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JCB 55Z-1 COMPACT EXCAVATOR Service Repair Manual (Kohler Engine).pdf

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SERVICE MANUAL
55Z-1, 57C-1
EN - 9813/6450 - ISSUE 1 - 03/2016
This manual contains original instructions, verified by
the manufacturer (or their authorized representative).
Copyright 2016 © JCB SERVICE
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may
be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any other means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise,
without prior permission from JCB SERVICE.
www.jcb.com
Foreword
The Operator's Manual
You and others can be killed or seriously injured
if you operate or maintain the machine without
first studying the Operator's Manual. You must
understand and follow the instructions in the
Operator's Manual. If you do not understand
anything, ask your employer or JCB dealer to
explain it.
Do not operate the machine without an Operator's
Manual, or if there is anything on the machine you
do not understand.
Treat the Operator's Manual as part of the machine.
Keep it clean and in good condition. Replace the
Operator's Manual immediately if it is lost, damaged
or becomes unreadable.
Contents
01 - Machine
03 - Attachments and Options
06 - Body and Framework
09 - Operator Station
12 - Heating, Ventilating and Air-
Conditioning (HVAC)
15 - Engine
18 - Fuel and Exhaust System
21 - Cooling System
27 - Driveline
30 - Hydraulic System
33 - Electrical System
72 - Fasteners and Fixings
75 - Consumable Products
78 - After Sales
15 - Engine
42 - Rocker and Fittings
00 - General
15 - 143 9813/6450-1 15 - 143
00 - General
Introduction .................................................. 15-143
Component Identification ............................. 15-144
Operation ..................................................... 15-145
Check (Condition) ........................................ 15-146
Remove and Install ..................................... 15-146
Disassemble and Assemble ........................ 15-149
Introduction
The rocker assembly is an indirect valve actuating
system consisting of rocker arms and a shaft.
The rocker arm is an oscillating lever that conveys
radial movement from the cam lobe into linear
movement at the poppet valve to open it. One end is
raised and lowered by a rotating lobe of the camshaft
via a tappet and push rod while the other end acts
on the bridge piece which is connected to the valve
stem.
15 - Engine
42 - Rocker and Fittings
00 - General
15 - 144 9813/6450-1 15 - 144
Component Identification
Figure 196.
B
E
D
A
C
A Rocker arm shaft B Rocker arm distancing spring
C Rocker arm shaft support D Exhaust rocker arm
E Intake rocker arm
Figure 197.
F
J
G
K
H
L
F Rocker arm body G Hydraulic tappet oil refill line
H Valve tappet lubrication line J Valve tappet
K Hydraulic tappet L Oil flow line
15 - Engine
42 - Rocker and Fittings
00 - General
15 - 145 9813/6450-1 15 - 145
Operation
When the camshaft lobe raises the push-rod, the
push-rod pushes the rocker arm up. Due to this the
rocker arm presses down on the valve stem to open
the valve. When the rocker arm returns due to the
camshafts rotation, the valve spring closes the valve.
Lubrication
Oil is fed from the main gallery through a drilling
which passes up through the crankcase and cylinder
head to a small transfer gallery under the rocker
shaft pedestal. The oversize rocker shaft fixing bolt
hole allows oil to pass into a drilling in the centre of
the rocker shaft. Further cross drillings transfer oil
to each of the rocker pivot bushes. A cross drilling
in each rocker transfers oil to the top of the rocker
where it flows by gravity along a groove to the rocker
tip.
Figure 198.
1 Main gallery 2 Small transfer gallery
3 Shaft pedestal 4 Rocker shaft fixing bolt hole
5 Centre rocker shaft drilling 6 Cross drillings
7 Rocker pivot bushes 8 Cross drilling
9 Groove
15 - Engine
42 - Rocker and Fittings
00 - General
15 - 146 9813/6450-1 15 - 146
Check (Condition)
1. Check the rocker shaft and rocker bushings for
signs of damage and excessive wear. Measure
the rocker shaft diameter and rocker bearing
bushes to confirm they are within service limits,
refer to Technical Data (PIL 15-42). Note: The
rocker bearing bushes are not renewable. If
a rocker bearing bush is damaged or worn
the rocker must be renewed as a complete
assembly.
2. Make sure that all oil-ways and cross drillings in
the rocker shaft and pedestals are clear and free
from debris. Use an air line to blow through cross
drillings.
Remove and Install
Before Removal
1. Make sure that the engine is safe to work on. If
the engine has been running, let it cool before
you start the service work.
2. Get access to the engine.
3. Disconnect and remove the fuel pipes from the
fuel injectors. Refer to (PIL 18-96).
4. Remove the rocker cover. Refer to (PIL
15-42-06).
Remove
1. Remove the rocker shaft fixing screws.
Figure 199.
B
A
C
A Rocker shaft fixing screw (x3)
B Rocker arm assembly
C Cylinder head
2. Make sure that you keep all the fixing screws in
their original positions.
3. Lift the rocker arm assembly from the cylinder
head completely.
15 - Engine
42 - Rocker and Fittings
00 - General
15 - 147 9813/6450-1 15 - 147
Figure 200.
B
C
B Rocker arm assembly
C Cylinder head
4. Lift off the valve bridge pieces from the pairs of
inlet and exhaust valves.
Figure 201.
D
E
D Valve bridge (x6)
E Push rod (x6)
5. Remove the push rods from the crankcase.
Before Installation
1. Make sure that all items are clean and free from
damage and corrosion. If components within the
rocker assembly are damaged or worn.
2. Make sure that all oilways and cross drillings in
the cylinder head, rocker shaft and pedestals are
clear and free from debris. Use an air line to blow
through the cross drillings.
3. Use a suitable degreasing agent to clean the top
of the cylinder head.
Install
1. Replacement is the reversal of the removal
procedure.
2. Insert the push rods into the crankcase. Make
sure that they engage with the camshaft tappets.
Figure 202.
E
E
F
E Push rod
F Camshaft tappet
3. Install the bridge pieces on to the pairs of inlet
and exhaust valves in the cylinder head.
Figure 203.
D
D
C
C Cylinder head
D Valve bridge
4. Align the rocker arm assembly on a level surface.
15 - Engine
42 - Rocker and Fittings
00 - General
15 - 148 9813/6450-1 15 - 148
5. Make sure you install the rocker arm assembly
on the cylinder head with respect to the plug and
the holder.
Figure 204.
E
H
E Push rod
H Plug
Figure 205.
G
B
B Rocker arm assembly
G Holder
6. Make sure that the rocker arm assembly is
seated properly on the push rod.
7. Make sure that you put the crankshaft gear key
in the position as shown to avoid the rocker arm
rod bending at the time of tightening the fixing
screws.
Figure 206.
J
J Gear key
8. Put the rocker arm fixing screws and tighten the
screws in the sequence shown.
Figure 207.
A
B
2
3
1
A Rocker shaft fixing screw (1-3)
B Rocker arm assembly
9. Tighten the screws to the correct torque value.
After Installation
1. Measure and adjust the valve clearances. Refer
to (PIL 15-30).
2. Install the rocker cover. Refer to (PIL 15-42-06).
3. Install and connect the fuel pipes to the fuel
injectors. Refer to (PIL 18-96).
Table 64. Torque Values
Item Nm
A 25
15 - Engine
42 - Rocker and Fittings
00 - General
15 - 149 9813/6450-1 15 - 149
Disassemble and Assemble
Before Disassembly
1. Remove the rocker cover. Refer to (PIL 15-42).
2. Remove the rocker assembly. Refer to (PIL
15-42).
Disassemble
1. Remove the retainer ring.
Figure 208.
C
D
B
A
A Discharge rocker arm
B Hydraulic tappet
C Retainer
D Shoulder ring
2. Remove the shoulder ring.
3. Remove the rockers and the holders from the
rocker shaft.
Figure 209.
A
G
E
F
A Discharge rocker arm
E Rocker shaft
F Holder
G Holder 1
4. Label the rockers and the holders to make sure
that they are installed in the correct positions on
assembly.
5. Remove the tappets from the rocker.
Figure 210.
B A
A Discharge rocker arm
B Hydraulic tappet
6. Check (Condition) of the rocker arm assembly for
signs of damage and excessive wear. Refer to
(PIL 15-42).
Assemble
1. Assembly is the reversal of the disassembly
procedure.
2. Install the tappets into the rocker arm.
2.1. Insert the tappets into to the hydraulic
tappet insertion pliers.
2.2. Fill the chamber of the tappet with oil.
2.3. Put the pad on the tappet.
Figure 211.
A
B
H
J
A Discharge rocker arm
B Hydraulic tappet
H Chamber
J Pad
2.4. Position the rocker arm in the pliers.
2.5. Push the tappet through the rocker arm,
using the pliers, until the tappet is properly
inserted.
3. Lubricate the rocker shaft with clean engine oil.
15 - Engine
42 - Rocker and Fittings
00 - General
15 - 150 9813/6450-1 15 - 150
4. Install the rocker arms in the correct position, turn
the rocker shaft with the lower height towards the
timing gear system side.
5. Put the lock ring into the seat of the rocker shaft.
Figure 212.
D
C
C
E
L
K
E
C Retainer
D Shoulder ring
E Rocker shaft
K Seat
L Rocker shaft lower height
6. Position the fixing screw support surface facing
upwards.
7. Put the two shoulder rings on the rocker shaft.
8. Sequentially put the suction rocker arm, the
holder and the discharge rocker arm on the
rocker shaft.
Figure 213.
F
D
C A
N
G
M
E
A Discharge rocker arm
C Retainer
D Shoulder ring
E Rocker shaft
F Holder
G Holder 1
M Spring
N Suction rocker arm
9. The discharge rocker arm is shorter than the
suction rocker arm.
10. install the spring on the rocker shaft.
11. Do the steps 8 and 10 for all the remaining rocker
arms.
12. Install the holder 1 with the last pair of rocker arm
towards the flywheel.
13. The spring makes sure that the holder and the
holder 1 are kept in place.
14. Make sure that the rockers are installed in their
original positions along the rocker shaft.
15. Put the shoulder rings and the lock ring to lock all
the components on the rocker shaft.
After Assembly
1. Install the rocker assembly. Refer to (PIL 15-42).
2. Install the rocker cover. Refer to (PIL 15-42).
15 - Engine
45 - Oil Sump
00 - General
15 - 157 9813/6450-1 15 - 157
00 - General
Introduction .................................................. 15-157
Technical Data ............................................. 15-158
Component Identification ............................. 15-158
Remove and Install ..................................... 15-159
Introduction
The lubrication system is supplied by the oil sump
that forms the lower part of the engine. Oil is
taken from the sump by the gear pump and it is
passed through an oil filter. The oil is then delivered
under pressure through a system of passages drilled
through the engine.
15 - Engine
45 - Oil Sump
00 - General
15 - 158 9813/6450-1 15 - 158
Technical Data
Table 65.
Oil sump type Wet
Oil sump capacity 7.5L
Component Identification
Figure 214.
A
A Oil Sump
15 - Engine
45 - Oil Sump
00 - General
15 - 159 9813/6450-1 15 - 159
Remove and Install
Oil
Oil is toxic. If you swallow any oil, do not induce
vomiting, seek medical advice. Used engine oil
contains harmful contaminants which can cause skin
cancer. Do not handle used engine oil more than
necessary. Always use barrier cream or wear gloves
to prevent skin contact. Wash skin contaminated with
oil thoroughly in warm soapy water. Do not use petrol,
diesel fuel or paraffin to clean your skin.
CAUTION! It is illegal to pollute drains, sewers
or the ground. Clean up all spilt fluids and/or
lubricants.Used fluids and/or lubricants, filters and
contaminated materials must be disposed of in
accordance with local regulations. Use authorised
waste disposal sites.
CAUTION! Oil will gush from the hole when the drain
plug is removed. Keep to one side when you remove
the plug.
Before Removal
1. Get access to the engine.
2. Drain the engine oil, refer to (PIL 15-00)
Refer to: Engine > General > General > Drain and
Fill (Page 15-17).
Remove
1. Remove the screws that attach the oil sump to
the bedplate.
2. Insert plates in the areas shown by the arrows.
Figure 215.
D
E
E
E E
D Oil sump
E Plate insertion areas
3. Lift the plates to remove the oil sump.
4. Remove the remaining sealant from the oil sump
and bedplate contact surfaces.
5. Remove the screws that attach the oil intake
pipe.
6. Remove the oil intake pipe and the gasket.
Discard the gasket.
Figure 216.
G
H
F
F Screw
G Oil intake pipe
H Gasket
7. Remove the oil vapour pipes.
Figure 217.
J
J Oil vapour pipes
Install
1. Apply Loctite 648 on the threads of the oil vapour
pipes.
2. Install the oil vapour pipes.
3. Put a new gasket in the seat of the oil intake pipe.
4. Attach the oil intake pipe onto the bedplate with
the screws.
5. Tighten the screws to the correct torque value.
6. Make sure that the oil sump is clean and free from
contamination.
7. Make sure that the contact faces on the oil sump
and bedplate are clean.
15 - Engine
45 - Oil Sump
00 - General
15 - 160 9813/6450-1 15 - 160
8. Apply a bead of sealant (Loctite 5660) on the oil
sump contact surface to the specified thickness.
Dimension: 2.5mm
Figure 218.
K
K
M
L
K Mounting studs
L Screw
M Sealant application surface
9. Install the mounting studs to help you to position
the oil sump.
10. Put the oil sump on the bedplate. Make sure that
the screw holes are aligned.
11. Strictly follow the torque tightening sequence.
Tighten the screws to the correct torque value.
Figure 219. Torque Sequence
10 11 12 13
14
18
17
16
15
20 19
4 3 2
6
5
7
8
9
1
12. After you tighten all of the screws, loosen screw
no.1 and tighten again to the correct torque
value.
13. Clean and install the drain plugs with a new O-
ring. Tighten the plug to the correct torque value.
14. Through one of the filler points, fill the engine with
the recommended oil to the MAX mark on the
dipstick.
15. Wipe off any spilt oil, install the filler cap and
make sure it is secure.
16. Operate the engine, until the oil pressure low
warning light has extinguished.
17. Check for oil leakage.
18. When the oil has cooled, check the oil level
again, and if necessary top up with clean engine
oil.
Table 66. Torque Values
Item Nm
B 35
F 10
L 25
15 - Engine
45 - Oil Sump
03 - Drain Plug
15 - 161 9813/6450-1 15 - 161
03 - Drain Plug
Remove and Install
Oil
Oil is toxic. If you swallow any oil, do not induce
vomiting, seek medical advice. Used engine oil
contains harmful contaminants which can cause skin
cancer. Do not handle used engine oil more than
necessary. Always use barrier cream or wear gloves
to prevent skin contact. Wash skin contaminated with
oil thoroughly in warm soapy water. Do not use petrol,
diesel fuel or paraffin to clean your skin.
CAUTION! It is illegal to pollute drains, sewers
or the ground. Clean up all spilt fluids and/or
lubricants.Used fluids and/or lubricants, filters and
contaminated materials must be disposed of in
accordance with local regulations. Use authorised
waste disposal sites.
Remove
Drain the oil when the engine is warm as
contaminants held in suspension will then be drained
with the oil.
1. Gain access to the oil sump.
2. Place a container of suitable size below the drain
plug.
3. Remove the oil filler cap.
Figure 220.
A
A Oil filler cap
CAUTION! Oil will gush from the hole when the
drain plug is removed. Keep to one side when
you remove the plug.
4. Remove the oil sump drain plug and O-ring. Let
the oil drain out.
Figure 221.
B C
B Drain plug
C O-ring
Install
1. Clean and install the drain plug with a new O-ring.
2. Tighten the plug to the correct torque value.
3. Through one of the filler points, fill the engine with
the recommended oil to the MAX mark on the
dipstick.
4. Wipe off any spilt oil, install the filler cap and
make sure it is secure.
5. Operate the engine, until the oil pressure low
warning light has extinguished.
6. Check for oil leakage.
7. When the oil has cooled, check the oil level
again, and if necessary top up with clean engine
oil.
Table 67. Torque Values
Item Nm
B 35
15 - Engine
45 - Oil Sump
09 - Dipstick
15 - 162 9813/6450-1 15 - 162
09 - Dipstick
Check (Level)
1. Remove the engine oil dipstick.
2. Make sure that the oil level is at the MAX mark
on the dipstick.
3. If the oil level is below the required quantity, fill
the engine with the recommended oil through the
oil filler point.
Figure 222.
A
A Oil filler cap
Figure 223.
E
F
D
D Dipstick
E Maximum level mark
F Minimum level mark
15 - Engine
45 - Oil Sump
10 - Dipstick Pipe
15 - 163 9813/6450-1 15 - 163
10 - Dipstick Pipe
Remove and Install
Before removal
1. Make sure that the engine is safe to work on. If
the engine has been running, let it cool before
you start the service work.
2. Get access to the engine.
Remove
1. Remove the screw.
2. Pull out the oil dipstick pipe in the direction of the
arrow.
Figure 224.
A
B
C
A Dipstick
B Dipstick pipe
C Screw
Install
1. Put the new gasket on the seat of the pipe.
Figure 225.
B
E
D
B
B Dipstick pipe
D Seat
E Gasket
2. Attach the oil dipstick pipe to the crankcase with
the screw.
Figure 226.
B
C F
B Dipstick pipe
C Screw
F Manifold
3. Tighten the pipe on the manifold.
4. Check the gaskets are correctly installed.
Figure 227.
G
B
A
A Dipstick
B Dipstick pipe
G Gasket
5. Put the dipstick into the pipe.
After installation
1. Start the engine and check for any leakage.
15 - Engine
48 - Grid Heater
00 - General
15 - 166 9813/6450-1 15 - 166
Diagram
Grid heater link harnesses are used for the earth and
power supply for the grid heater.
Figure 229.
A
B
A Fuse
B Grid heater
Remove and Install
Remove
1. Make the machine safe. Refer to (PIL 01-03).
2. Let the engine cool.
3. Get access to the engine intake manifold.
4. Remove the bolts and washers to remove the
earth cable and the intake hose. Refer to Figure
230.
5. Remove the intake hose with the flange that
connect to the grid heater. Refer to Figure 230.
6. Remove the grid heater with the gaskets from the
intake manifold. Refer to Figure 230.
Figure 230.
B
C
D
E
F
E
A
B
A
G
H
J
A Intake manifold
B Bolts
C Washers
D Intake hose with flange
E Gaskets
F Grid heater
G Earth cable
H Washer
J Bolt
6.1. The grid heater has two gaskets, attached
above and below the heater. Refer to Figure
230.
Install
1. Installation is the opposite of the removal
procedure.
2. If the grid heater is removed or replaced, always
replace the gaskets with the new.
3. Install the grid heater and intake hose with the
flange to the intake manifold.
3.1. Tighten the bolts to the correct specified
torque value.
Torque: 25N·m
15 - Engine
48 - Grid Heater
00 - General
15 - 167 9813/6450-1 15 - 167
4. Use the bolts and washers to install the earth
cable.
15 - Engine
51 - Timing Gear
00 - General
15 - 169 9813/6450-1 15 - 169
00 - General
Introduction .................................................. 15-169
Component Identification ............................. 15-170
Check (Condition) ........................................ 15-172
Remove and Install ..................................... 15-172
Introduction
The timing gears are located inside a casing at the
front end of the engine.
The engine must be timed so that the camshaft
operates the valves at the correct time relative to the
crankshaft position.
Valve timing is achieved by ensuring that the
camshaft drive gear is meshed to the crankshaft gear
at their correct angular positions, refer to Engine-
General, Operation, The Four Stroke Cycle (PIL
15-00) for more information about valve timing.
15 - Engine
51 - Timing Gear
00 - General
15 - 170 9813/6450-1 15 - 170
Component Identification
Figure 231.
E
B
A
F
D
C
A Crankshaft B Camshaft
C Crankshaft gear D Intermediate gear
E Camshaft gear F Fuel injection pump gear
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15 - Engine
51 - Timing Gear
00 - General
15 - 171 9813/6450-1 15 - 171
Figure 232.
A
F
G
E
J
H
D
C
A Crankshaft D Intermediate gear
E Camshaft gear F Fuel injection pump gear
G Intermediate gear pin H Phonic wheel positioning reference pin on
camshaft
J Camshaft phonic wheel
15 - Engine
51 - Timing Gear
00 - General
15 - 172 9813/6450-1 15 - 172
Check (Condition)
1. Inspect the gears for wear or damage. If one or
more of the gears are worn or damaged, replace
them.
2. Measure the backlash of the gears with a feeler
gauge. Refer to Figure 233.
Figure 233.
3. Make sure that the backlash is within the
specified limits. Refer to Technical data (PIL
15-51).
3.1. If the backlash measurement is greater than
the maximum, install new gears. Refer to
(PIL 15-51).
Remove and Install
Remove
1. Make sure that the engine is safe to work on. If
the engine has been running, let it cool before
you start the service work.
2. Get access to the engine.
3. Remove the timing gear front case. Refer to (PIL
15-51-21).
4. Remove the nut that attaches the high pressure
fuel pump gear to the pump shaft.
Figure 234.
B
A
A High pressure fuel pump gear
B Nut - Fuel pump gear
5. Install the pump gear removal tool on the thread
of the gear.
Figure 235.
C
C Pump gear removal tool
6. Remove the high pressure fuel pump. Refer to
(PIL 18-18-15).
15 - Engine
51 - Timing Gear
00 - General
15 - 173 9813/6450-1 15 - 173
Figure 236.
D
D High pressure fuel pump
7. Remove the high pressure fuel pump gear.
8. Remove the screws that attach the phonic wheel
to the camshaft gear.
9. Remove the phonic wheel.
10. Remove the bolt that attaches the camshaft gear.
11. Remove the camshaft gear.
Figure 237.
E
J
G H
F
L
K
E Screw - Phonic wheel
F Phonic wheel
G Bolt - Camshaft gear
H Camshaft gear
J Lock ring
K Shoulder ring
L Intermediate gear
12. Remove the lock ring and the shoulder ring from
the intermediate gear.
13. Remove the intermediate gear from the support.
14. Remove the screws that attach the intermediate
gear support.
15. Remove the shoulder ring and the intermediate
gear support.
Figure 238.
N
P
M
M Screw - Intermediate gear support
N Shoulder ring
P Intermediate gear support
Install
1. Make sure that the key is correctly installed on
the camshaft.
2. Put the camshaft gear on the camshaft. The key
seat on the gear must align with the key on the
shaft.
3. Attach the camshaft gear with the bolt. Do not
torque tighten at this stage.
Figure 239.
R
F
G
H E
S
Q
E Screw - Phonic wheel
F Phonic wheel
G Bolt - Camshaft gear
H Camshaft gear
Q Camshaft
R Camshaft key
S Reference pin
4. Put the reference pin on the camshaft gear.
5. Put the phonic wheel on the camshaft gear.
6. Attach the phonic wheel with the screws. Do not
torque tighten at this stage.
7. Replace the gasket on the intermediate gear
support.

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  • 1. SERVICE MANUAL 55Z-1, 57C-1 EN - 9813/6450 - ISSUE 1 - 03/2016 This manual contains original instructions, verified by the manufacturer (or their authorized representative). Copyright 2016 © JCB SERVICE All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any other means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without prior permission from JCB SERVICE. www.jcb.com Foreword The Operator's Manual You and others can be killed or seriously injured if you operate or maintain the machine without first studying the Operator's Manual. You must understand and follow the instructions in the Operator's Manual. If you do not understand anything, ask your employer or JCB dealer to explain it. Do not operate the machine without an Operator's Manual, or if there is anything on the machine you do not understand. Treat the Operator's Manual as part of the machine. Keep it clean and in good condition. Replace the Operator's Manual immediately if it is lost, damaged or becomes unreadable. Contents 01 - Machine 03 - Attachments and Options 06 - Body and Framework 09 - Operator Station 12 - Heating, Ventilating and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) 15 - Engine 18 - Fuel and Exhaust System 21 - Cooling System 27 - Driveline 30 - Hydraulic System 33 - Electrical System 72 - Fasteners and Fixings 75 - Consumable Products 78 - After Sales
  • 2. 15 - Engine 42 - Rocker and Fittings 00 - General 15 - 143 9813/6450-1 15 - 143 00 - General Introduction .................................................. 15-143 Component Identification ............................. 15-144 Operation ..................................................... 15-145 Check (Condition) ........................................ 15-146 Remove and Install ..................................... 15-146 Disassemble and Assemble ........................ 15-149 Introduction The rocker assembly is an indirect valve actuating system consisting of rocker arms and a shaft. The rocker arm is an oscillating lever that conveys radial movement from the cam lobe into linear movement at the poppet valve to open it. One end is raised and lowered by a rotating lobe of the camshaft via a tappet and push rod while the other end acts on the bridge piece which is connected to the valve stem.
  • 3. 15 - Engine 42 - Rocker and Fittings 00 - General 15 - 144 9813/6450-1 15 - 144 Component Identification Figure 196. B E D A C A Rocker arm shaft B Rocker arm distancing spring C Rocker arm shaft support D Exhaust rocker arm E Intake rocker arm Figure 197. F J G K H L F Rocker arm body G Hydraulic tappet oil refill line H Valve tappet lubrication line J Valve tappet K Hydraulic tappet L Oil flow line
  • 4. 15 - Engine 42 - Rocker and Fittings 00 - General 15 - 145 9813/6450-1 15 - 145 Operation When the camshaft lobe raises the push-rod, the push-rod pushes the rocker arm up. Due to this the rocker arm presses down on the valve stem to open the valve. When the rocker arm returns due to the camshafts rotation, the valve spring closes the valve. Lubrication Oil is fed from the main gallery through a drilling which passes up through the crankcase and cylinder head to a small transfer gallery under the rocker shaft pedestal. The oversize rocker shaft fixing bolt hole allows oil to pass into a drilling in the centre of the rocker shaft. Further cross drillings transfer oil to each of the rocker pivot bushes. A cross drilling in each rocker transfers oil to the top of the rocker where it flows by gravity along a groove to the rocker tip. Figure 198. 1 Main gallery 2 Small transfer gallery 3 Shaft pedestal 4 Rocker shaft fixing bolt hole 5 Centre rocker shaft drilling 6 Cross drillings 7 Rocker pivot bushes 8 Cross drilling 9 Groove
  • 5. 15 - Engine 42 - Rocker and Fittings 00 - General 15 - 146 9813/6450-1 15 - 146 Check (Condition) 1. Check the rocker shaft and rocker bushings for signs of damage and excessive wear. Measure the rocker shaft diameter and rocker bearing bushes to confirm they are within service limits, refer to Technical Data (PIL 15-42). Note: The rocker bearing bushes are not renewable. If a rocker bearing bush is damaged or worn the rocker must be renewed as a complete assembly. 2. Make sure that all oil-ways and cross drillings in the rocker shaft and pedestals are clear and free from debris. Use an air line to blow through cross drillings. Remove and Install Before Removal 1. Make sure that the engine is safe to work on. If the engine has been running, let it cool before you start the service work. 2. Get access to the engine. 3. Disconnect and remove the fuel pipes from the fuel injectors. Refer to (PIL 18-96). 4. Remove the rocker cover. Refer to (PIL 15-42-06). Remove 1. Remove the rocker shaft fixing screws. Figure 199. B A C A Rocker shaft fixing screw (x3) B Rocker arm assembly C Cylinder head 2. Make sure that you keep all the fixing screws in their original positions. 3. Lift the rocker arm assembly from the cylinder head completely.
  • 6. 15 - Engine 42 - Rocker and Fittings 00 - General 15 - 147 9813/6450-1 15 - 147 Figure 200. B C B Rocker arm assembly C Cylinder head 4. Lift off the valve bridge pieces from the pairs of inlet and exhaust valves. Figure 201. D E D Valve bridge (x6) E Push rod (x6) 5. Remove the push rods from the crankcase. Before Installation 1. Make sure that all items are clean and free from damage and corrosion. If components within the rocker assembly are damaged or worn. 2. Make sure that all oilways and cross drillings in the cylinder head, rocker shaft and pedestals are clear and free from debris. Use an air line to blow through the cross drillings. 3. Use a suitable degreasing agent to clean the top of the cylinder head. Install 1. Replacement is the reversal of the removal procedure. 2. Insert the push rods into the crankcase. Make sure that they engage with the camshaft tappets. Figure 202. E E F E Push rod F Camshaft tappet 3. Install the bridge pieces on to the pairs of inlet and exhaust valves in the cylinder head. Figure 203. D D C C Cylinder head D Valve bridge 4. Align the rocker arm assembly on a level surface.
  • 7. 15 - Engine 42 - Rocker and Fittings 00 - General 15 - 148 9813/6450-1 15 - 148 5. Make sure you install the rocker arm assembly on the cylinder head with respect to the plug and the holder. Figure 204. E H E Push rod H Plug Figure 205. G B B Rocker arm assembly G Holder 6. Make sure that the rocker arm assembly is seated properly on the push rod. 7. Make sure that you put the crankshaft gear key in the position as shown to avoid the rocker arm rod bending at the time of tightening the fixing screws. Figure 206. J J Gear key 8. Put the rocker arm fixing screws and tighten the screws in the sequence shown. Figure 207. A B 2 3 1 A Rocker shaft fixing screw (1-3) B Rocker arm assembly 9. Tighten the screws to the correct torque value. After Installation 1. Measure and adjust the valve clearances. Refer to (PIL 15-30). 2. Install the rocker cover. Refer to (PIL 15-42-06). 3. Install and connect the fuel pipes to the fuel injectors. Refer to (PIL 18-96). Table 64. Torque Values Item Nm A 25
  • 8. 15 - Engine 42 - Rocker and Fittings 00 - General 15 - 149 9813/6450-1 15 - 149 Disassemble and Assemble Before Disassembly 1. Remove the rocker cover. Refer to (PIL 15-42). 2. Remove the rocker assembly. Refer to (PIL 15-42). Disassemble 1. Remove the retainer ring. Figure 208. C D B A A Discharge rocker arm B Hydraulic tappet C Retainer D Shoulder ring 2. Remove the shoulder ring. 3. Remove the rockers and the holders from the rocker shaft. Figure 209. A G E F A Discharge rocker arm E Rocker shaft F Holder G Holder 1 4. Label the rockers and the holders to make sure that they are installed in the correct positions on assembly. 5. Remove the tappets from the rocker. Figure 210. B A A Discharge rocker arm B Hydraulic tappet 6. Check (Condition) of the rocker arm assembly for signs of damage and excessive wear. Refer to (PIL 15-42). Assemble 1. Assembly is the reversal of the disassembly procedure. 2. Install the tappets into the rocker arm. 2.1. Insert the tappets into to the hydraulic tappet insertion pliers. 2.2. Fill the chamber of the tappet with oil. 2.3. Put the pad on the tappet. Figure 211. A B H J A Discharge rocker arm B Hydraulic tappet H Chamber J Pad 2.4. Position the rocker arm in the pliers. 2.5. Push the tappet through the rocker arm, using the pliers, until the tappet is properly inserted. 3. Lubricate the rocker shaft with clean engine oil.
  • 9. 15 - Engine 42 - Rocker and Fittings 00 - General 15 - 150 9813/6450-1 15 - 150 4. Install the rocker arms in the correct position, turn the rocker shaft with the lower height towards the timing gear system side. 5. Put the lock ring into the seat of the rocker shaft. Figure 212. D C C E L K E C Retainer D Shoulder ring E Rocker shaft K Seat L Rocker shaft lower height 6. Position the fixing screw support surface facing upwards. 7. Put the two shoulder rings on the rocker shaft. 8. Sequentially put the suction rocker arm, the holder and the discharge rocker arm on the rocker shaft. Figure 213. F D C A N G M E A Discharge rocker arm C Retainer D Shoulder ring E Rocker shaft F Holder G Holder 1 M Spring N Suction rocker arm 9. The discharge rocker arm is shorter than the suction rocker arm. 10. install the spring on the rocker shaft. 11. Do the steps 8 and 10 for all the remaining rocker arms. 12. Install the holder 1 with the last pair of rocker arm towards the flywheel. 13. The spring makes sure that the holder and the holder 1 are kept in place. 14. Make sure that the rockers are installed in their original positions along the rocker shaft. 15. Put the shoulder rings and the lock ring to lock all the components on the rocker shaft. After Assembly 1. Install the rocker assembly. Refer to (PIL 15-42). 2. Install the rocker cover. Refer to (PIL 15-42).
  • 10. 15 - Engine 45 - Oil Sump 00 - General 15 - 157 9813/6450-1 15 - 157 00 - General Introduction .................................................. 15-157 Technical Data ............................................. 15-158 Component Identification ............................. 15-158 Remove and Install ..................................... 15-159 Introduction The lubrication system is supplied by the oil sump that forms the lower part of the engine. Oil is taken from the sump by the gear pump and it is passed through an oil filter. The oil is then delivered under pressure through a system of passages drilled through the engine.
  • 11. 15 - Engine 45 - Oil Sump 00 - General 15 - 158 9813/6450-1 15 - 158 Technical Data Table 65. Oil sump type Wet Oil sump capacity 7.5L Component Identification Figure 214. A A Oil Sump
  • 12. 15 - Engine 45 - Oil Sump 00 - General 15 - 159 9813/6450-1 15 - 159 Remove and Install Oil Oil is toxic. If you swallow any oil, do not induce vomiting, seek medical advice. Used engine oil contains harmful contaminants which can cause skin cancer. Do not handle used engine oil more than necessary. Always use barrier cream or wear gloves to prevent skin contact. Wash skin contaminated with oil thoroughly in warm soapy water. Do not use petrol, diesel fuel or paraffin to clean your skin. CAUTION! It is illegal to pollute drains, sewers or the ground. Clean up all spilt fluids and/or lubricants.Used fluids and/or lubricants, filters and contaminated materials must be disposed of in accordance with local regulations. Use authorised waste disposal sites. CAUTION! Oil will gush from the hole when the drain plug is removed. Keep to one side when you remove the plug. Before Removal 1. Get access to the engine. 2. Drain the engine oil, refer to (PIL 15-00) Refer to: Engine > General > General > Drain and Fill (Page 15-17). Remove 1. Remove the screws that attach the oil sump to the bedplate. 2. Insert plates in the areas shown by the arrows. Figure 215. D E E E E D Oil sump E Plate insertion areas 3. Lift the plates to remove the oil sump. 4. Remove the remaining sealant from the oil sump and bedplate contact surfaces. 5. Remove the screws that attach the oil intake pipe. 6. Remove the oil intake pipe and the gasket. Discard the gasket. Figure 216. G H F F Screw G Oil intake pipe H Gasket 7. Remove the oil vapour pipes. Figure 217. J J Oil vapour pipes Install 1. Apply Loctite 648 on the threads of the oil vapour pipes. 2. Install the oil vapour pipes. 3. Put a new gasket in the seat of the oil intake pipe. 4. Attach the oil intake pipe onto the bedplate with the screws. 5. Tighten the screws to the correct torque value. 6. Make sure that the oil sump is clean and free from contamination. 7. Make sure that the contact faces on the oil sump and bedplate are clean.
  • 13. 15 - Engine 45 - Oil Sump 00 - General 15 - 160 9813/6450-1 15 - 160 8. Apply a bead of sealant (Loctite 5660) on the oil sump contact surface to the specified thickness. Dimension: 2.5mm Figure 218. K K M L K Mounting studs L Screw M Sealant application surface 9. Install the mounting studs to help you to position the oil sump. 10. Put the oil sump on the bedplate. Make sure that the screw holes are aligned. 11. Strictly follow the torque tightening sequence. Tighten the screws to the correct torque value. Figure 219. Torque Sequence 10 11 12 13 14 18 17 16 15 20 19 4 3 2 6 5 7 8 9 1 12. After you tighten all of the screws, loosen screw no.1 and tighten again to the correct torque value. 13. Clean and install the drain plugs with a new O- ring. Tighten the plug to the correct torque value. 14. Through one of the filler points, fill the engine with the recommended oil to the MAX mark on the dipstick. 15. Wipe off any spilt oil, install the filler cap and make sure it is secure. 16. Operate the engine, until the oil pressure low warning light has extinguished. 17. Check for oil leakage. 18. When the oil has cooled, check the oil level again, and if necessary top up with clean engine oil. Table 66. Torque Values Item Nm B 35 F 10 L 25
  • 14. 15 - Engine 45 - Oil Sump 03 - Drain Plug 15 - 161 9813/6450-1 15 - 161 03 - Drain Plug Remove and Install Oil Oil is toxic. If you swallow any oil, do not induce vomiting, seek medical advice. Used engine oil contains harmful contaminants which can cause skin cancer. Do not handle used engine oil more than necessary. Always use barrier cream or wear gloves to prevent skin contact. Wash skin contaminated with oil thoroughly in warm soapy water. Do not use petrol, diesel fuel or paraffin to clean your skin. CAUTION! It is illegal to pollute drains, sewers or the ground. Clean up all spilt fluids and/or lubricants.Used fluids and/or lubricants, filters and contaminated materials must be disposed of in accordance with local regulations. Use authorised waste disposal sites. Remove Drain the oil when the engine is warm as contaminants held in suspension will then be drained with the oil. 1. Gain access to the oil sump. 2. Place a container of suitable size below the drain plug. 3. Remove the oil filler cap. Figure 220. A A Oil filler cap CAUTION! Oil will gush from the hole when the drain plug is removed. Keep to one side when you remove the plug. 4. Remove the oil sump drain plug and O-ring. Let the oil drain out. Figure 221. B C B Drain plug C O-ring Install 1. Clean and install the drain plug with a new O-ring. 2. Tighten the plug to the correct torque value. 3. Through one of the filler points, fill the engine with the recommended oil to the MAX mark on the dipstick. 4. Wipe off any spilt oil, install the filler cap and make sure it is secure. 5. Operate the engine, until the oil pressure low warning light has extinguished. 6. Check for oil leakage. 7. When the oil has cooled, check the oil level again, and if necessary top up with clean engine oil. Table 67. Torque Values Item Nm B 35
  • 15. 15 - Engine 45 - Oil Sump 09 - Dipstick 15 - 162 9813/6450-1 15 - 162 09 - Dipstick Check (Level) 1. Remove the engine oil dipstick. 2. Make sure that the oil level is at the MAX mark on the dipstick. 3. If the oil level is below the required quantity, fill the engine with the recommended oil through the oil filler point. Figure 222. A A Oil filler cap Figure 223. E F D D Dipstick E Maximum level mark F Minimum level mark
  • 16. 15 - Engine 45 - Oil Sump 10 - Dipstick Pipe 15 - 163 9813/6450-1 15 - 163 10 - Dipstick Pipe Remove and Install Before removal 1. Make sure that the engine is safe to work on. If the engine has been running, let it cool before you start the service work. 2. Get access to the engine. Remove 1. Remove the screw. 2. Pull out the oil dipstick pipe in the direction of the arrow. Figure 224. A B C A Dipstick B Dipstick pipe C Screw Install 1. Put the new gasket on the seat of the pipe. Figure 225. B E D B B Dipstick pipe D Seat E Gasket 2. Attach the oil dipstick pipe to the crankcase with the screw. Figure 226. B C F B Dipstick pipe C Screw F Manifold 3. Tighten the pipe on the manifold. 4. Check the gaskets are correctly installed. Figure 227. G B A A Dipstick B Dipstick pipe G Gasket 5. Put the dipstick into the pipe. After installation 1. Start the engine and check for any leakage.
  • 17. 15 - Engine 48 - Grid Heater 00 - General 15 - 166 9813/6450-1 15 - 166 Diagram Grid heater link harnesses are used for the earth and power supply for the grid heater. Figure 229. A B A Fuse B Grid heater Remove and Install Remove 1. Make the machine safe. Refer to (PIL 01-03). 2. Let the engine cool. 3. Get access to the engine intake manifold. 4. Remove the bolts and washers to remove the earth cable and the intake hose. Refer to Figure 230. 5. Remove the intake hose with the flange that connect to the grid heater. Refer to Figure 230. 6. Remove the grid heater with the gaskets from the intake manifold. Refer to Figure 230. Figure 230. B C D E F E A B A G H J A Intake manifold B Bolts C Washers D Intake hose with flange E Gaskets F Grid heater G Earth cable H Washer J Bolt 6.1. The grid heater has two gaskets, attached above and below the heater. Refer to Figure 230. Install 1. Installation is the opposite of the removal procedure. 2. If the grid heater is removed or replaced, always replace the gaskets with the new. 3. Install the grid heater and intake hose with the flange to the intake manifold. 3.1. Tighten the bolts to the correct specified torque value. Torque: 25N·m
  • 18. 15 - Engine 48 - Grid Heater 00 - General 15 - 167 9813/6450-1 15 - 167 4. Use the bolts and washers to install the earth cable.
  • 19. 15 - Engine 51 - Timing Gear 00 - General 15 - 169 9813/6450-1 15 - 169 00 - General Introduction .................................................. 15-169 Component Identification ............................. 15-170 Check (Condition) ........................................ 15-172 Remove and Install ..................................... 15-172 Introduction The timing gears are located inside a casing at the front end of the engine. The engine must be timed so that the camshaft operates the valves at the correct time relative to the crankshaft position. Valve timing is achieved by ensuring that the camshaft drive gear is meshed to the crankshaft gear at their correct angular positions, refer to Engine- General, Operation, The Four Stroke Cycle (PIL 15-00) for more information about valve timing.
  • 20. 15 - Engine 51 - Timing Gear 00 - General 15 - 170 9813/6450-1 15 - 170 Component Identification Figure 231. E B A F D C A Crankshaft B Camshaft C Crankshaft gear D Intermediate gear E Camshaft gear F Fuel injection pump gear
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  • 22. 15 - Engine 51 - Timing Gear 00 - General 15 - 171 9813/6450-1 15 - 171 Figure 232. A F G E J H D C A Crankshaft D Intermediate gear E Camshaft gear F Fuel injection pump gear G Intermediate gear pin H Phonic wheel positioning reference pin on camshaft J Camshaft phonic wheel
  • 23. 15 - Engine 51 - Timing Gear 00 - General 15 - 172 9813/6450-1 15 - 172 Check (Condition) 1. Inspect the gears for wear or damage. If one or more of the gears are worn or damaged, replace them. 2. Measure the backlash of the gears with a feeler gauge. Refer to Figure 233. Figure 233. 3. Make sure that the backlash is within the specified limits. Refer to Technical data (PIL 15-51). 3.1. If the backlash measurement is greater than the maximum, install new gears. Refer to (PIL 15-51). Remove and Install Remove 1. Make sure that the engine is safe to work on. If the engine has been running, let it cool before you start the service work. 2. Get access to the engine. 3. Remove the timing gear front case. Refer to (PIL 15-51-21). 4. Remove the nut that attaches the high pressure fuel pump gear to the pump shaft. Figure 234. B A A High pressure fuel pump gear B Nut - Fuel pump gear 5. Install the pump gear removal tool on the thread of the gear. Figure 235. C C Pump gear removal tool 6. Remove the high pressure fuel pump. Refer to (PIL 18-18-15).
  • 24. 15 - Engine 51 - Timing Gear 00 - General 15 - 173 9813/6450-1 15 - 173 Figure 236. D D High pressure fuel pump 7. Remove the high pressure fuel pump gear. 8. Remove the screws that attach the phonic wheel to the camshaft gear. 9. Remove the phonic wheel. 10. Remove the bolt that attaches the camshaft gear. 11. Remove the camshaft gear. Figure 237. E J G H F L K E Screw - Phonic wheel F Phonic wheel G Bolt - Camshaft gear H Camshaft gear J Lock ring K Shoulder ring L Intermediate gear 12. Remove the lock ring and the shoulder ring from the intermediate gear. 13. Remove the intermediate gear from the support. 14. Remove the screws that attach the intermediate gear support. 15. Remove the shoulder ring and the intermediate gear support. Figure 238. N P M M Screw - Intermediate gear support N Shoulder ring P Intermediate gear support Install 1. Make sure that the key is correctly installed on the camshaft. 2. Put the camshaft gear on the camshaft. The key seat on the gear must align with the key on the shaft. 3. Attach the camshaft gear with the bolt. Do not torque tighten at this stage. Figure 239. R F G H E S Q E Screw - Phonic wheel F Phonic wheel G Bolt - Camshaft gear H Camshaft gear Q Camshaft R Camshaft key S Reference pin 4. Put the reference pin on the camshaft gear. 5. Put the phonic wheel on the camshaft gear. 6. Attach the phonic wheel with the screws. Do not torque tighten at this stage. 7. Replace the gasket on the intermediate gear support.