Biology Lesson 7.4

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Biology Lesson 7.4

  1. 1. Lesson 7.4Joints – the place where bonesjoin or articulate.
  2. 2. Lesson 7.4 JointsThree categories based on ability tomove: 1.immovable – little to no movment in joint ex. Sutures 2. slightly movable – some movement in joint ex. Vertebrae 3. freely movable or synovial joint – of 3 has most movement ex. Limbs, jaw
  3. 3. Parts of a synovial joint:1.Articular cartilage - covers the ends of the bones2. Synovial fluid – lubricates the joint
  4. 4. Parts of a synovial (freely movable) joint:1. Articular cartilage2. Synovial fluid3.Ligaments – hold bones together creating the joint capsule4. Joint capsule – surrounds the joint5. Synovial membrane – produces the synovial fluid
  5. 5. Types of synovial joints 1. hinge joints • ex. elbow • like a door hinge it swings only one way
  6. 6. Types of synovial joints1. hinge joints2. Gliding joints• Ex. Carpals• one bone slides across another bone
  7. 7. Types of synovial joints1. Hinge joints2. Gliding joints3. Ball and socket joints• Ex. hip• greatest range of motion• round head of one bone fits in the hollow socket of another
  8. 8. Types of synovial joints1. Hinge joints2. Gliding joints3. Ball and socket joints4. Pivot joints• ex. C1-C2 the atlas and axis vertebrae• allows only rotation
  9. 9. Types of synovial joints1. Hinge joints2. Gliding joints3. Ball and socket joints4. Pivot joints5. Saddle joints• Found only in the hands• ex. Thumb metacarpal to carpal• Saddle portion of one bone nestlesinto saddle portion of other
  10. 10. Types of synovial joints1. Hinge joints2. Gliding joints3. Ball and socket joints4. Pivot joints5. Saddle joints6. Ellipsoid joints• joints between metacarpalsand phalanges• move up/down and left/right•one bone bulges and fits intoindention of other bone
  11. 11. Joint Problems1. Disease – mainly arthritis 2 types of arthritis A. osteoarthritis most common joint disorder Is the deterioration of the articular cartilage usually due to age most serious in hip joint
  12. 12. Joint Problems1. Disease – mainly arthritis 2 types of arthritis A. osteoarthritis B. Rheumatoid arthritis Autoimmune disorder Cause unknown Effects hands, ankles, knees, fingers most often Can affect any age Controlled with medications
  13. 13. Joint Problems1. Disease – mainly arthritis2. InjuryA. Sprain most common when ligaments over stressed and swelling and inflammation occurs treatment is rest
  14. 14. Joint Problems1. Disease – mainly arthritis2. Injury A. Sprain B. Dislocation  joint overstressed and bone pops out of ligament  treatment - must be relocated
  15. 15. Joint Problems1. Disease – mainly arthritis2. Injury A. Sprain B. Dislocation C. Torn Ligaments Ligament is under stress and tears Treatment:  not completely torn then rest and it will heal  completely torn will need surgery to reattach or sub
  16. 16. Surgery

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