Man and death(Groupwork Summer)


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Man and death(Groupwork Summer)

  1. 1. The Four Fears How Philosophydeals with theFear of DeathThe Concept ofImmoralityMAN AND DEATH
  2. 2. But first, What is Death? Death is the permanent cessation of all biologicalfunctions that sustain a living organism. Death happens when life ends. Death is the cessation of consciousness.
  3. 3. Death can also be associated with the Grim Reaper:
  4. 4. And skulls..And tombstones…
  5. 5. The Four Fears
  6. 6. 1. The Fear of DeathWhen people say that they fear death, it is reallynot death itself they fear but rather: Physical process of death• Psychological process of deathThe fear of pain and physical agonyPsychological torment of letting go andleaving behind everything and the onethey love
  7. 7. 2. Fear of PunishmentPeople fear after death actually harboranxieties about one particular possible set ofevents that they fear might happen after theirbodily deaths. These are people who believe inlife after death and anticipated divine moral dayof judgment, along with its accompanyingpunishment for what they have done in this life.
  8. 8. 3. Fear of the UnknownOne of the most common forms of human fear isthe fear of the unknown. The fear is related to ourdeep need to feel in control. When we know what isgoing on, we can feel some sense of control over ourenvironment or our own fortunes, however accurate ordelusory that sense might be. The unknown allows forno sure plans or reasonable expectations.
  9. 9. 4. Fear of annihilationThis is the fear of death that gives manycontemporary men night terrors. They find themselvessuddenly aware that they will inevitably face death,and that what they will confront may in fact be the totalcessation of conscious experience, the annihilation ofa person they have been, forever.
  10. 10. How PhilosophyDeals With the Fearof Death
  11. 11. The Stoic Response It tackles the fear of the process of dying. “Life could never dish out to us, and make usendure, more than we were capable of taking.” –Seneca, Epictetus, M. Aurelius At a certain point, the pain is too intense that we loseunconsciousness and no longer suffer. Suicide as a means on ending non-endurablesuffering. “God, or nature, will never force us to bear on thisearth what we cannot in fact endure.”
  12. 12. The Natural Process Argument Death is just natural; therefore, it should not befeared. It should be accepted. The process of dying and the state of death,according to naturalists, are just parts of life ornature.
  13. 13. The Necessity ArgumentDeath is important to… The appreciation of life. The cherishing of every bitof moment. Evolutionary improvement, as generations comeand go, a more valuable state of good will be presenton earth.
  14. 14. The Agnostic Argument Syllogistically speaking, It is wrong (inappropriate or irrational) to fearsomething unless you know that it can harm you. You don’t know that the state of death can harm you. Therefore, it is wrong to fear the state of death.• The process of dying will hurt but will be limited.• Death is eternal and unknown. It could be great or not.• Our attitudes and emotions should not be easily swayedgiven how little we know about death.
  15. 15. The Two Eternities Argument Before we were born, we were just a part of a non-existent eternity, which doesn’t obviously hurt ordeprive us. After we die, we’ll be again part of that non-existenteternity. These two eternities are congruent, so our state ofdeath will be similar to our state before living. So, why fear death, when we actually haveexperience the eternity past? 
  16. 16. Epicurus’ Argument When you exist, your death does not, and what doesnot exist can’t harm you. When your death exists, you do not, and what doesnot exist cannot be harmed. It is irrational to fear what can’t harm you. It is irrational to fear when you can’t be harmed. At any time, either you exist or your death exists. Thus, for any time either death can’t harm you, oryou can’t be harmed by death. Therefore, it is irrational at any time to fear death.
  17. 17. Reflection or Thoughts For a long time, people haven’t exactly reached aprecise argument regarding Death and Dying. Even with all these, philosophies, some people areunmoved and are still have that fear of death. Death is more likely a conundrum than a train ofthought.
  18. 18. Philosophers who believe that death is the end,because they do not believe that there is any such thinas soul or incorporeal mind to survive bodily death,have offered up their own concepts of immortality tohelp reconcile us to our physical demise. These are notconcepts of the immortality of the soul, or of anycontinuation into the future offered as something likeconsolations to which we can cling.
  19. 19. The following discussions lookat the most standard:1. Social Immortality2. Cultural Immortality3. Cosmic immortality4. Scientific immortality
  20. 20. SocialImmortalityThis conceptbelongs to people thatwhen they die, they will liveon in their children. This isa belief that we can leavesomething of ourselvesbehind when we die,throughout geneticoffspring.
  21. 21. Cultural ImmortalityThis relates with people who would like toachieve immortality through their artistic works.
  22. 22. Cosmic ImmortalityPeople who belong to this group usually saywhen they die, "I want to be cremated and my ashesbe spread out in the forest, because when mymolecules can enter the earth, and then enter theplants and the animals who feed on those plants, and Iwill be disbursed, spread around to the point that,ultimately, I will be blended in with the universe, andhave a sort of cosmic immortality.".
  23. 23. Scientific ImmortalityThis is certainly the most interesting, because itis only one to address our desire to live on, not just inmemories of others, in the products of our work, or inour molecules, but with conscious experience. Here,we want to live on as a person, not just an influence.
  24. 24. -With the modern medical advancements, we can preserve ourlooks and be "better/younger" physiologically in contrast withour chronological age.-Surgery and transplant have extended many peoples lives farbeyond what they would otherwise have been.-The rise of Cryonics ( practice of freezing dead in hopes thatonce medical science has come out to understand how toreverse their condition, they can be thawed out to new andendless life)- Rise of generation of computers which will be able ofsupporting all the contents of neural system.