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Carabao production


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Carabao production

  1. 1. A Report in Advanced Poultry and Livestock Production DR. HELEN G. MANALASTAS Professor RONEL D. CAÑA Student
  2. 2. Conservation status : DomesticatedScientific classificationKingdom : AnimaliaPhylum : ChordataClass : MammaliaOrder : ArtiodactylaFamily : BovidaeSubfamily : BovinaeGenus : BubalusSpecies : B. bubalisSubspecies : B. b. carabanesisTrinomial name : Bubalus bubalis carabanesis (Linnaeus, 1758)
  3. 3.  commonly raised livestock specie in the Philippines; this domesticated animal has gained remarkable importance as a vital component in food sustainability and income to farmers; problems that beset carabao raisers are oftentimes location-specific, thus, there is the need for more researches for this commodity’s enrichment
  4. 4. WATER STATE OF THE PEASANT BUFFALO ECONOMY IN ASIA 97% of the world the farmer’s buffalo inseparable population is partner in his concentrated infarming activities Asia
  5. 5.  statistical data show that the water buffalo is essentially an “Asian animal” the main source of draft power and meat for the small farmers In the Philippines, the water buffalo population is approximately 2.9 million heads, of which approximately 72% are used for farm operations
  6. 6.  classified into two types  swamp type - distinguished by its natural preference for swamps or marshlands; primarily utilized for farm work  river type - exemplified by the Indian and sub- continent breeds; considered under the dairy category because it possesses high genetic capacity for milk production
  7. 7.  Carabao production can very well be integrated with crop farming; However, its potential for draft, milk and meat has not been fully exploited on account of several technical problems :  Poor reproductive capacity  Low productivity  High mortality  Poor marketing  Unrealistic credit facilities
  8. 8.  Efforts are now directed towards the improvement of the genetic makeup of the carabao: CARABAO UPGRADING MURRAH/SURTI GRADED ANIMAL WITH BETTERA.I. DRAFT/MILK/MEAT NATIVE BREED CAPACITY
  9. 9.  Carabaos are also potential sources of milk: A caracow with a nursing calf can produce 300 to 800 kg of milk during a lactation period of about 180 to 300 days.
  10. 10.  River Type Buffaloes (Indian and Pakistani breeds) are the dairy type; Swamp Buffaloes (Philippine carabao and the Thai buffalo) are raised primarily for draft and meat; Indian buffaloes were introduced in the Philippines in June 1917 with 57 Murrah; Aside from the Murrah, the Surti of Nili/Ravi is being considered for the improvement of the native carabao.
  11. 11.  Swamp Type - Philippine Carabao  Philippine origin;  Light gray in general with two stripes or chevron distinct on the ventral side of the neck, one near the brisket and the other near jaw;  Color is lighter on the legs and outside of the body and the ears;  Horn is generally curved outward and inward to form a semi- circle from the base of the head;  Upper surface of horns has grooves;  Low wide and heavy built body;  Average mature weight for male is 500 kgs while the female is 425 kgs;  Average milk production of 1.45 – 2.64 kgs per day.
  12. 12.  Swamp Type - Thai Buffalo  Origin in Thailand;  Black color and the hair is relatively loan;  Strong and broad bodied animals with prominent muscling in neck chest and back;  Massive and strong horn to form a moonlike crescent with ends upwards;  Average weight for male and female is 540 kgs and 400 kgs, respectively;  Daily average milk production is 0.9-1.0 kg
  13. 13.  River Type - Murrah  India by origin;  Jet black in color with white switch in the tail; skin texture is soft and fine;  Horn is tightly and spirally curled;  Massive and stocky built, and light neck and head;  short limbs, broad hips and drooping quarter  Udder and teats are well developed; teats are black, long and stout;  Male and female average weight is 625 and 525 kgs, respectively;  Average milk production of 5 – 7 kg a day.
  14. 14.  River Type - Surti  Surti originated in India;  The color is black or brown.;  The skin is black or reddish and the hair gray to rusty brown;  Horns coil downward and upward to form a hook;  Wedge shape conformation;  Average weight for mature male is 499 kgs while the female weighs 408 kgs;  5 – 6 kgs daily milk production.
  15. 15.  Criteria for the right choice of stock to raise:  birth weight;  pre-weaning growth rate;  post weaning growth rate;  feed intake and conversion;  body conformation measurements;  carcass traits;  milk yield and draft capacity.
  16. 16.  In the selection, however, one should consider the purpose of which the animal is being chosen; The question is:“Which of the animal’s physical traits should be given more points when breeding for draft, for meat or for milk?”
  17. 17.  REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY  Carabaos breed throughout the year (preponderance takes place between August and January);  Dry season usually offsets the fertility of the carabaos; (The semen quality is adversely affected, resulting in a poor conception rate of mated females. Also, high incidence of “silent heat” occurs during the dry season.);  It is important to separate the male caracalves from the females shortly after weaning (about 10 to 12 months) to prevent premature breeding.
  18. 18.  Estrus Period  Native carabaos - 5 to 36 hours (average heat period of about 24 hours)  Murrahs about 24 to 71 hours;  The majority exhibit estrus at night.  Carabaos reared under close confinement ovulate 15 hours after the end of estrus, or about 35 hours after the onset of estrus;  Murrah buffaloes ovulate at about 11 hours after cessation of estrus.
  19. 19.  Estrus Cycle  Carabaos raised under close confinement: 21 + 2 days;  Murrah buffaloes = 21 days;
  20. 20.  Estrus Cycle  First Fertile Mating – Native: from 2 years, 4 months to 2 years, 6 months, Murrah buffalo: 4 years, 4 months (ave.);  Calving Intervals – Native: manifest post partum heat 35 days after calving; Murrah 49 days and Native carabao 44 days; report shows that carabaos and Murrah buffaloes have calving intervals ranging from 1 year to about 3 years and 9 months of an average of about 1-1/2 years.
  21. 21.  Gestation Period  The gestation period of carabaos ranges from 320 to 325 days. The Murrah buffaloes and the Murrah carabao grades, however, have an average gestation period of 314 to 317 days;  The following table shows how to compute for the estimated gestation date of the caracow:
  22. 22.  NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTSNote: DCP = Digestible Crude Protein; DM = Digestible Matter; TDN = Total Digestible Nutrient
  23. 23.  NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTSNote: DCP = Digestible Crude Protein; DM = Digestible Matter; TDN = Total Digestible Nutrient
  24. 24.  NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTSNote: DCP = Digestible Crude Protein; DM = Digestible Matter; TDN = Total Digestible Nutrient
  25. 25.  After the birth of the caracalf, the fetal membrane should be removed, some fluid may have to be drained from the respiratory tract; Within a few minutes after birth, the navel cord should be cut and dis-infected with tincture of iodine. Proper identification can subsequently be done by either earnotching, tattooing, eartagging, or putting a neckchain; The caracalf should receive colostrums as soon as possible preferably within one hour after birth.
  26. 26.  Backyard operation: calves are normally allowed to go with their dams (8 to 12 months) and are allowed to go with the dam for a period of 1 to 2 months before milking; Commercial dairy operation with a herd Murrah or Murrah-carabao grades: calves are usually weaned 3 to 5 days after birth and are fed and trained to drink mixed milk. The calves may be put in the pens individually or in groups.
  27. 27.  Economics and Practicability are the two important factors to consider in selecting the feeding method to use; Feeding of high protein diet to weaned caracalves 8 to 12 months old is advisable if it is desired to accelerate growth rate; This practice would reduce the usual delayed breeding of the caraheifer for the first time and, consequently dries its first calf earlier.
  28. 28.  Caracalves should be fed with caracalf starter at 2 weeks of age; A good caracalf starter should contain at least 18 to 20% crude protein and 75% total digestible nutrient; Starting at 2 weeks of age, the caracalves could be fed with some forage like freshly cut grass; Fresh and clean water should be provided at all times.
  29. 29.  Other management practices essential to successful caracalf management operation:  Branding;  Castration;  Deworming ;  Vaccination. Done all at the same time when the caracalves are about 5 months old or immediately after weaning. These operations should be done during good weather conditions, especially the months of January to June when it is relatively dry.
  30. 30.  Growing-Fattening  Weanling caracalves (8 to 12 months old) may either be sold as feeder caracalves or they may be fed with economical growing rations to gain 0.50 to 0.75 kg per day for sale as yearling or fatteners after three months. They may be fed, too, with high-energy ration and finished as soon as possible for slaughter especially if they are not suited for breeding purposes.
  31. 31.  Growing-Fattening  The average liveweight of the carabao and Murrah buffalo under Philippine conditions are as follows:
  32. 32.  Tips of Caraheifer Management  Replacement caraheifers should be separated from the bull until they are ready for breeding;  The occurrence of heat should be carefully observed to facilitate breeding and recording;  Animals that do not come to heat on their scheduled time should be carefully examined.
  33. 33.  Carabull/Caracow Ratio  A Murrah buffalo bull can be assigned to 15 to 20 females during the breeding season,  20 caraheifers a year should be sired by a young bull of about 1-1/2 to 3-1/2 years old;  30 caraheifers when the bull is from 3-1/2 to 4-1/2 years old;  40 caraheifers at 4-1/2 years old
  34. 34.  Upgrading Practice  Mating the carabao with a breed such as the Murrah or Nili-Ravi is highly recommended;  Upgrading can be done either by natural mating or A.I.;  If natural breeding is practiced, the carabao and the Murrah must be raised together to avoid mating problems.
  35. 35.  Artificial Insemination (A.I.)  The use of A.I has a good potential for improving the carabao, however, there are still technical problems that are to be resolved in its use.
  36. 36.  Management of Pregnant Herd  should be separated from the rest of the herd especially in the last two months of their pregnancy;  they must receive adequate supply of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals for their maintenance, growth and fetal growth requirements;  poor nutrition may result to poor milk production, hence, it is advisable to stop milking 2 months before the expected date of calving.
  37. 37.  Management of Pregnant Herd  should be separated from the rest of the herd especially in the last two months of their pregnancy;  they must receive adequate supply of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals for their maintenance, growth and fetal growth requirements;  poor nutrition may result to poor milk production, hence, it is advisable to stop milking 2 months before the expected date of calving.
  38. 38.  Management of Milking Herd  milking shed should be built in well drained grounds which is a common factor for diseases and parasites;  the shed may be built of native materials like bamboo, nipa and cogon;  backyard sheds are 2.5 to 3 meters high, for semi- permanent shed with G.I. roofing, the height may be 3.0 to 3.7 meters.
  39. 39.  Management of Milking Herd  milking carabaos are fed based on their body weight, milk production and butterfat produced;  the milking carabao may be fed roughage ad libitum plus 1 kg of concentrate supplement containing 16 to 18% protein for every 2 to 3 kg milk produced;  mineral mixture (50% steamed bone meal +50% salt) could be fed at the rate of 1 to 1.5% of the concentrate ration;  water should also be provided at all times.
  40. 40.  Management of Draft Animals  apart from the fresh forage and crop residue to be given, supplemental concentrates at a rate of 1 to 2 % of the body weight should be given;  mineral mixture should be fed at a rate of 1 to 1.5 % of the concentrate mix;  use castrated male carabaos as draft animals for easy handling and docility;  females utilized for work are believed to be naturally inferior in performance.
  41. 41.  Management of Draft Animals  apart from the fresh forage and crop residue to be given, supplemental concentrates at a rate of 1 to 2 % of the body weight should be given;  mineral mixture should be fed at a rate of 1 to 1.5 % of the concentrate mix;  use castrated male carabaos as draft animals for easy handling and docility;  females utilized for work are believed to be naturally inferior in performance.
  42. 42.  Management of Draft Animals
  43. 43.  Management of Draft Animals
  44. 44.  Carabao Fattening  The following are the classes of carabaos fattened for the market: ▪ Retired work animals on account of old age, and viciousness. ▪ Feeder stock about 2-1/2 to 3 years of age, home grown or purchased in the market. ▪ Carabaos below 3 years old but not suited for breeding or work purposes.
  45. 45.  Carabao Fattening  Advantages of Feedlot Fattening: ▪ Fast turnover of capital. ▪ The animals are less prone to disease because of limited time spent on the farm. ▪ Profitable utilization of farm by-products generally going to waste. ▪ Housing of feeder stock does not need a big area. (In open lot confinement, the suggested floor space allowance is 4.0 to 4.7 sq. m. per mature feeder, 2.8 to 3.7 sq. m. for yearling and 1.8 to 2.8 sq. m for caracalves.) ▪ Management is relatively simple.
  46. 46.  Ranch Management  Requisites of a good ranch site: ▪ Location – extensive space with more area for expansion, must be easily reached by transportation and near marketing outlets; ▪ Topography – gently rolling and elevated land , hilly lands of not more than 30 degrees; ▪ Availability of water – safe rivers, springs, and creek are highly desirable for drinking and cooling, presence of trees in the immediate vicinity for shade is important; ▪ Soil and vegetation – must be capable of growing improved grasses and legumes all year round, must be free from toxic substances, drought resistant and capable of withstanding trampling.
  47. 47.  Ranch Management  Management Operations: ▪ carabaos raised in the ranch be grouped into herds such as caracalves, pregnant herd, breeding herd and fatteners.; ▪ this will overcome the problem of competitive consumption of feed on account of size differences and insufficient space requirement; ▪ It also minimizes early calf mortality and facilitate the recording and identification of animals.
  48. 48.  Production Facilities  Cooling facilities – Cooling facilities maybe provided by means of a safe mudhole or stream;  Working corral, squeeze chute and scales. – used for a closer examination of the animal especially during drafting, weighing, dehorning, castration, drenching, vaccination, A.I. and pregnant testing; should be built in a well drained area; The use of a weighing scale is very essential for treatment or for determining the animal’s performance. The platform, cage and closing gates should be on the scale.; The squeeze chute is very necessary to restrain the animals properly in handling . Preferably, a space of 2 m2 is necessary to accommodate a single animal.
  49. 49.  Production Facilities  Sheds must provide comfort and protection to the animals. Shed building should have a north-south orientation so that it allows only enough sunshine in shade to keep it dry and sanitary.  A feeding trough or mineral box built within the shed should be protected from the rain and other elements.  The roofing maybe made out of hay or nipa to give the cooling effect. Hay roofing is made up of a 15cm layer of coarse hay held in place between two layers of woven wire fencing.  Fencing - The following are requirements and specifications for a secured fencing: ▪ Fencing - posts maybe of two kinds: the treated and the live post; ▪ Posts should be buried at 60 to 76cm below and 1.22 m above ground. ▪ A distance of 4 to 5 m between posts is recommended. ▪ The wire to be used in fencing should have the necessary strength to withstand trampling and charges of the animals.
  50. 50.  Pasture establishment and grazing management  consider the choice of the land and the species of crops to be propagated, our pastures can be classified into four types: ▪ native pasture; ▪ native pasture over-seeded with legumes; ▪ improved pure grass pasture; ▪ improved grass/legume mixture.
  51. 51.  The procedures for introducing legumes into the native pasture are as follows:  Burning or overgrazing the area at the end of the dry season;  Disturbing the pasture by cultivation or light disking. This will allow contact between the seed and the soil and at the same time set back the native vegetation;  Application of phosphorus fertilizer (30 to 60 phosphorus per hectare per year) and liming the area if the soil acidity is lower than pH 5.2.;  Inoculate the pasture area if necessary;  Broadcasting 2 to 4 kg legume seeds per hectare anytime during the wet season;  Controlled light grazing in favor of the legumes;
  52. 52.  1. Hoof and Mouth Disease (HMD)  Causes: Virus. Types identified in the Philippines A, O, C  Mode of Transmission: Direct and indirect contact with naturally infected animals, carriers, implements and other infected materials. Blister fluid, saliva and other bodily discharges highly infective.  Symptoms: Fever. Vesicles and erosion in between hooves, coronary band (junction between skin and hoof), teats and udder, oral mucosa and tongue. Raw ulcerations follow rupture of vesicles; stringy or foamy salivation, smacking of the lips, difficulty in feed ingestion; staggering gait and lameness. Abortion in pregnant animals.  Prevention/Control: Immediate notification of the authorities. Designation of quarantine areas and restricted movement of animals; disinfecting area with virucidal agents (commercial disinfectant or lye, caustic soda). Animals should be kept on dry ground and lesions treated with mild antiseptics or alum. Mass immunization and effective restriction in movement of animals and carriers is necessary.
  53. 53.  2. Hemorrhagic septicemia  Causes: Actual : Bacteria (Pasteurella multocida)  Predisposing: Climatic stress, fatigue, transport, nutritional and parasitic stresses, etc.  Mode of Transmission: Ingestion or inhalation of infective agent. May be normally present in the nasopharyngeal area but predisposition causes flare-up of infection.  Symptoms: High fever, loss of appetite, Respiratory distress; salivation, nasal discharge, swelling of throat and brisket, congestion of mucous membrane, diarrhea becoming bloody later.  Prevention/Control: ▪ Prophylactic vaccination ▪ Removal of predisposition when possible. ▪ Early treatment with parental antibiotics and sulfa drugs.
  54. 54.  3. Anthrax  Causes: Bacteria (Bacillus anthracis)  Mode of Transmission:  Direct ingestion of infected material, biting flies.  Indirect through contact with materials and other carriers.  Symptoms: Sudden onset of fever depression and loss of appetite. Swelling of chest, head, belly and legs, bloody diarrhea. Death common even in early stages. Colic, abortion in pregnant animals, blood stained discharges, convulsions  Prevention and Control: Vaccination in areas where anthrax is endemic. Dead animal should be cremated or buried deeply under a layer of lime. Antibiotic treatments is effective only in early and less acute cases.
  55. 55.  4. Blackleg  Causes: Bacteria (Clostridium chauvoei)  Mode of Transmission: Infection initiated by trauma of the body and oral mucosa  Symptoms: Sudden deaths in acute cases. Less acute: depression, fever, rapid respiration and suspended rumination. Typically, hot painful swelling in thigh and leg muscles. Cracking sensation on palpation of swellings due to gas in tissues. Lameness in affected limb.  Prevention and Control: Vaccination. Cremation of carcasses. Early isolation and treatment with massive doses of antibiotics.
  56. 56.  5. Brucellosis  Causes: Bacteria (Brucella abortus). Predisposing: Climatic stress, fatigue, transport, nutritional and parasitic stresses, etc.  Mode of Transmission: Ingestion of contaminated feed and water. Aborted fetus, fetal membranes, placenta, urine and uterine discharge are main sources of infection. Infected carabulls may transfer disease through natural/artificial breeding.  Symptoms: Infertility. Abortion, retained placenta, persistent vaginal discharge. In males, swollen and painful testicles with subsequent infertility/sterility. Respiratory distress; salivation, nasal discharge, swelling of throat and brisket, congestion of mucous membrane, diarrhea becoming bloody later.  Prevention and Control: Blood tests and removal of infected animals. Antibiotic medication, impractical. Vaccination may be tried. Infective materials discarded properly; contract with carrier avoided. Removal of predisposition when possible. Early treatment with parental antibiotics and sulfa drugs.
  57. 57.  6. Actinomycosis  Causes: Actual: Fungus (Actinomyces spp.) Predisposing: Injuries in the oral mucosa  Mode of Transmission: Causal organism common in environment. Carriers such as flies may transmit organisms to other animals through open wounds.  Symptoms: Immovable form swelling involving bony structure of the jaw and face. May extend to involved soft tissues with exudation of sticky yellow pus. Closed swelling become larger without exudation (tumorous). May involve udder and skin.  Prevention and Control: Treatment requires veterinary assistance. Veterinarian should be consulted.
  58. 58.  7. Foot rot  Causes: Actual: Bacteria (Spherophorus necrophorus) Pre- disposing: wounds in the hoof, wet and muddy ground.  Mode of Transmission: Organism normally common in wet ground rich in organic matter and humus. Requires injuries and open lesions of hoof to infect.  Symptoms: Sudden lameness when acute. Typical to see foul smelling ulcers. Interdiginal cleft swollen and painful, may worsen to cause fever and other systemic signs. Prevention and Control  Hooves should be treated early with antiseptic (5% copper sulfate (5-10% formalin; tincture of iodine, etc.). animal should be kept on high dry ground.
  59. 59.  8. Bacterial scours in caracalves  Causes: Actual: Multiple bacterial agents. Predisposing: dietetic and environmental stressors (chilling, wet muddy yard, insanitary quarters).  Mode of Transmission: Multiple: direct infection from infected or contaminated udders; navel infection in calf, genital or intrauterine infection of dam; contaminated environment.  Symptoms: Occurs as early as 24 hours after birth. Pasty yellowish white feces later becoming more liquid with fermented or pungent odor. Calf weak with sunken eyeball, unsteady gait, and rough coat. Mortality due to dehydration very high.  Prevention and Control: Proper nursing in clean dry environment necessary. Colostrum important to calf. Early cases respond to antibiotic
  60. 60.  9. Calf pneumonia  Causes: Actual: Multiple bacterial agents  Mode of Transmission: As in the bacterial scours  Symptoms: Fever, inability to suckle, nasal discharge, coughing and respiratory distress. Gradual emaciation. May terminate as scours pneumonia combination. Death common.  Prevention and Control: As in bacterial scours. Treatment requires parentenal antibiotic of sulfa injections. 10. Leptospirosis  Causes: Leptospira spp.  Mode of Transmission: Direct organisms passed out in urine.  Symptoms: Depression, fever, dark red urine, yellowing of mucosa (jaundice) abortion in many pregnant animals. Requires laboratory test for confirmation.  Prevention and Control: Regular blood test. Vaccination. Isolate and treat cases with antibiotics. Environmental sanitation and disinfection.
  61. 61.  11. Tetanus  Causes: Actual: Bacteria (Clostridium tetani)  Mode of Transmission: Direct infection due to introduction of organism in wounds. Not contagious to other animals.  Symptoms: Early stages characterized by rigidly and stiffness of muscles; stilty gait. Late stages with titanic convulsions, prolapse of 3rd eyelid, stiff tail, head and neck thrown back, hyperexcitability. Bloat and other nervous signs.  Prevention and Control: Treat wound with antiseptics until completely healed, use clean difficult to treat. Give prophylactic ATS or tetanus toxoid injections. Late stages difficult to treat. 12. Ephemeral  Causes: Virus  Mode of Transmission: Through bites of bloodsucking insects.  Symptoms: Stiffness of gait, lameness, fever.  Prevention and Control: Supportive treatment like administration of antibiotic and vitamins. Control biting insects.
  62. 62.  13. Parasitic gastroenteritis  Causes: Various species of parasitic nematodes in the digestive tract. Caracalves and yearlings most susceptible.  Mode of Transmission: Commonly through direct infection with parasitic larval stages through herbages; less commonly through skin penetration and intrauterine infection.  Symptoms: Poor body condition, anemia, diarrhea, potbelly and weakness.  Prevention and Control:  Regular deworming with effective anthelmintics (tetramisole, parbendazole, thibendazole, pyrantel, etc.) Pasture rotation and improved feeding practices. 14. Parasitic pneumonia  Causes: Dictyocaulus spp. (adult stages in the bronchioles of lungs)  Mode of Transmission: Infection with the parasite in the larval stage through herbage.  Symptoms: As in parasitic gastroenteritis for general signs. Specific symptoms include persistent husky coughing, respiratory distress.  Prevention and Control: Regular deworming with tetramisole. General prevention as in parasitic gastroenteritis.
  63. 63.  15. Liverflike infection  Causes: Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica. Requires intermediate host (Lymnea auricularia)  Mode of Transmission: Direct infection through ingestion of parasitic stage (metacercaria) attached in gasses. Presence of this stage related to availability of snail host.  Symptoms: Symptoms similar to parasitic gastroenteritis.  Prevention and Control: Regular deworing with flukecides, control of snails hosts; pasture improvements, keep animals away from known infected sources of herbage. Deworming at proper intervals (3-4 times a year) only practical approach. 16. Coccidiosis  Causes: Protozoa (Eimeria spp.) Generally not a primary condition but exists with other enteric diseases.  Mode of Transmission: Direct infection by ingestion of infective stage (oocyst). Thrives in moist damp and unsanitary areas.  Symptoms: Common only in caracalves and yearlings. Diarrhea later becoming bloody and profuse; dehydration and anemia.  Prevention and Control: Clean environment and general sanitation. Treat with sulfa drugs
  64. 64.  17. Pediiculosis (lice infestation)  Causes: Common sucking louse (Haematopinus spp.)  Mode of Transmission: Direct contact with other infested animals. Egg to mature stage occur on the animal.  Symptoms: Itchiness characterized by scratching and later poor thriving.  Prevention and Control: Regular spraying with effective insecticides (Neguvon, Ciodrin, Asuntol, Malathion etc.) 18. Mange  Causes: Sarcoptic, psoroptic or chorioptic mites  Mode of Transmission: Direct and indirect contact with infected animals.  Symptoms: Marked itchiness and irriration with animals constantly rubbing or licking affected areas. Maybe patchy or generalized. Skin becomes hairless, thickened or scabby.  Prevention and Control: Deworm calves at 30 days and again a month later. Use Piperazine preparation.
  65. 65.  19. Ascariasis  Causes: Neoascarist vitulorum  Mode of Transmission: From infected dam to young ones prenatally and through milk, also ingestion of infective eggs.  Symptoms: Progressive deterioration of body condition; inappetence, dullness and may suffer from colic with or without diarrhea.  Prevention and Control: Deworm calves at 30 days and again a month later. Use Piperazine preparation. 20. Surra  Causes: Trypanosoma evansi  Mode of Transmission: Through bites of bloodsucking insects.  Symptoms: Fever and progressive loss of body weight. Survival rate for mature and healthy animals is high.  Prevention and Control: Administer Ganaseg 3 at 5 mg/kg/body weight in a 10% solution intramuscularly.
  66. 66.  Marketing  Studies have shown that in carabao marketing, profit as percentage or gross margin ranged from 60 to 88%;  Improper handling of the animals during transport results in about 15 to 20% shrinkage of weight, death losses and also inferior carcass quality;  The majority of the carabaos from the different provinces of Luzon are brought to Manila either by trucks or train. Carabao from the Visayas, Mindanao, and Mindoro are transported by ships.
  67. 67.  Financing  credit is important in the expansion of existing cattle projects and the encouragement of new into livestock production.;  government is extending its full support in terms of credit and financing through participating rural banks by launching the Multi-Livestock Dispersal Loan Program (MLDLP);  this program adopted a new system of animal dispersal where rural banks are tapped as distributing and collecting arms.
  68. 68.  General rules for the slaughter of carabaos:  The carabao for slaughter should at least be three years and above and not suited for breeding. Slaughter only healthy and well finished animals.  Animals confirmed to be pregnant should not be slaughtered.  Animals coming far should be rested before slaughter.  Slaughter animals should be fasted at least for 24 hours and provided with constant water supply. Fasting facilitates evisceration.  Excitement and fatigue on the part of the animals should be avoided for a thorough bleeding.
  69. 69.  Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Carabeef
  70. 70.  The use and acceptability of carabeef and other carabao products in the dining table extends from mere household recipes to some of the more popular comminuted products such as meat loaf, corned beef and other dairy products such as soft cheese, butter, and ice cream. Others are: ▪ Carabeef Meat Loaf ▪ Corned Beef ▪ Breaded Carabeef ▪ Carabeef Meat Balls Stroganoff style ▪ Carabeef Swiss Steak style ▪ Carabeef Kaldereta ▪ Carabeef Chopsuey ▪ Carabeef Picadillo
  71. 71.  The productivity of the carabao subsector, just like any other biological system, is influenced by various factors, such as social, technical, economic, and policy factors.
  72. 72.  smallholder-farmers own 99% of the country’s carabao resource; meat production is 148,000 MT (2010), valued at PHP10.05 Billion (BAS, 2010); milk production is estimated at 5.4 million liters in 2009 valued at PHP248.4 million (BAS, 2010); in terms of yield of major crop production, where carabao provided significant draft power requirement at an estimated value of PHP8.16 billion.
  73. 73.  Population Trends  In April 2010, the population of carabao in the Philippines was 3.0 million heads (BAS 2010);  In terms of regional distribution, Region 8 (Eastern Visayas) ranked first, accounting for about 10.55% of the total population. Other regions in the top six are: Region 6 (Western Visayas), Region 2 (Cagayan Valley), Region 4 (CALABARZON and MIMAROPA), Region 12 (SOCCSKSARGEN), and Region 5 (Bicol). These regions accounted for about 57% (1.72 million head) of the total carabao population.
  74. 74.  The Carabao as a Commodity - As source of meat.  the total number of carabaos slaughtered in abattoirs in 2010 was estimated at 221,776 (BAS, 2010);  from 1996 to 2002, there was an increasing trend in the said parameter at an average of 5.42% a year;  from 2003 to 2010, there was a steady decline at an annual average of 3.24%.
  75. 75.  The Carabao as a Commodity - As source of milk.  milk yield from native carabao is relatively small and milking of these animals is carried out only in selected communities, for locally produced carabao milk products such as ‘pastillas de leche’ and white cheese or ‘kesong puti’;  these animals have an average milk yield of 4.5 liters a day.
  76. 76.  The Carabao as a Commodity - As source of draft.  The role of carabao as a source of draft power remains very important, particularly in the rain- fed or upland areas;  However, with the advent of mechanization, there is a significant displacement of carabao by hand tractors, particularly in irrigated, rice-producing areas in the country, ranging from 16% in Leyte to 60% in Pangasinan.
  77. 77.  The establishment of the Philippine Carabao Center (PCC) through Republic Act 7307 marks the institutionalized effort of the government to develop the carabao sub-sector. The PCC, an attached agency of the Department of Agriculture (DA) was established in 1992 and operationalized in 1993. PCC was an offshoot of the significant gains achieved from the United Nations Development Programme/Food and Agriculture Organization (UNDP/FAO)-assisted project called “Strengthening of the Philippine Carabao Research and Development Center (PCRDC) under the umbrella of the Department of Science and Technology–Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (DOST-PCARRD) and which was carried out in two phases covering the period 1982–1992.
  78. 78.  The NCDP is premised on the potential benefits to be derived from crossing the riverine buffaloes with the Philippine carabao to improve the genetic potentials for meat and milk production without disregard of draft and hide. The NCDP takes cognizant of the need to conserve the existing germplasm of the native animals and at the same time establishing gene pools of elite animals intended for milk and meat improvement. The ultimate aim of the program is to establish buffalo-based enterprises by capacitating the farmers towards employment generation, additional income, and better well-being.
  79. 79. THANK YOU! Acknowledgements: bulacanfits RONEL DIMAYA CAÑA Agriculturist II Provincial Agriculture Office City of Malolos, Bulacan 791-0018/791-0008