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Best ppt onRenewable & hydropower

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Renewable & hydropower

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Best ppt onRenewable & hydropower

  1. 1. Energy Crisis
  2. 2. ELECTRICITY • The main source of Energy worldwide • Fourth necessity next to Roti, Kapada aur Makan. • Wheel to Progress • Backbone for economical growth • Coal base gen. 54% • 5L ton/100MW/Year • 2000 ton CO2/Day
  3. 3. • SECTOR WISE ENERGY DEMAND (IN MW) • DEMAND AVAILABILITY SHORTAGE % • NORTH 29344 25062 -4282 -14.6% • WEST 35451 26336 -9115 -25.7% • SOUTH 24344 22800 -1544 -06.7% • EAST 9923 9446 - 477 -04.8% • NORTH-EAST 1176 1054 - 122 -10.4% • TOTAL 100238 84698 -15540 -15.5% PERIOD- JANUARY 2007
  4. 4. Power Shortage • According to the World Bank, roughly 40 % Indians are without electricity • Further compounding the situation is that total demand for electricity in the country continues to rise and is outpacing increases in capacity • Additional capacity has failed to materialize in India in light of market regulations, insufficient investment in the sector, and difficulty in obtaining environmental approval and funding for hydropower projects. In addition, coal shortages are further straining power generation capabilities.
  5. 5. 6 A Major Renewable source today Hydro Power Generation Koradi Training Centre Mahagenco
  6. 6. Measures 1. In July of 2010, India and Bangladesh signed a 35 year power import deal whereby India will import up to 500MW beginning in late 2012. 2. Some electricity from Bhutan and Nepal. 3. However, these electricity imports are not likely to prove sufficient to make up for India’s lack of electric generation capacity. 4. India’s 11th Plan set an ambitious goal of adding nearly 79,000 MW by 2012. 5. Improve efficiency standards, the Energy Conservation Act 2002, which established the Bureau of Energy Efficiency and has sought to promote efficient use of energy and labeling of energy-intensive products India Perspective
  7. 7. OUR INDIA AT GLANCE • Installed generating Capacity 159000MW • Energy Generated 761000MUs • Conventional thermal sources 80 % • Hydro electricity 16 % • Nuclear energy produced roughly 2% • Renewable, [Geothermal & other] sources 2% (All above fig are approximate for 2007)
  8. 8. Nearly all electric power in India is generated with coal, oil, or gas. percent of electricity in 2007. Hydroelectricity, a seasonally dependent power source in India, accounted for nearly 16 percent of power generated in 2007. Finally, nuclear energy produced roughly 2 percent of electricity during the same year, while geothermal and other renewable sources accounted for approximately 2 percent.
  9. 9. CONVENTIONAL SOURCE NON - RENEWABLE RENEWABLE
  10. 10. • Thermal Electric • Low-impact hydro: Run-of-River • Hydro • Wind • Solar • Geothermal • Waste-to-Energy • Biomass/Biofuels • Tide • Ocean Thermal Conventional (Renewable & Non renewable)
  11. 11. Economy Reliability Sustainability
  12. 12. Renewable Vs Nonrenewable SOURCES OF ENERGY Costing
  13. 13. Cost of Energy: Oil vs. Renewable Top 10 Exotic Free Energy Technologies
  14. 14. Crackpot? ""When you're one stepWhen you're one step ahead of the crowd you're aahead of the crowd you're a genius.genius. When you're two stepsWhen you're two steps ahead, you're a crackpot.“ahead, you're a crackpot.“
  15. 15. All truth passesAll truth passes through three stages:through three stages: First, it is ridiculed;First, it is ridiculed; Second, it is violentlySecond, it is violently opposed;opposed; andand Third, it is acceptedThird, it is accepted as self-evidentas self-evident
  16. 16. Free Energy Genres that Work • Vortex • Cavitation • Ball Lighting • Joe Cell / Orgone • Electrostatic • Zero Point Energy Exotic Energy Sources • Cold Fusion • Magnet Motors • Electromagnetic “Over Unity” • Super Efficient Water Electrolysis • Brown’s Gas • GEET Reactor
  17. 17. 20 Type of Power  Conventional  Renewable  Hydro Power  Wind Energy  Oceanic Energy  Solar Power  Geothermal  Biomass  Hydrogen & Fuel Cells  Nuclear  Fossil Fuel Innovation  Exotic Technologies
  18. 18. Dam A Reservoir Types of Dam Rubble/Concrete Earthen
  19. 19. 24 Hydrologic Cycle
  20. 20. 25 Hydropower to Electric Power Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy Electricity
  21. 21. Hydropower to Electric Power 26
  22. 22. 27 World Trends in Hydropower
  23. 23. 28 Major Hydropower Producers 8th Rank of India
  24. 24. 29 History of Hydro Power
  25. 25. 30 Early Irrigation Waterwheel
  26. 26. 31 Early Roman Water Mill
  27. 27. 32 Early Norse Water Mill
  28. 28. 33 Hydropower Design
  29. 29. 34 Terminology  Head  Water must fall from a higher elevation to a lower one to release its stored energy.  The difference between these elevations (the water levels in the forebay and the tailbay) is called head  Dams: three categories  high-head (800 or more feet)  medium-head (100 to 800 feet)  low-head (less than 100 feet)  Power is proportional to the product of head x flow
  30. 30. 35 Scale of Hydropower Projects  Large-hydro  More than 100 MW feeding into a large electricity grid  Medium-hydro  15 - 100 MW usually feeding a grid  Small-hydro  1 - 15 MW - usually feeding into a grid  Mini-hydro  Above 100 kW, but below 1 MW  Either stand alone schemes or more often feeding into the grid  Micro-hydro  From 5kW up to 100 kW  Usually provided power for a small community or rural industry in remote areas away from the grid.  Pico-hydro  From a few hundred watts up to 5kW  Remote areas away from the grid.
  31. 31. 36 Types of Hydroelectric Installation
  32. 32. 37 Peak Demands  Hydroelectric plants:  Start easily and quickly and change power output rapidly  Complement large thermal plants (coal and nuclear), which are most efficient in serving base power loads.  Save millions of barrels of oil
  33. 33. 38 Types of Systems  Storage Main Dam Systems  Diversion or run-of-river systems  Pumped Storage  Two way flow  Pumped up to a storage reservoir and returned to a lower elevation for power generation  A mechanism for energy storage, not net energy production
  34. 34. 39 Conventional Dam
  35. 35. 40 Example Hoover Dam (US)
  36. 36. 41 Diversion (Run-of-River) Hydropower
  37. 37. 42 Example Diversion Hydropower
  38. 38. 43 Micro Run-of-River Hydropower
  39. 39. 44 Micro Hydro Example Used in remote locations in northern Canada
  40. 40. 45 Pumped Storage Schematic
  41. 41. 46 Pumped Storage System
  42. 42. 47 Example Ghatghar HPS Pumped Hydro  Completed -2007  Capacity – 250 MW  Two 125 MW units  Purpose – energy storage  Water pumped uphill at night  Low usage – excess base load capacity  Water flows downhill during day/peak periods  Helps Xcel to meet surge demand  E.g., air conditioning demand on hot summer days  Typical efficiency of 70 – 85%
  43. 43. 48 Turbine Design Francis Turbine Kaplan Turbine Pelton Turbine Turgo Turbine
  44. 44. 49 Types of Hydropower Turbines
  45. 45. 50 Classification of Hydro Turbines  Reaction Turbines  Derive power from pressure drop across turbine  Totally immersed in water  Angular & linear motion converted to shaft power  Propeller, Francis, and Kaplan turbines  Impulse Turbines  Convert kinetic energy of water jet hitting buckets  No pressure drop across turbines  Pelton, Turgo, and crossflow turbines
  46. 46. 51 Schematic of Francis Turbine
  47. 47. 52 Francis Turbine Cross-Section
  48. 48. 53 Small Francis Turbine & Generator "Water Turbine," Wikipedia.com
  49. 49. 54 Francis Turbine – Rotor
  50. 50. 55 Fixed-Pitch Propeller Turbine
  51. 51. 56 Kaplan Turbine Schematic
  52. 52. 57 Kaplan Turbine Cross Section "Water Turbine," Wikipedia.com
  53. 53. 58 Kaplan Turbine Rotor
  54. 54. 59 Vertical Kaplan Turbine Setup
  55. 55. 60 Horizontal Kaplan Turbine
  56. 56. 61 Pelton Wheel Turbine
  57. 57. Pelton Wheel Turbine 62
  58. 58. 63 Turgo Turbine
  59. 59. 64 Turbine Design Ranges  Kaplan  Francis  Pelton  Turgo 2 < H < 40 10 < H < 350 50 < H < 1300 50 < H < 250 (H = head in meters)
  60. 60. 65 Turbine Ranges of Application
  61. 61. 66 Turbine Design Recommendations Head Pressure High Medium Low Impulse Pelton Turgo Multi-jet Pelton Crossflow Turgo Multi-jet Pelton Crossflow Reaction Francis Pump-as-Turbine Propeller Kaplan
  62. 62. 67 Hydro Power Calculations
  63. 63. 68 Efficiency of Hydropower Plants  Hydropower is very efficient  Efficiency = (electrical power delivered to the “busbar”) ÷ (potential energy of head water)  Typical losses are due to  Frictional drag and turbulence of flow  Friction and magnetic losses in turbine & generator  Overall efficiency ranges from 75-95%
  64. 64. 69 Hydropower Calculations  P = power in kilowatts (kW)  g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 m/s2 )  η = turbo-generator efficiency (0<n<1)  Q = quantity of water flowing (m3 /sec)  H = effective head (m) HQP HQgP ×××≅ ×××= η η 10
  65. 65. 70 Hydropower Calculations  P = No. of poles on rotor  F = Frequency(50Hz.in India)  Ν = R.P.M. speed. NP NFP /6000 /120 ≅ =
  66. 66. 71 Economics of Hydropower
  67. 67. 72 Production Expense Comparison
  68. 68. 73 Future of Hydropower
  69. 69. 74 Hydro Development Capacity hydropower.org
  70. 70. POPHALI HYDRO POWER STATION  IT IS HAVING 4 STAGES ALONG WITH ONE FOOT POWER HOUSE  STAGE 1::4 UNITS X 70 MW  STAGE 2::4 UNITS X 80 MW  STAGE 3::4UNITS X 80 MW  STAGE 4:: 4UNITS X 250 MW
  71. 71. TEMINOLOGIES  DAM  STORAGE  FORE BAY  INTAKE  PENSTOCK  SURGE TANK  SPILLWAY  TAIL RACE
  72. 72. Butter Fly valve 78
  73. 73. Pophali Stage I & II Machine Hall
  74. 74. 80 KOYNA STAGE IV MACHINE HALL
  75. 75. 81 KDPH POWER HOUSE KOYNANAGAR
  76. 76. Koyna Dam
  77. 77. Welcome to All 86
  78. 78. Thank You! 87

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