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Cranial and spinal nerve


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Nursing NAIHS

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Cranial and spinal nerve

  2. 2. Sensory ReceptorsSensory Receptors Motor EndingsMotor Endings Cranial NervesCranial Nerves The Four PlexusesThe Four Plexuses ExtremitiesExtremities Peripheral Nervous System
  3. 3. Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs: 2 attach to forebrain (Tel- & Diencephalon) 10 attach to brainstem (Mes-, Met- and Myelencephalon) Names relate to appearance or function Classification Origin Destination
  4. 4. Olfactory Nerve (CN-I) C: Sensory O: Olfactory Epithelium in nasal cavity D: Olfactory bulbs (by way of cribriform plate of ethmoid) Only CN directly attached to Cerebrum
  5. 5. Optic Nerve (CN- II) C: Sensory O: Retina D: by way of optic foramen of sphenoid to Diencephalon (optic chiasma) and to occipital lobe
  6. 6. Oculomotor (CN III) C: Motor O: Mesencephalon D: Somatic motor to superior, inferior, medial recti and inferior oblique; visceral motor to intrinsic eye muscles by way of superior orbital fissure
  7. 7. Trochlear (CN IV) C: Motor O: Mesencephalon D: superior oblique muscle by way of superior orbital fissure
  8. 8. Trochlear Nerve (N IV) Oculomotor (CN III)Oculomotor (CN III) Lateral view
  9. 9. Trigeminal (CN V) C: Mixed three major branches 1. Ophthalmic (sensory) 2. Maxillary (sensory) 3. Mandibular (mixed) O: face / nuclei of pons D: sensory nuclei in pons / muscles of mastication
  10. 10. Abducens (CN VI) C: Motor O: Pons D: Lateral rectus eye muscle
  11. 11. Facial (CN VII) C: Mixed O: sensory from taste receptors of anterior 2/3 of tongue / motor from pons D: Sensory to sensory nuclei of pons / motor muscles of facial expression, visceral motor to tear gland.
  12. 12. Facial (CN VII), cont’d Bell’s Palsy
  13. 13. Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) • C: Sensory • O: Receptors of inner Ear • D: Nuclei in Pons and medulla oblongata • AKA acoustic nerve
  14. 14. Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII)
  15. 15. Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) C: mixedC: mixed O: sensory from posteriorO: sensory from posterior 1/3 of tongue / motor from1/3 of tongue / motor from medulla oblongatamedulla oblongata D: medulla / muscles forD: medulla / muscles for swallowing, parotid glandswallowing, parotid gland
  16. 16. Vagus (CN X) C: Mixed O: Sensation from pharyngeal area and outer ear / motor from medulla D: Sensory to medulla / visceral (autonomic) motor to thoracic and abdominal cavities and their organs. Major motor pathway for ANS Most important Cranial Nerve!
  17. 17. Accessory (CN XI) AKA Spinal Accessory C: Motor O: Motor nuclei of medulla and spinal cord D: Swallowing, Trapezius & SCM Hypoglossal (N XII) C: Motor O: Motor nuclei of medulla D: Tongue musculature
  18. 18. CN XII CN XI
  19. 19. Spinal Nerves • Sensory & Motor • Through Intervertebral Foramina • Dermatomes
  20. 20. 4 Principal4 Principal PlexusesPlexuses A blend, or network, of nerve fibers from several spinal roots. Cervical, includes Phrenic N. Brachial Lumbar Sacral
  21. 21. Cervical PlexusCervical Plexus PhrenicPhrenic nervenerve -- innervatesinnervates diaphragmdiaphragm
  22. 22. Brachial PlexusBrachial Plexus
  23. 23. Nerves of Arm Musculocutaneous nerve – innervates biceps and brachialis muscles Median nerve - innervates lateral flexors Ulnar nerve - innervates medial flexors Radial nerve - innervates forearm extensors
  24. 24. Lumbar Plexus Femoral Nerve Lumbosacral Trunk (to Sciatic Nerve) Obturator Nerve
  25. 25. SacralSacral PlexusPlexus
  26. 26. Nerves of the LegNerves of the Leg •Sciatic N.Sciatic N. •Thickest and LongestThickest and Longest •Branches to Tibial andBranches to Tibial and Fibular NervesFibular Nerves •Femoral N.Femoral N. •Posterior aspect of legPosterior aspect of leg
  27. 27. Narrow lumbar diskNarrow lumbar disk spaces result inspaces result in pressure on spinalpressure on spinal rootsroots L-5 T-12
  28. 28. The white oval is a postsurgical cyst or abscess
  29. 29. Shingles • Varicella-zoster virusVaricella-zoster virus ( of herpes family) • In dorsal root ganglia & cranial nerves • Initial infection: chicken pox