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paku-pakuan

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paku-pakuan

  1. 1. Seedless Vascular Plants TUMBUHAN BERPEMBULUH TIDAK BERBIJI (PAKU) Pteridophyta SULISETIJONO
  2. 2. Sulisetijono
  3. 3. Sulisetijono
  4. 4. 4 Division - Psilophyta Sulisetijono
  5. 5. P. Psilotophyta: Psilotum – Whisk Fern Sulisetijono
  6. 6. Major Taxonomic Groups • Psilophyta  Whisk Ferns - Free-living sporophyte and gametophyte - No leaves or roots - Only one known genus survives today, but they were much more diverse in the past - NOTE despite the name, they are not true ferns Sulisetijono
  7. 7. Sulisetijono
  8. 8. Sulisetijono
  9. 9. Batang dikotom Sporangium Sulisetijono
  10. 10. 10 Whisk Ferns • Have a photosynthetic, aerial forked stem • Looks like a small, green twiggy bush • Have TRUE stems, but NO leaves or roots • Only two living genera Stems with spore cases Sulisetijono
  11. 11. 11 Whisk Ferns • Have rootlike stems structures called Rhizomes to anchor (can’t absorb water) • May asexually reproduce from rhizomes • Sexually reproduce by spores made in Sporangia (spore cases on the stems) Sporangia Sulisetijono
  12. 12. Sulisetijono
  13. 13. Phylum Lycophyta • grow on tropical trees as epiphytes • they are NOT parasites • the sporophytes have upright stems with many small leaves plus ground-hugging stems that produce branching roots • in the club mosses – the sporophylls are clustered into club- shaped cones = strobili  homosporous • spike mosses and quillworts - heterosporous Isoetes gunnii, a quillwort Diphasiastrum tristachyum, a club moss Strobili (clusters of sporophyllis) Sulisetijono
  14. 14. Sulisetijono
  15. 15. P. Lycophyta: Lycopodium – Ground Pine Sulisetijono
  16. 16. 16 Club Moss • Commonly called ground pines • Bushy, tree like branches above, but unbranched at the base • Have deep growing root like Rhizomes • Live in moist woods and clearings • Small leaves with single unbranched vein Leaves Sulisetijono
  17. 17. Young Club moss Shoot system Vascular system Sulisetijono
  18. 18. 18 Club Moss • Sporophylls (spore cases) are found in the axils of leaves • Form cone shaped structures called Strobili • May be homosporous (make one type of spore) or heterosporous (make 2 types of spores) Sulisetijono
  19. 19. 19 Club Moss Spores • Genus Lycopodium is homosporous • Contain chemicals that explode & burn quickly • Yellowish powdery spores used in fireworks and explosives Spore Burning Lycopodium powderSulisetijono
  20. 20. Sulisetijono
  21. 21. 21 Club Moss Sporophylls Strobili Sporophylls Sulisetijono
  22. 22. 22 Other Uses for Club Moss • Sometimes boiled in water to produce a medicinal tea or an eye wash • Ground pines, green all winter, are used in Christmas decorations • Ancestors of modern club mosses helped form coal during the carboniferous period Sulisetijono
  23. 23. Phylum Pterophyta • whisk ferns  dichotomously branching stems but no roots  stems have scale-like outgrowths that lack vascular tissue  stems may have evolved as reduced leaves  homosporous with spores that give rise to bisexual gametophytes that grow underground  considered to be living fossils due to their resemblance to fossils of ancient vascular plants • horsetails  named for the brushy appearance of the stems  arthrophytes – “jointed plants”  rings of small leaves or branches can emerge from each joint  stem is the main photosynthetic organ • ferns  ferns have megaphylls  sporophylls typically have horizontal stems that give rise to large leaves called fronds divided into leaflets  frond grows as the fiddlehead  almost all species are homosporous  gametophyte shrivels and dies after the young sporophyte detaches itself  the sporangia are stalked with spring-like devices that disperse the spores Sulisetijono
  24. 24. Major Taxonomic Groups • Lycophyta  Club Mosses - Free-living sporophyte and gametophytes - True roots, stems, and leaves - 300MYA, these were the dominant flora with large, expansive swamp-forests of lycopods. Sulisetijono
  25. 25. Sulisetijono
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  27. 27. Sulisetijono
  28. 28. Sulisetijono
  29. 29. P. Lycophyta: Selaginella – Spike Moss Sulisetijono
  30. 30. Sulisetijono
  31. 31. Sulisetijono
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  36. 36. Sulisetijono
  37. 37. Sulisetijono
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  39. 39. P. Lycophyta: Isoetes - Quillwort Sulisetijono
  40. 40. Figure 29.14 Isoetes (a quillwort) in the phylum Lycophyta. Represented today by a single genus Live in marshy areas Sulisetijono
  41. 41. Sulisetijono
  42. 42. Phylum Equisetophyta: Equisetum – Horse Tail Sulisetijono
  43. 43. 43 Division - Sphenophyta Sulisetijono
  44. 44. Major Taxonomic Groups • Sphenophyta  Horsetails - Free-living sporophyte and gametophyte - Circular, ribbed stems with whorled leaves - Again, much more diverse in the past Sulisetijono
  45. 45. Sulisetijono
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  48. 48. 48 Horsetails • Only one living (extant) species - Equisteum • Also called scouring rushes • Hollow, jointed Stems contain silica & were once used to scrub pots • Photosynthetic aerial stem • Underground Rhizomes Sulisetijono
  49. 49. 49 Horsetails • Reproduce by spores at the tips of branches • In prehistoric times, grew as tall as trees • Found in wetlands • Stems with sunken stomata to save water • Some spores have elaters, cells that act as moisture- sensitive springs, assisting spore dispersal Stem with a whorl (at each node) of branches and dark-tipped leaves Sulisetijono
  50. 50. 50 Uses for Horsetails • Use to fight plant fungi • Used in some mouthwashes to cure mouth ulcers • Used as diuretics to eliminate excess water (weight loss products) • Toxic to animals (sheep, cattle, horses) Sulisetijono
  51. 51. Sulisetijono
  52. 52. Sulisetijono
  53. 53. Sulisetijono
  54. 54. Equiseteum cross section Sulisetijono
  55. 55. Sulisetijono

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