. that they can be effective in supporting the development of new clubs for young people. • Some clubs operating in inner-city areas (e.g.,Brixton Top Cats) prove that the sport can attract and retain young players from such areas.It also helps to demonstrate how talented players can be helped to take a step onto the player pathway. Source:Online Basketball Survey 2006, Mercer Delta Consulting Figure 11: Rating of Officials in UK basketball Officials are an important part of the game and without the requisite number,operating at the right level,having benefited from the right training,the quality of the sport at both recreational and competitive levels will decline. 12Even allowing for the fact that the population of England is 82% of France
  29. 29. Mallin Basketball review report 4. Challenges 29 Partnerships National agencies Overall,partnership opportunities within basketball To promote the sport effectively,basketball leaders must exist but the track record of collaboration is poor. work closely with key national agencies such as DCMS, The consultation and online survey highlighted basketball’s Sport England,UK Sport,YST and programmes such as limited effectiveness to date in working with regional and Sportsmatch to overcome strong negative perceptions. local parties.This has severely hampered the ability to The visibility and presence of basketball as a major national drive participation and performance effectively. sport needs to be raised.Its credibility must be rebuilt • ‘Regional visibility and presence’is poor e.g.there are because the perceived present status of basketball,and too few regional development staff. relationships between basketball bodies,has dented • There is low awareness of the vision/strategy for the sport partners’confidence in the sport’s capacity to deliver. amongst the regional and local partnership community. Regional agencies and CSPs • There are relatively few productive relationships with Comparable sports find that the value of regional potential partners in local authorities,SSPs,further and associations in advocacy and volunteer input outweighs higher education. the time absorbed attending (and to an extent servicing) • Basketball has been slow to get involved in nationally voluntary regional committees.There would,therefore, driven programmes (e.g.the ‘competition managers’ appear to be sufficient rationale to justify implementing a resource going into SSPs.) process that reinvigorates the English regional associations. • Basketball is only providing limited input to CSP work The sport does not currently work sufficiently closely with in a number of areas,including facilities access, CSPs to widen its base and develop opportunities for girls, SSPs/schools,coach training and development and local people from areas of deprivation and the BME community. competition structures. CSPs are well-placed to support work on Clubmark, • The number of schools that register with ESBBA has, club development and coach qualification.Furthermore since 2000-01,varied from 359 to 455 (423 this year). the sport lacks a clear and cohesive strategy for staff to This is just 10-12% of the number of state secondary drive its development at regional and local levels. schools in England.Some informal,local inter-school This should include: competition occurs. • Transmission of the vision for the sport to regional arms of national agencies and throughout the Three major challenges emerge across all the Delivery System for Sport. partnership areas: • Regional staff to ‘sell’the sport to key partners,broker • Too many agencies in ‘the basketball marketplace’ communication and collaborate on specific projects have detracted from EB’s capacity to present itself as and programmes. the ‘face of ’,or the ‘gateway to’,the sport in England. • Being able to offer specific expertise about BSF to ensure • Partnerships are not effectively managed to share that local basketball interest is effectively represented. vision and deliver regionally and locally • Limited player pathways.There are too few visible, SSPs and schools accessible opportunities for players to progress from It is vital that basketball is underpinned by a strong presence participation at school and/or clubs to higher levels in primary and secondary schools.Effective routes for of performance.Better coordination of effort by EB young players into the sport are essential to its future. of partnerships in basketball is needed to ensure a Most secondary schools in England have indoor courts clear pathway from grass roots to higher and elite and,in some,basketball has a strong presence.The sport’s performance levels. availability in primary and junior schools is much more limited.The survey and consultation confirms that: A number of partnerships are discussed in more • Relatively few teachers enter the profession detail below: (at primary or secondary level) able to teach/coach • National agencies basketball at an adequate standard. • Regional agencies and CSPs • There is little by way of formal communication about • SSPs and schools the sport with/to schools. • Other ‘unaffiliated’providers and operators
  30. 30. 30 4. Challenges Mallin Basketball review report • Work to date has had little impact on the presence Examples include: and strength of basketball in SSPs/schools. • Nike Midnight Madness.This operates primarily in • The sport’s capacity to intervene and promote the sport London and claims to have a player database of 46,000 in SSPs/schools is restricted by the size and effectiveness people and to have signed 11,000 new members in of its regional development workforce. summer 2006 alone. • Streetball.co.uk.This community programme is thought • For girls,basketball is insufficiently available as an to have had considerable success engaging with the hard alternative to,for example,netball,which has a relatively to reach,unregistered basketball fraternity. strong presence in both primary & secondary schools. • The Greater ManchesterYouth Basketball (Amaechi) For boys,basketball is more widely available but,apart from Centre.This accommodates and supports participation in schools where teachers have specific interest,is still often and development of the game in Manchester.It is home secondary to other sports. to the competitively successful Manchester Magic and Other ‘unaffiliated’ providers and operators Manchester Mystics men’s and women’s clubs. A substantial level of ‘unaffiliated’basketball takes place. • Bucknall Essential Skills Basketball Camps.These are Participation in the sport,as officially recorded by EB, internationally acknowledged to offer well-structured thus underestimates its presence and significance, environments to develop elite players (boys/ girls U18). particularly in key inner-city areas. • A number of other providers operate commercially successful basketball camps across the UK. There are independent operators about whom more is known,but they tend to work alongside rather than with the governing body(s) to develop the sport. The latest Nike Midnight Madness competitions

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