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  1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology, Seventh Edition Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Chapter 01 Lecture Outline *
  2. 2. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Anatomy – the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross or macroscopic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology – the study of the function of the body’s structural machinery </li></ul>
  3. 3. Topics of Anatomy <ul><li>Gross or macroscopic: structures examined without a microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional: studied area by area; abdomen, head/neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic: studied system by system; nervous, skeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface: study of internal structures as they relate to deeper structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microscopic: structures seen with the microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytology: cellular anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histology: study of tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental Anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traces structural changes throughout life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryology – study of developmental changes of the body before birth </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Subjects That Encompass Both Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Pathology : structural and functional changes caused by disease </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise Physiology : changes in structure and function caused by exercise </li></ul>
  5. 5. Principle of Complementarity of Structure and Function <ul><li>Function always reflects structure </li></ul><ul><li>What a structure can do depends on its specific form </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friction ridges of the fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folding of the intestinal lining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardness of bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultra-thin lining of cells through which diffusion occurs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Levels of Structural Organization <ul><li>Chemical Level: interaction of atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Level: functional unit of life </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue Level: group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them </li></ul><ul><li>Organ Level: one or more tissues functioning together </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System Level: group of organs functioning together </li></ul><ul><li>Organism Level: any living thing. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Organ Systems of the Body <ul><li>INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the external body covering </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails </li></ul><ul><li>Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D </li></ul><ul><li>SKELETAL SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Protects and supports body organs </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the framework for muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Site of blood cell formation </li></ul><ul><li>Stores minerals (calcium, phosphorous) </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCULAR SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of muscles and tendons </li></ul><ul><li>Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains posture </li></ul><ul><li>Produces heat (thermogenesis) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Organ Systems of the Body <ul><li>NERVOUS SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of the brain, spinal column, and nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Is the fast-acting control system of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOCRINE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of various hormone- secreting glands (pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, </li></ul><ul><li>pancreas) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) </li></ul><ul><li>by body cells </li></ul><ul><li>CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of the heart and blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>The heart pumps blood </li></ul><ul><li>The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body </li></ul><ul><li>Blood transports nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, hormones throughout the </li></ul><ul><li>body </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organ Systems of the Body <ul><li>LYMPHATIC SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic </li></ul><ul><li>vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood; prevents edema </li></ul><ul><li>Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream </li></ul><ul><li>Houses white blood cells involved with immunity </li></ul><ul><li>RESPIRATORY SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>DIGESTIVE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large </li></ul><ul><li>intestine, rectum, anus, salivary glands, pancreas, and liver </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organ Systems of the Body <ul><li>URINARY SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of mammary glands, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Main function is the production of offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary glands produce milk to nourish the newborn </li></ul><ul><li>MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of prostate gland, penis, testes, scrotum, and ductus deferens </li></ul><ul><li>Main function is the production of offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Ducts and glands deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract </li></ul>
  11. 11. Necessary Life Functions I <ul><li>Maintaining boundaries – the internal environment remains distinct from the external </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular level – accomplished by plasma membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organismal level – accomplished by the skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement – locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness – ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion – breakdown of ingested foodstuffs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Necessary Life Functions II <ul><li>Metabolism – all the chemical reactions that occur in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion – removal of wastes from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction – cellular and organismal levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular – an original cell divides and produces two identical daughter cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organismal – sperm and egg unite to make a whole new person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth – increase in size of a body part or of the organism </li></ul>
  13. 13. Survival Needs of Living Things <ul><li>Nutrients – chemical substances used for energy and cell building </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen – needed for metabolic reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Water – provides the necessary environment for chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining normal body temperature – necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric pressure – required for proper breathing and gas exchange in the lungs </li></ul>
  14. 14. Homeostasis <ul><li>Describes a relatively stable internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>A dynamic state of equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Values of variables fluctuate </li></ul><ul><li>around the set point to establish a normal range of values. </li></ul><ul><li>Set point : the ideal normal value of a variable. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the set point for body temperature? </li></ul><ul><li>What other variables are maintained homeostatically? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Directional Terms
  16. 16. Directional Terms Table 1.1
  17. 17. Body Planes <ul><li>Median (through the midline) and Sagittal (same plane, but to the left or right of median </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal or Coronal divides body into anterior and posterior sections </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse / Cross divides body into superior and inferior sections </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique : Other than at a right angle </li></ul>
  18. 18. Planes of Section Through an Organ <ul><li>Longitudinal : cut along the length of an organ </li></ul><ul><li>Cross / Transverse : cut at right angle to length of the organ </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique : cut at any but a right angle </li></ul>
  19. 19. Body Cavities <ul><li>Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: thoracic and abdominopelvic </li></ul>
  20. 20. Body Planes Figure 1.9a
  21. 21. Trunk Cavities <ul><li>Diaphragm : divides body cavity into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediastinum : contains all structures of the thoracic cavity except the lungs </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ventral Body Cavity Membranes <ul><li>Parietal serosa lines internal body walls </li></ul><ul><li>Visceral serosa covers the internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Serous fluid separates the serosae </li></ul>
  23. 23. Serous Membranes <ul><li>Cover the organs of trunk cavities & line the cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Fist represents an organ </li></ul><ul><li>Inner balloon wall represents visceral serous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Outer balloon wall represents parietal serous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cavity between two membranes filled with lubricating serous fluid that is produced by the membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the serous membranes </li></ul>
  24. 24. Serous Membranes: Named for Their Specific Cavities and Organs <ul><ul><li>Pericardium refers to heart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleura refers to lungs and thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peritoneum refers to abdominopelvic cavity </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Other Body Cavities <ul><li>Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose </li></ul><ul><li>Orbital – house the eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial – joint cavities </li></ul>
  26. 26. Abdominal Subdivisions