Biology Lesson 2.2

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Biology Lesson 2.2

  1. 1. Lesson 2.2Plants have 3 distinct tissuetypes:1. Structural tissue• composes most of the plant• four types:
  2. 2. Lesson 2.2 Internal leaf structurePlants have three distinct tissue types:1. Structural tissueFour types A. Epidermal •protects and covers •is covered by a cuticle (waxy layer) to prevent water loss and injury • Like plant’s skin • Is a single layer of cells
  3. 3. Epidermal layer Cuticle causes water to bead on leaves.
  4. 4. Lesson 2.2 Internal leaf structure•Plants have three distinct tissue types:1. Structural tissue • four types: A. EpidermalB. Cork•replaces the epidermis as a plant grows• forms outer bark•protective layer•water proofs the stem•not found in herbaceous plants
  5. 5. Lesson 2.2 Internal leaf structure1. Structural tissue • four types:A. EpidermalB. Cork C. Parenchyma Found on the roots, stems and leaves Carries out photosynthesis stores food
  6. 6. Lesson 2.2 Internal leaf structure1. Structural tissue • four types:A. EpidermalB. CorkC. ParenchymaD. Support/strengthening tissue• fibers run through stems, roots and veins of leaves• thick walled• walls remain after dead for support
  7. 7. Lesson 2.2 Internal leaf structure•Plants have three distinct tissue types:1. Structural tissue2. Vascular tissue (transport)•sap containing•found in stems, roots and veins/petioles of leaves
  8. 8. Lesson 2.2 Internal leaf structure•Plants have three distinct tissue types:1. Structural tissue2. Vascular tissue (transport) Two types of vascular tissue:A.xylem – transports water andminerals upwardB.phloem – transports food from the leaves to other parts of plant
  9. 9. Lesson 2.2 Internal leaf structure•Plants have three distinct tissue types:1. Structural tissue2. Vascular tissue3. Meristem •function is for growth and repair •found in certain areas where growth takes place •produces undifferentiated cells
  10. 10. Lesson 2.2 Internal leaf structure•Plants have three distinct tissue types:1. Structural tissue2. Vascular tissue3. MeristemTwo types of meristem:A. Apical meristem promotes growth in height Found in buds and growing roots
  11. 11. Lesson 2.2 Internal leaf structure•Plants have three distinct tissue types:1. Structural tissue2. Vascular tissue3. Meristem Two types of meristem: A. Apical meristem B. Lateral meristem Promotes growth in width Two types: • vascular cambium – produces new vascular tissue • cork cambium – produces new cork tissue (bark area on tree)
  12. 12. Transpiration – loss ofwater vapor from leavesand stems
  13. 13. Three things thatreducetranspiration are:
  14. 14. 1. Cuticle – waxy covering onsome leaves
  15. 15. 2. Guard cells – open and closeleaf pores (stomata)
  16. 16. 3. Leaf hairs – hair-likestructures which form from theepidermis and reducetranspiration by reducing windspeed across the leaf Electron microscope picture of leaf hairs
  17. 17. Leaf structures – cross section: 1.Upper and Lower epidermis protects and reduces water loss Like skin of plant  cuticle on top of epidermis
  18. 18. Leaf structures:1. Upper and Lower epidermis 2. Mesophyll middle portion of leaf Two layers of mesophyll: Palisade – where most of photosynthesis takes place Spongy -where gases and water are stored
  19. 19. Leaf structures:1. Upper and Lower epidermis2. Mesophyll3. Stomata – Stoma (singular)• Tiny openings for gas exchange• Protected on each side by guard cells• Where water exits during transpiration
  20. 20. Stomata
  21. 21. Leaf structures:1. Upper and Lower epidermis2. Mesophyll3. Stomata4. Guard cells• Open and close the stomata
  22. 22. Leaf structures:1. Upper and Lower epidermis2. Mesophyll3. Stomata4. Guard cells 5. Veins  Contain the sap  Run through mesophyll
  23. 23. Venation Patterns1. Palmate – veins radiate from a central point at the base of the leaf; like the palm of the hand. Ex. maple
  24. 24. Venation Patterns1. Palmate2.Pinnate – has one main vein with smaller ones branching off; Ex. oak
  25. 25. Venation Patterns1. Palmate2. Pinnate3. Parallel - veins run parallel for the length of the leaf, from the base.Ex. Lily leaf
  26. 26. PLANT CELLSoCell – basic unit of all livingthings
  27. 27. PLANT CELLSoAll cells are made up of 4main elements: carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen
  28. 28. PLANT CELLSThese 4 main elementsform major compounds ofall living things:  carbohydrate  lipids(fats/oils)  proteins, and  nucleic acid
  29. 29. The main parts of all cells:1. Cell membrane defines the cell and contains the cytoplasm and organelles within Regulates what goes in and out of cell
  30. 30. The main parts of all cells:1. Cell membrane2. Cytoplasm - Jelly-like fluidwhere organelles and nucleus aresuspended
  31. 31. The main parts of all cells:1. Cell membrane2. Cytoplasm3. Nucleus Contains genetic information (DNA) Controls cell activities Spherical shaped body near center of the cell
  32. 32. The main parts of all cells:1.Cell membrane2. Cytoplasm3. Nucleus4. Organelles Tiny organ-like structures of the cell See Handout
  33. 33. Cell parts only in plants:1. Cell wall Made of cellulose Only plant cells have them not animal cells Humans are not able to digest cellulose, but is good bulk for diet
  34. 34. Cell parts only in plants:1. Cell wall Cellulose strengthens but allows for flexibility in plants•Cellulose is important to manyindustries such as the paperindustry
  35. 35. Cell parts only in plants:1. Cell wall•Some cell walls also have ligninadding more stiffness to the cellwall of woody stems.
  36. 36. Cell parts only in plants:1. Cell wall2. Chloroplast and chlorophyllChloroplast•Organelle containing chlorophyll•Most numerous in palisade mesophyll• Site of photosynthesis
  37. 37. Cell parts only in plants:1. Cell wall2. Chloroplast and chlorophyllChlorophyll•Green pigment found in the chloroplast•Traps energy from sunlight•Important to photosynthesis
  38. 38. Cell parts only in plants:1. Cell wall2. Chloroplast and chlorophyll3. VacuolesoStorage of food and wateroUsually 1 or 2 large ones
  39. 39. Differences between plant and animalcells:Plant AnimalRectangular shape round shape1 large vacuole many smallLarger than animal smaller thancell plant cell

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