Cohesive resources (natasha, victor, sofia)


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Cohesive resources (natasha, victor, sofia)

  1. 1. English Grammar II Barrau, Natasha Camargo, Víctor Martins, Sofía “Cohesion occurs where the interpretation of some element in discourse is dependent on that of another. The one presupposes the other, in the sense that it cannot be effectively decoded except by recourse to it. When this happens, a relation of cohesion is set up, and the two elements, the presupposing and the presupposed, are thereby at least potentially integrated into a text” (Halliday and Hasan 1976: 4: their emphasis) Cohesion is the way the elements within a text join together as a unified whole. It is the internal organization of a text. A text needs sequential implicativeness to be cohesive; that is to say that each part of the text creates the context within which the next bit of the text is interpreted.Cohesive resources: We, language users, can recover the links between the parts of a text thanks to the resources of cohesion. They are the elements that the writer/speaker makes use of to create cohesion.Reference: It refers to how the writer/speaker introduces participants and topics and keeps track of them in a text. Example: High above the city, on a tall column, stood the statue of the Happy Prince. He was gilded… The presupposing item He makes reference to the previously mentioned presupposed item the Happy Prince. This type of reference is called ANAPHORIC. Moreover, the statue is referring to the Happy Prince, which was mentioned immediately after, constituting a case of ESPHORIC reference. 1
  2. 2. English Grammar II Barrau, Natasha Camargo, Víctor Martins, SofíaLexical cohesion: It is related to the way the writer/speaker uses lexical items (nouns, verbs,adjectives, adverbs) en event sequences ( chains of clauses and sentences) torelate the text consistently to its area of focus or its field. Successive sentences arelikely to refer to previously mention sentences and to other concepts present in thetext.Conjunctive cohesion: It makes reference to how the writer creates and expresses logicalrelationships between the parts of a text. We can fully interpret the meaning of asentence by reading it as standing in a contrastive logical relation with a previousone. English possesses a large inventory of connectors which link clauses indiscourse.Ellipsis: It is the omission of a clause, or some part of a clause or group, in contextswhere it can be assumed. After a more specific mention, words are omitted whenthe phrase needs to be repeated. Example: “Swallow, swallow, little swallow,” said the prince, “ Will you not stay with me one night longer?” “It is winter,” answered the swallow. It is a case of ellipsis because the swallow could have answered: “No, I willnot stay with you one night longer. It is winter.” The first part of the sentence isomitted in the swallow’s answer.Substitution: 2
  3. 3. English Grammar II Barrau, Natasha Camargo, Víctor Martins, Sofía English and other languages have a set of place holders which can be used tosignal an omission- so and not for clauses; do for verbal groups and one fornominal groups. A word is not omitted but substituted. Example: My courtiers called me the Happy Prince, and happy indeed I was, if pleasure be happiness. So I lived, and so I died. In this case so is replacing the idea of being happy. 3