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TLS0070 Introduction to
Legal Technology
Lecture 7 Applications III
decision support, prediction,
automation, self-service
University of Turku Law School 2015-02-17
Anna Ronkainen @ronkaine
anna.ronkainen@onomatics.com
Decision support
Decision support
-  using technology to create consistency and
efficiency in the judiciary, legal aid etc.
-  structured approach: gives a checklist for
what to consider but may also limit
discretion
Non-computerized example:
US sentencing guidelines
-  introduced on the federal level in 1984, also
used on state and local level
-  initially considered binding for judges
-  43 offence levels, 6 categories for criminal
history; up/downward departures from the
table allowed when special circumstances
-  US v. Booker (2005): mandatory guidelines
violated constitutional right to trial by jury
-  now no longer binding, but judges still have to
give reasons when deviating from the guidelines
Computerized example 1:
Previous record in criminal sentencing
-  Israeli prototype system for research
purposes (see Schild & Kannai 2005)
-  rule-based system based on knowledge
elicitation from experienced judges
-  supports two different approaches for
sentencing: utilitarian and desert-based
(Schild and Kannai 2005)
Computerized example 2:
Rechtwijzer
-  developed at HiiL for Dutch legal aid
-  an integrated platform for decision support,
originally for marital disputes:
-  problem diagnosis
-  automatic guidance
-  communications + ODR, based on the Modria
platform
-  final review by a lawyer
-  a similar project mainly for the decision support
part: Split Up (from Australia, see Bellucci &
Zeleznikow 2005)
(Bellucci & Zeleznikow 2005)
(Rechtwijzer demo)
Not just for judges (or even lawyers):
Today’s obligatory TrademarkNow slides
-  risk meter as decision support for trademark
applicants
-  trademark lawyers obviously know better,
but what about general counsel?
-  everything based on a model of likelihood of
confusion for trademark pairs (basically
decision support for opposition cases), used
as basis for relevancy ranking and risk
analysis
Predictive analytics
Predictive analytics
-  using data about past cases to predict the
future
-  “The prophecies of what the courts will do
in fact, and nothing more pretentious, are
what I mean by the law.” – Oliver Wendell
Holmes (1897)
-  potential for a wealth of approaches, but
we’re only just getting started...
Example: Lex Machina
-  Stanford CS+Law research project spin-off,
founded in 2010
-  “Moneyball for lawyers”
-  predictive analytics to support patent
litigation, basically looking into everything
else except the actual merits of the case
Legal Analytics® by Lex Machina,
for example:
-  patent portfolio characteristics
-  litigation frequency
-  duration of trial
-  likelihood of settling
-  patent troll non-practicing entity?
-  opposing counsel characteristics
-  assigned judges’ characteristics
-  decision history: pro-plaintiff or pro-
defendant
Legal automation and
self-service
Legal self-service, or
DIY law
-  nothing fundamentally new: books with sample
contracts have been available for ages, and
bookstores even sold ready contract templates
-  online platforms help you with selecting the
right document type and give support for filling
the appropriate information
-  providers for example:
-  LegalZoom
-  Rocket Lawyer
-  avtal24 / agreement24
(commercial break: http://www.agreement24.com )
Typical offerings
-  company incorporation
-  corporate filings, tax work
-  trademark and patent filings
-  compliance filings
-  wills and trusts
-  prenuptial agreements
-  real estate leases and deeds
-  often also related services of a lawyer are
available from the same provider (typically for
an additional fee)
Something completely
different: machine translation
Is this a legal technology?
-  traditionally legal translation one of the
most demanding (and best paid) types of
translation work available
-  legal translations have to be extremely
accurate, but legal concepts in different
languages carry all the semantic baggage of
their “home” legal systems
-  so what on earth could machine translation
possibly have to do with it?
Well, it kind of is...
-  one of the big issues for the new European
Unitary Patent were translations
-  in the old European patent system,
applications had to be translated manually to
languages of all designated jurisdictions
-  no more: English/French/German (plus a second
language for a transitional period) is enough
-  for non-Anglophones, there’s Patent Translate
-  additional manual translations may still be
needed in court cases
Patent Translate
-  machine translation specifically adapted for
translating patent documents
-  based on Google Translate: collaboration
between Google and EPO
-  now complete, to/from English for 31
languages, to/from French and German for
27 languages
-  http://www.epo.org/searching/free/patent-translate.html
-  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjPBUvRegZE
Questions?

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Introduction to Legal Tech: Decision Support, Prediction and Automation

  • 1. TLS0070 Introduction to Legal Technology Lecture 7 Applications III decision support, prediction, automation, self-service University of Turku Law School 2015-02-17 Anna Ronkainen @ronkaine anna.ronkainen@onomatics.com
  • 3. Decision support -  using technology to create consistency and efficiency in the judiciary, legal aid etc. -  structured approach: gives a checklist for what to consider but may also limit discretion
  • 4. Non-computerized example: US sentencing guidelines -  introduced on the federal level in 1984, also used on state and local level -  initially considered binding for judges -  43 offence levels, 6 categories for criminal history; up/downward departures from the table allowed when special circumstances -  US v. Booker (2005): mandatory guidelines violated constitutional right to trial by jury -  now no longer binding, but judges still have to give reasons when deviating from the guidelines
  • 5.
  • 6. Computerized example 1: Previous record in criminal sentencing -  Israeli prototype system for research purposes (see Schild & Kannai 2005) -  rule-based system based on knowledge elicitation from experienced judges -  supports two different approaches for sentencing: utilitarian and desert-based
  • 8. Computerized example 2: Rechtwijzer -  developed at HiiL for Dutch legal aid -  an integrated platform for decision support, originally for marital disputes: -  problem diagnosis -  automatic guidance -  communications + ODR, based on the Modria platform -  final review by a lawyer -  a similar project mainly for the decision support part: Split Up (from Australia, see Bellucci & Zeleznikow 2005)
  • 11. Not just for judges (or even lawyers): Today’s obligatory TrademarkNow slides -  risk meter as decision support for trademark applicants -  trademark lawyers obviously know better, but what about general counsel? -  everything based on a model of likelihood of confusion for trademark pairs (basically decision support for opposition cases), used as basis for relevancy ranking and risk analysis
  • 12.
  • 14. Predictive analytics -  using data about past cases to predict the future -  “The prophecies of what the courts will do in fact, and nothing more pretentious, are what I mean by the law.” – Oliver Wendell Holmes (1897) -  potential for a wealth of approaches, but we’re only just getting started...
  • 15. Example: Lex Machina -  Stanford CS+Law research project spin-off, founded in 2010 -  “Moneyball for lawyers” -  predictive analytics to support patent litigation, basically looking into everything else except the actual merits of the case
  • 16. Legal Analytics® by Lex Machina, for example: -  patent portfolio characteristics -  litigation frequency -  duration of trial -  likelihood of settling -  patent troll non-practicing entity? -  opposing counsel characteristics -  assigned judges’ characteristics -  decision history: pro-plaintiff or pro- defendant
  • 18. Legal self-service, or DIY law -  nothing fundamentally new: books with sample contracts have been available for ages, and bookstores even sold ready contract templates -  online platforms help you with selecting the right document type and give support for filling the appropriate information -  providers for example: -  LegalZoom -  Rocket Lawyer -  avtal24 / agreement24 (commercial break: http://www.agreement24.com )
  • 19. Typical offerings -  company incorporation -  corporate filings, tax work -  trademark and patent filings -  compliance filings -  wills and trusts -  prenuptial agreements -  real estate leases and deeds -  often also related services of a lawyer are available from the same provider (typically for an additional fee)
  • 21. Is this a legal technology? -  traditionally legal translation one of the most demanding (and best paid) types of translation work available -  legal translations have to be extremely accurate, but legal concepts in different languages carry all the semantic baggage of their “home” legal systems -  so what on earth could machine translation possibly have to do with it?
  • 22. Well, it kind of is... -  one of the big issues for the new European Unitary Patent were translations -  in the old European patent system, applications had to be translated manually to languages of all designated jurisdictions -  no more: English/French/German (plus a second language for a transitional period) is enough -  for non-Anglophones, there’s Patent Translate -  additional manual translations may still be needed in court cases
  • 23. Patent Translate -  machine translation specifically adapted for translating patent documents -  based on Google Translate: collaboration between Google and EPO -  now complete, to/from English for 31 languages, to/from French and German for 27 languages -  http://www.epo.org/searching/free/patent-translate.html -  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QjPBUvRegZE