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Optimizing Oral Skills

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Slides Presentation prepared for the 8-hour mini-course delivered by Ronaldo Lima Jr and Erika Cruvinel at the Binational Center Casa Thomas Jefferson, in Brasília, in February/2011.

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Optimizing Oral Skills

  1. 1. Optimizing Oral Skills<br />
  2. 2. Day 1: Speaking Tasks<br />Day 2: Speaking Tasks (hands-on)<br />Day 3: Teaching Pronunciation<br />Day 4: Error Feedback<br />
  3. 3. The Importance of Speaking Activities<br />“Do you ________ German?”<br />Languages are primarily oral<br />2 CTJ students<br />
  4. 4. Pair Work<br />No preparation<br /> timing (st A vs. st B) & quantity<br /> two monologs (no PW) <br />Not necessarily interactive<br /> May be interactive because of the ss (motivated, extroverted, etc), not because of task design<br />role of the listener<br /> no monitoring<br /> no debriefing<br />
  5. 5. Preparation<br />Think about your vacation:<br />What did you do?<br />Where did you go?<br />Who did you meet?<br />What was the best/worst part?<br />What would you do again?<br />What didn’t you have time to do?<br />
  6. 6. Follow-up Qs<br />Reaction Expressions<br />How come?<br />Did you like it?<br />When was that?<br />And how did you feel?<br />etc...<br />Really?<br />Me too!<br />I can’t believe it!<br />Are you serious?<br />You’ve got to be kidding!<br />No way!<br />That’s awesome!<br />Sounds great!<br />
  7. 7. Pair Work (making it better)<br />Preparation (pre-speaking)<br /> time management (so both ss get to talk)<br /> give the listener a role / create a need for interaction<br />Force information gap (listener has to find out sth)<br />Force a certain number of turns (reaction expressions and follow-up questions) – especially for very controlled activities.<br />Monitoring (listen to the pair ahead)<br /> debriefing (post-speaking) – volunteering vs. calling on ss<br />
  8. 8. Concept of communicative tasks<br /> direct vs. indirect approach (children, teens and adults)<br />Importance of knowing the purpose of the speaking activities <br /> Importance of knowing why they should work in pairs, groups, with different students<br />
  9. 9. GW (trio)<br />Same steps as PW: pre-speaking, speaking, post-speaking<br />Easier for shy/weaker ss to hide <br />strive for even/balanced participation<br />Monitoring<br />Giving clear roles<br />Timing (what if one group finishes before the other?)<br />
  10. 10. Discussions<br />What expressions do we teach our students for discussion activities?<br />
  11. 11. Negative questions <br />(don’t you…? / Why didn’t you…?<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. RJ<br />People forced to leave their homes: 13,830<br />Deaths: 803<br />Missing: 324<br />Australia<br />People affected by the flood: 200,000<br />Cities and towns affected by the flood: 22<br />Deaths: 20<br />
  14. 14. Trios/groups (superteachertools)<br />(A) Whose fault is it?<br /> (B) What should be done now to rebuild the cities?<br />(C) What should be done now to avoid more disasters like these?<br />Online stopwatch (6 min, 2 for each question)<br />
  15. 15. titSIN prnnsieISn<br />
  16. 16. Why teach pronunciation?<br />Communication (vid)<br />Language ego<br />Brazilian Portuguese vs. English<br />Teaching pronunciation<br />(vid)<br />
  17. 17. Letter-SoundCorrespondence<br />PROCRACIDADEFLABELAÇÃO<br />FUMIGAÇÃO TARTAREAR INDENIDADE<br />DOMICILEPREFACEADMINISTRATIVEDISTRIBUTE CANBERRA IRON<br />STEAK GAUGE HAPHAZARD<br />MISCHIEVOUS SEW UTENSIL<br />
  18. 18. Homographs<br />
  19. 19. Homophones<br />(vid)<br />
  20. 20. SilentLetters<br />
  21. 21. CONSONANTS<br />
  22. 22. Initial[p] [t] [k] <br />in stressedsyllablessound<br />[pH] [tH] [kH]<br />‘pay’ [pHeI] – [peI]= [beI]<br />‘tie’ [tHaI] – [taI] = [daI]<br />‘cap’ [kHQp] – [kQp] = [gQp]<br />
  23. 23. Hold a sheet of paper in front of the mouth while saying the words. Thepapershould move to plosivesounds.<br />Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. <br />A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?<br />
  24. 24. Vid<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Vid<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Vid<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
  36. 36. “Shesellsseashellsbytheseashore”<br />“Shesaw a fishontheseashore, andI’msurethefishshesawontheseashorewas a sawfish”<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Identifythenumberofsounds in thewordsbelow:<br />Sing<br />3 (CVC)<br />father <br />5 (CVCVC)<br />lamb <br />3 (CVC)<br />stopped <br />5 (CCVCC)<br />plumber <br />6 (CCVCVC)<br />
  40. 40. LATERAL<br />[l] ‘live’ ‘pulling’ ‘no final position’<br />[] ‘no initialposition’ ‘multi’ ‘pool’<br />
  41. 41. Pronunciation Journey<br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Silent l<br />halfcalftalkchalk<br />wouldcouldshouldbalm<br />palmcalmsalmon Lincoln<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Raise your RIGHT hand / stand up if you hear a /r/ sound.<br />Raise your LEFT hand / sit down if you hear a /h/ sound.<br />
  46. 46. TAP / FLAP<br />[] ‘to’ ‘water’ ‘got’<br />
  47. 47. Betty bought a bit of better butter.<br />Online recording :<br />Vocaroo, photobabble, voicethread.<br />Audacity, flipvideo, digital camera.<br />
  48. 48. Vowels<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Simple Sounds Maze<br />
  51. 51. Odd one out<br />it – heat – scene – feet<br />think – thanks – this – thousand<br />pattern – post – penguin – psychologist<br />worked – cleaned – stopped - laughed<br />
  52. 52. Meaningful, communicativeMinimalPairs<br />
  53. 53. Did you feel/fill it?<br />
  54. 54. Heat/Hit it now!<br />
  55. 55. He will leave/live.<br />
  56. 56. The children will sleep/slip.<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. Unfair dictation<br />Only write down words that have a long vowel sound.<br />
  59. 59. Vid<br />
  60. 60.
  61. 61. visitfeatcabpickcan<br />mensickseekbackled<br />
  62. 62.
  63. 63.
  64. 64.
  65. 65.
  66. 66. Magical final -e<br />
  67. 67. Magical final -e<br />
  68. 68. Magical final -e<br />
  69. 69. Magical final -e<br />
  70. 70. Online Resources<br />http://phonphon.pbworks.com<br />
  71. 71.
  72. 72. The fact that the teacher gives feedback on student performance implies a power hierarchy: the teacher above, the student below.<br />Assessment is potentially humiliating to the assessed person.<br />Teachers should give only positive feedback, in order to encourage, raise confidence and promote feelings of success; negative feedback demoralizes.<br />
  73. 73. Giving plenty of praise and encouragement is important for the fostering of good teacher-student relationships.<br />Very frequent approval and praise lose their encouraging effect; and lack of praise may then be interpreted as negative feedback.<br />Correcting each other can be harmful to student relationships.<br />
  74. 74. Error vs. mistake <br />(self-corrected if pointed out)<br />Intralingual vs. Interlingual<br />Local vs. global<br />
  75. 75. When?<br />
  76. 76. The correction-during-communication paradox<br />If we correct during communicative work unobtrusively so as not to harm communication – the correction may be ineffective.<br />If we correct more effectively using explicit feedback and ‘processing’ – we may damage the communicative value of the activity. <br />
  77. 77. What’s the answer?<br />Professional teaching judgment, taking into account:<br /><ul><li>The goals of the course / lesson / task
  78. 78. How crucial/important/difficult the error is
  79. 79. Source of error (intra/interlingual)
  80. 80. Local or global
  81. 81. The frequency of the error / fossilization
  82. 82. The level of the student / ZPD
  83. 83. The personality of the student / affective factors / language ego
  84. 84. The motivation of the class overall to learn
  85. 85. The excitement level of the activity</li></li></ul><li>How?<br />
  86. 86. Recast<br />Repetition<br />Elicitation<br />Clarification Request<br />Metalinguistic Feedback<br />Explicit Correction<br />
  87. 87. Research<br />Lyster, R. & Ranta, L., 1997<br />Lyster, R., 1998<br />
  88. 88.
  89. 89. Conclusion (by Penny Ur)<br />For optimum effectiveness, corrective feedback should:<br />be explicit <br />involve some measure of active negotiation<br />It may or may not be effective to correct during (oral) communication; this depends on a number of pedagogical considerations.<br />
  90. 90. Individual or group feedback?<br />Oral Test Feedback<br />Making error correction visual<br />
  91. 91. How much?<br />
  92. 92. A questionnaire-based survey(by Penny Ur)<br />Population: over 1,000 children learning English in State schools in Israel.<br />Ages: 10 - 17<br />
  93. 93.
  94. 94.
  95. 95. Conclusions (by Penny Ur)<br />School-age learners want to be corrected.<br />They feel corrective feedback is valuable <br />They prefer explicit correction <br />They understand the value of repeating the correct form.<br />They do not, on the whole, like to be corrected by their peers.<br />

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