The chairman, and members of the board, I say good morning. It is interesting to see the picture of a mouse on the screen, and we all know how mischievous this little thing can be. For the next few minutes, I would be taking you through a technological innovation named mouse mischief.
The need for this technological innovation is not far-fetched. In developed and developing countries, the issue of the student-to-computer ratio has been a herculean task. In public or government-owned schools, the issue of affordability or meeting the technology need of every student is still beyond reach. Technology integration into classroom instruction is part of the NCLB act. There is a need to devise means for students’ access to technology in a most cost effective way.
The quest to meet the need of the populace led to the invention of this innovation. In keeping with the global mission of Microsoft Research, their research labs are engaged in cutting-edge basic and applied research, in multiple fields such as computing, information technology and related areas. In addition to innovating and contributing key technologies to Microsoft products, the research labs collaborated with a wide range of scientific and academic institutions, to advance the state of the art in computing research worldwide. This mouse mischief innovation was solely from Microsoft using their Windows Multipoint Technology. Windows MultiPoint technology is a simple, cost-effective way for more students and teachers to gain access to the latest technology, improving learning and helping students prepare to compete in a global economy.
In the development process, the target audience is the education sector, teachers and students. This work was done while MoravejiNeema was at Microsoft Research Asia in Beijing, China along with other researchers. They came up with development of technical solution that would provide each student with a mouse and a cursor on the screen. More information on the work is on this website (http://moraveji.org/projects_med.html).
Microsoft Mouse Mischief is an add-in to Microsoft Office Powerpoint 2010 and 2007, the presentation program by Microsoft that is part of the Microsoft Office system. It runs on the Microsoft Windows operating systems Windows XP SP3, Windows Vista and Windows 7. The innovation is free for teachers and can be downloaded from Microsoft website.
According to Rogers (2003), the innovation-decision process is the process through which an individual passes from the stage of knowledge of an innovation to persuasion toward the innovation, to decision of adoption or rejection, to implementation of innovation, and confirmation.
The process consists of five stages: knowledge, the exposure of an individual to the innovation’s existence and gains, an understanding of how it functions. Persuasion, when the individual forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation. Decision, when the individual engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation. Implementation, when the individual puts an innovation into use. Confirmation, when the individual seeks reinforcement for an innovation-decision already made but may reverse the decision if exposed to conflicting messages about it.
Mouse Mischief is an add-in for Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 and Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 that allows teachers to create and play multiple-mouse lessons that students interact with on a single display, individually or in teams, by using their own mice. The requirements are a computer system, PowerPoint and mice.
A PowerPoint plug-in, which allows a teacher to create interactive classroom lessons. A tool to allow students to interact with their lessons by using individual mice. A way to improve classroom management and overall student participation.
You can use Mouse Mischief to create yes/no slides or multiple choice question slides for students, to answer by clicking the right answer with their mice, and then you can display the results pane to show them how well they did. You can also create polling slides with no predefined correct answers. For students, drawing slides can be created to cross out, circle, or color in answers, draw lines to match objects, and create new drawings or complete old ones. You can set a timer to have students race to see who can finish an activity first. Additionally, you can play lessons in Team mode, where all students in a team need to work together and agree on the right answer, while racing against other teams. Mouse Mischief can be used in various ways to make lessons very engaging. The only limit is your imagination! A click on this picture shows a video clip of how it works.
It involves ease of use and accessibility; embedded in a productivity programs as add-in; 21st Century learning tool; and use of interactive boards for display. Currently, whiteboards can be used only to display Mouse Mischief content; there is no input integration between Mouse Mischief and interactive whiteboards.
The following points can help us make a decision faster than expected. It has a free download; Affordability; Cost effective and Ease of adoption.
Implementation process involves teachers creating digital lessons; Interactive Environment; Active participation and Engaging.
Confirmation is through the Teacher/Student interaction; Shared content and Team work.
The entire innovation decision process for us would be within a short period. Our access to basic skills would aid the implementation, and we can confirm the effectiveness at the end of term. As early adopters, the timeline will be short and effective in all classes.
Though, there are no research studies to show the precise timeline for this innovation. The following was culled from Microsoft Partner in learning, and the lead researcher websites. 2008 – Knowledge Add-in to PowerPoint 2007 and 2010 2008 – Persuasion- Decision 2009 - Decision-Implementation 2009 – Confirmation
We now want to consider the communication channels. A communication channel is the means by which a message gets from a source to a receiver. It could be Interpersonal or mass media. Cosmopolite or localite sources. Mass media channels are means of transmitting messages that involve a mass medium such as radio, television and others. It enables a source of one or few individuals to reach an audience of many. Interpersonal channels involve a face-to-face exchange between two or more individuals. Cosmopolite channels are relatively more important at the knowledge stage, and localite channels are more important at the persuasion stage in an innovation decision process.
The innovation was widely spread through mass media using the internet, via blogs, wikis and varied learning communities. The other avenues are at the annual Microsoft Innovative Education Forum in various countries and through regions of developing countries.
According to Rogers (2003), rate of adoption is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system. The adoption of an innovation usually follows a normal, bell-shaped curve when plotted over time on a frequency basis (Rogers, 2003).
An early overview is shown in this video clip.
The rate of growth can be viewed on this short clip.
The countries listed on this slide show the growth trend across the globe both in developed and developing countries.
The data used for this S-curve might not be exact as there are no research studies on this tool. The peak of the adoption of this tool is yet to be attained, as such the S-curve is not well pronounced. The s-curve would have been more accurate when valid data from studies on the adoption is used. However, the use of this innovation is yet to reach its peak.
This picture depicts a normal technology adoption life cycle with a conspicuous S-curve.
At this point, permit me to say as an organization we are the innovator. According to Rogers (2003), we need to play a gate-keeping role in the flow of new ideas into a system. The salient value of an innovator is venturesome. We should be ready to take the rash, daring, and precarious position. This might be necessary to fulfill our mission in building effective learning communities using technology. We should not lag behind when we come across innovations that could add value to our mission.
The five perceived attributes of innovations are relative advantage, the level to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes; compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters. Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use; trialability is the level to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis and observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. These attributes are positively related to the rate of adoption of an innovation (Rogers, 2003).
A focus on the relative advantage is the cost effectiveness and ease of acquisition. The use of this innovation would help us reach out to our local communities where the affordance of computer systems has been impossible. The cost of acquiring 20 systems to set up a lab is enormous. At the same time, the cost of just one computer per class for teacher’s use is not effective. Considering the provision of interactive whiteboard, a computer system and several mice would give every child in the classroom an opportunity to interact with the system. We can use this attribute to convince the rural schools to adopt this innovation. Furthermore, the power consumption is at a reduced rate, and alternate power such as solar or fuel generators can be used.
The early adopters are the schools that would imbibe this innovation after convincing them on the relative advantage in terms of cost, ease of use, acquisition and low power consumption.
Not all the schools would imbibe the innovation at the same time. Some might want to observe the positive impact. We need to convince this set of schools and educators. They are referred to as the laggards.
The Laggards often refer to their past and their decision are based on what have been done previously. Their resistance is as a result of limited resources and fear of failure of an innovation (Rogers, 2003).
Some schools and educators need to be convinced before imbibing an innovation. We need to apply attributes, such as observability, trialability and compatibility to draw them closer.
Observability is the degree to which the result of an innovation is visible to others. The laggards only believe when they see. They would only adopt when they observe the positive impact on adopters. This often reduces the rate of diffusion. They are always comfortable with experiences and only can be convinced through the observability.
Reaching out to all the schools, the perceived attributes that would be employed are relative advantage, trialability and observability. This would be the critical mass. These attributes are relevant in the diffusion approach of the use of mouse mischief in the classroom. It would help the rate of adoption by potential adopters. The peak of adoption of the innovation can be attained.
The importance of allowing schools/educators to control the innovation as local innovators is crucial as the needs in the various communities where we have interventions differ. For a buy-in, we need to allow grassroots’ participation portraying them as the local innovators. Centralized diffusion systems flow from the top-down, from experts to users. Decentralized diffusion systems are client controlled, with a wide sharing of power and control among the members of the diffusion system (Rogers, 2003). We need to consider a decentralized system.
The decentralized diffusion system fits closely with users’ needs and problems. Users feel a sense of control as they participate in decision making, such as problems that need attention; the innovation that best meet their needs; seek information and modifications as the innovation is being implemented. Users motivation to seek innovations and self-reliance (Rogers, 2003). These advantages ensure a fast rate of adoption in communities that do not simply imbibe technology or change.
We, as an organization should be a key change agent. We would need to consider some of our pathfinder schools as change agents. With their achievement, they can convince other schools within their vicinity. Our senior trainers and champions would take the innovation to various schools and discuss it at their level. The effort of our senior trainers and champions in training others has made a significant impact in some communities. We might need to focus on them as our key change agents by selling this idea to them.
Having identified schools as key change agents within their communities, we need to take them through the basis of the innovation. On this premise, we can be classified as change agent when we perform roles tailored toward adoption. Our DAAGTEA as Change Agent Develop a need for change in each community Ascertain regular information exchange relationship Analyze problems as it relates to each community Generate plans for change Turn plans to actions Establish adoption of innovation and sustainability Attain everlasting relationship with the community
How we attain critical mass is important. Critical mass occurs when enough people within a social system have adopted an innovation, so that further adoption do not require persuasion, but would be self-sustaining (Rogers, 2003). In an earlier slide, I suggested relative advantage, trialability, and observability as attributes we can use to get schools and educators buy-in. The point when most schools within the communities have adopted the idea without persuading others before they adopt would be the critical mass for this innovation. I am sure we can achieve this with minimal effort, especially where our champions are the opinion leaders in their schools.
Our experience with ANC program that was introduced six years ago is exemplary. Our ability to identify champions in the program led to a tremendous increase in the number of educators that adopted the program. To support this new program, we would introduce the innovation to our champions and senior trainers within the system. Give incentives and awards to best schools and educators that have adopted the innovation.
To buttress why we need this innovation called mouse mischief, the challenges of some of the earlier innovations introduced to the schools is a source of concern. The • Cost of acquisition • Sustainability due to lack of fund • Student ratio to computers • High consumption of power • Fear of technology use However, the use of this innovation would overcome these challenges.
We are champions when it comes to technology integration into classroom. Our mission of reaching all learners irrespective of challenges must be met. We must offer holistic solutions to meet every community problems. Create effective positive social change in our schools. Bring hope to reality in the lives of less privileged children.
The envisioned positive change is outlined as follows • Create 21st century learners • Access to technology at low cost • Collaboration • Team work and interactivity • Provide effective learning community
In conclusion, qualitative education in a nation is reaching out to all learners through diverse means of learning irrespective of their background, culture, and ethnics. We must reach out to all learners in various communities, use of technology in the classroom to enhance teaching and learning is important. We are not there until we get there and bring succor to those less privileged children. We have been doing it, but we need to move faster, and keep abreast of newer technologies. I want to say thank you for your attention and in anticipation for your sign-off on this laudable innovation.
Mouse mischiefTechnological Innovation
Technology innovation is theprocess through which newtechnologies are developedand brought into widespreaduse
IDENTIFIED NEEDThe identifiedneed was thehigh student-to-computer ratioin many schools
RESEARCHMicrosoftResearchers Research was carried out in India and China Research funded by Microsoft
They came up withDevelopment Process development of Neema Moraveji technical solution thatTarget Audience would provide eachEducation Sector student with a mouseStudents and Teachers and a cursor on the screen (http://moraveji.org/projects_med.html)
Free for teachersAdd-in with MicrosoftPowerPoint
Innovation Decision ProcessThe innovation-decision process is theprocess through which an individual passesfrom the stage of knowledge of aninnovation to persuasion toward theinnovation, to decision of adoption orrejection, to implementation of innovation,and confirmation.
Innovation Decision Process Stages Knowledge Persuasion Decision Implementation Confirmation
Knowledge What is Mouse Mischief?Computer PowerPoint Mouse set
A PowerPoint plug-in thatallows teacher to createinteractive classroom lessonsA way to improve classroommanagement and overallstudent participation
Implementation• Teachers create digital lessons• Interactive Environment• Active participation• Engaging SAMPLE LESSONhttp://office.microsoft.com/en- us/templates/mouse-mischief-types-of-angles- TC010391027.aspx?redir=0
Confirmation• Teacher/Student interaction• Shared content• Team work
School Timeline The entire Our access to We can confirm innovation basic skills thedecision process would aid the effectiveness atwould be within implementation the end of term a short period.
Innovation Timeline• 2008 – Knowledge• add-in to PowerPoint 2007 and 2010• 2008 – Persuasion- Decision• 2009- Decision-Implementation• 2009 – Confirmation For more information, visit http://moraveji.org/
Communication Channels A communication channel is the means by which a message gets from a source to a receiver. • Interpersonal or mass media • Cosmopolite or localite sources
Mouse Mischief channels of communication• The innovation was widely spread through mass media using the internet, via blogs, wikis and varied learning communities.• At the annual Microsoft Innovative Education Forum in various countries• Through regions of developing countries
Adoption of an Innovation• Rate of Adoption• S-Curve
Early OverviewAn overview of how the innovation started by the innovatorhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8 Jt2HBDJE0
Growth Short video clip on how the innovation has matured moving from one country to anotherhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q W3c1QHvSqc
Maturing across the globeSeveral schools in the following countries have adopted the use of mouse mischiefIndia Kenya UgandaChina Jordan EgyptThailand Nigeria GhanaUSA South Africa VietnamNorway Indonesia BrazilSpain Lesotho TaiwanTurkey Morocco Hong Kong
S-Curve Rate of Adoption of Mouse Mischief 60Number of Nations adopting Mouse Mischief 50 40 30 20 10 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Year
Who Are We?The innovators Playing a gate-keeping role in the flow of new ideas into a system (Rogers, 2003)
Roles of Change AgentsD • Develop a need for change in each communityA • Ascertain regular information exchange relationshipA • Analyze problems as it relates to each communityG • Generate plans for changeT • Turn plans to actionsE • Establish adoption of innovation and sustainabilityA • Attain everlasting relationship with the community