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Sfl and lexical cohesion (gianna, maira)


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Sfl and lexical cohesion (gianna, maira)

  1. 1. Students: Di Dino, Giana and Dominguez Sala, Maira Nair English Grammar IISummaries of: Systemic Functional Grammarand Lexical Cohesion.Students: Di Dino, Giana and Dominguez Sala, MairaNair. Página 1 de 3
  2. 2. Students: Di Dino, Giana and Dominguez Sala, Maira NairSystemic Functional Linguistics Systemic Functional Linguistics or Grammar is a network of systems and choices, thatlanguage offers to the speaker/writer to convey meaning or to express his/her intentions throughdifferent possibilities as regards semantics, phonology/graphology and lexicogrammar. It dealswith the structural organization of English clauses (Constituency); phrases and sentences, from asimple clause to more complex ones (Rank); meanings of language in use in the textual processesof social life, or the sociosemantics of text; construct a grammar for purposes of text analysis.Michael Holliday in 1960 developed the analysis of SFL. The main difference with the formalgrammar (that focuses on semantics, syntax and word classes) is that the functional grammardeals with the meaning of the language in a contextualized situation. According to this theory, it ispossible to find many different meanings analyzing a piece of language from different angles, fromdifferent social contexts.Michael Holliday said that the application on SFG is “to understand the quality of texts: why a textmeans what it does and why it is valued as it is.”E.g.: In the short story “The Happy Prince”, the phrase “Swallow, Swallow, Little Swallow” has aspecial meaning because of its context; while in another context it’s just a phrase to call aSwallow, in this one denotes that the Prince is begging the Swallow to stay for another night tohelp him assist poor people.Lexical Cohesion Página 2 de 3
  3. 3. Students: Di Dino, Giana and Dominguez Sala, Maira NairLexical cohesion is an important dimension of cohesion, it is a way of describing how words in atext relate to each other. Lexical cohesion refers to how the speaker/writer uses lexical items(nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) and event sequences to relate the text to its area of focus orits field. This type of cohesion operates between units which encode lexical content, such asnouns, main verbs, adverbs and adjectives which are called open-class items. The close-classitems are the grammatical words (prepositions, pronouns, articles and auxiliary verbs) becausethey do not encode lexical content.There are two main kinds of lexical relations between words:Taxonomic lexical relations, which deal with the relation between one lexical item with anotherthrough class/sub-class or part/ whole relations. Inside this category there are two more branches,Classification, which studies the relationship between a superordinate term and its members (co-hyponomy, class/sub-class, contrast, similarity, synonymy and repetition), and Composition, thatstudies the part/whole relationship between lexical items (meronymy or co-meronymy)Expectancy relations, which deal with the predictable relation between process and the doer ofthat process.A lexical string is a list of all the lexical items that occur sequentially in a text that can be relatedto an immediately prior word or to a head word (taxonomically or expectancy relations) that cancapture the lexical cohesion and give texture to a text.E.g.:Swallow: (his) wings - (his) courtship - (his) wing - (his) wings - little swallow - personal remarks -(his) wings - (had) a good heart - bird’s wings - (his) wings - dead bird - dead swallow - (the)dead bird - (this) little bird – his beak *Prince: Happy Prince- statue- sapphires- ruby- his sword-hilt- wonderful statue- an angel- on thetall column- the feet of the Happy Prince- the eyes- tears- his face- golden cheeks- human heart-the beautiful sapphire- Prince’s shoulder- the lips- leaden heart- beggar- the metal- broken leadheart ** some repeated nouns were omitted. Página 3 de 3