Media Studieswww.curriculum-press.co.uk                                                                                   ...
037. Cross Media Case Studies                                                                                             ...
037. Cross Media Case Studies                                                                                             ...
037. Cross Media Case Studies                                                                                             ...
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37 cross media cs

  1. 1. Media Studieswww.curriculum-press.co.uk Number 037 Cross Media Case StudiesIntroduction ActivityTraditional ways of analysing the media have treated them as Identify how the various elements in this cycle benefit from theindividualised products but a media text is no longer a standalone PR campaignartefact. In modern Media Studies, texts have been considered within • The star gains a higher profile which makes the actor moretheir wider social contexts but in the past few years technological financially viablechanges and alterations in the behaviours of audiences mean that • The designer becomes associated with the glamour andapproaches to analysis need to change. Most media texts produced desirability of the Hollywood lifestyletoday are part of a wider media construction which include • The newspapers and magazines generate public interest incontemporary (and still developing) e-technologies and the creative the staruse of longer standing technological methods of print and broadcast. • The newspapers and magazines create an awareness of the film • _____________________________________________ • _____________________________________________ Emedia Print • _____________________________________________ • _____________________________________________ Broadcast The stores, newspapers and magazines make more profit, the film received free publicity and the star becomes more well- known. Here, the various media platforms are used to maximise success for each other.The aims of this Factsheet are to: AQA/WJEC/OCR• Consider the way media institutions use multiple media All awarding bodies require that students consider the platforms to produce, distribute and promote texts institutional context of media texts and the relationships between• Consider the changing behaviours of audiences and how they institution, text and audience in both AS and A2 written exams. relate to new technologies This material would also support the planning and preparation• To demonstrate with examples of recent media practice how for AS coursework productions. multiple media platforms create additional marketing opportunities and encourage audience engagement Since the late 1990s another media platform, e-media, has providedThe idea of multiple platforms being used to create related media new opportunities for media producers to raise awareness of theirtexts is not a new one. In the early days of Hollywood a film would products, create positive audience reactions and in turn maximiseuse moving image media (the film itself) as well as paper based their potential for success. The contemporary media landscape nowmedia (posters and advertising, promotional features etc.). PR (public means that a text exists in multiple formats across many mediarelations) campaigns were around as early as the 1920s when platforms and all these elements combine to draw the audience insymbiotic marketing would be used to promote a range of products. and provide different audience gratifications. In addition, the web allows audience members to get involved and user generatedFor example: content can also play a part in the way the audience accesses a text.• The star of a recent film would be photographed in a designer Add to this the increase in downloading media texts, watching texts outfit at the film’s premiere on new hardware such as mobile phones, streaming video, the rise• The photographs would be published in newspapers as public in on-demand services and even DVD, it is clear that in the last few interest stories years the way audiences access media texts and the way they• Newsreels would show footage of red carpet events as soft interact with them has changed enormously. news features• The photographs would be used in magazines which focussed Combining ‘Old’ and ‘New’ Technologies on fashion and celebrity It is perhaps unsurprising that media institutions are using e-media• Retail outlets would advertise in the magazines more and more effectively as a marketing medium. The audience• The designers clothing (or similar versions of the clothes seen) interactivity that is possible with web based technologies is being would be available in the retail outlets harnessed to promote media products in combination with traditional marketing methods.In this way, a cycle of related promotional activity was built whichbenefited all those involved. 1
  2. 2. 037. Cross Media Case Studies Media Studies www.curriculum-press.co.ukNewspapers and Magazines Paper based media in its traditional form was largely a one-wayHard copy newspaper sales have declined recently and this is, at communication process with audience members simply reading theleast in part, due to the increase of on-line reporting. Established content provided. Many on-line media texts actively encouragenewspapers and magazines will now have a web edition in addition text and email contributions from audience members and this hasto the traditionally published format. Audiences have free access also spread to paper based forms extending the audience input intoto web content as web sites generate their income via advertising. publications.Some web magazines have subscription services which provideadditional content and/or interactive services. These web sites are The use of e-technologies is enabling the audience to interact with,in direct competition with traditional paper based media as they can comment on and, in some cases, construct content rather than simplyoffer more up to date information and provide the content in ways read it. The use of e-media is allowing traditional publishingwhich are convenient for different audience activities. companies to compete with online publishers and also helps to promote their paper based products. For example, some web editions An Example:The Guardian online offers a daily email which have limited content but offers audiences the chance to receive all provides the day’s headlines for all media related stories in all the information if they go to the newsagents to buy the traditional British Newspapers. In addition it has hyperlinks direct to The paper based product. Guardian’s own stories which saves the audience member time reading through the paper based edition. Film and TV Have used a range of traditional methods of advertising and e-On-line newspapers also offer a response service where readers media has provided ways for them to broaden the accessibility tocan comment on a story and their comments are published below the marketing and provided new ways to generate interest inthe article itself. Compared to the traditional type of publishing, this products.makes the newspaper more dynamic, allows immediate audiencefeedback and extends the article. Traditional articles were ‘complete’ Trailers and E-Mediaartefacts with a beginning, middle and (most importantly) an end. In Traditionally film trailers were seen by cinema audiences and then,e-media form, the article becomes the starting point for discussion as the film was released, television audiences. Trailers for TVand debate and the writer him/herself has the means to return back programmes were limited to broadcasts in carefully selectedto add further comments as the discussion develops. Newspapers television slots. The introduction of home video and, more recently,actively recruit audience activity from requesting comments and DVD gave promoters another outlet for trailers which act to increasefeedback to using photos and videos sent in by audience members the number of viewers reached. DVD technology went one betterto create visual impact for current stories. than video. It was possible for the video viewer to fast-forward through a set of trailers to get straight to the feature film. SomeWeb editions of magazines use audience interactivity this way too. DVDs, however, are coded so this is not possible. This effectivelyAnyone with a mobile phone can be a ‘published paparazzi’ if they forces the viewing of the trailers. It is now common for a televisionhave images of celebrities to submit and forums are created to allow series to be bought and viewed as a box set so television productionaudience members to discuss and debate issues and exchange companies have a new outlet for the promotion of other televisionopinions on topics of interest. Some magazines create elite programming. E-media also allows trailers to reach more people.subgroups of the audience by providing specific group forumswhich audience members can join on subscription. Again, a magazine Trailers are often released via official websites and community sitesweb edition can respond quickly to updates on stories, provide such as MySpace and YouTube have also been used to releasevideo as well as still illustration and is a cheaper and often more trailers to the public. Many major films now have long runningconvenient platform for audiences to access the text. media campaigns where several trailers are released over a period of time with each trailer acting to raise and maintain interest in the forthcoming film. Activity Identify the different ways the web edition of Cosmopolitan encourages audience activity and how it provides different types of entertainment for the readers. 2
  3. 3. 037. Cross Media Case Studies Media Studies www.curriculum-press.co.ukPosters and E-media Viral MarketingWhere in the past, audience access to posters was limited to the Viral marketing is not a new technique for advertising. It has beenphysical locations where the posters had been placed, e-media used for several decades but the advances in interactivity via weballows different ways to let the audience view this promotional tool. based media have allowed it to be used more by media institutions.Google image searches for a film or television programme allows The idea behind viral marketing is that ‘word of mouth’ promotionaudience members to find posters and these can then be of a product is encouraged by creating activities for the audience todownloaded. Official web sites will often offer posters to be participate in that then encourage them to spread the word to otherdownloaded, sometimes in the form of computer desktop images. potential audience members. This was practiced by promoters before the internet but increasing access to the web and the recentUse of Magazines and Newspapers and E-media rise in popularity of social networking and user generated contentFilm and TV promotions companies can buy space in newspapers facilities recently has allowed media producers to develop the useand magazines to run adverts for their products. In addition, they of e-media to create a platform for viral marketing.can attempt to generate interest so that magazines and newspaperswill run editorial content as ‘news’ or ‘commentary’ in feature articles. In addition other communication technologies such as e-mail and mobile phones are now also used to extend the marketing mix.This is now extended into e-media. A soft news story has many more Audience members are encouraged to pass on marketing informationoutlets on-line than in traditional media. Internet publishers need with a range of different incentives.much more content as there is a fast turnover of stories on-line andso, in one respect, it’s easier to become newsworthy. The internet An Example : The Cloverfield (2008) web site offeredhas the added advantage that it has communication potentials and downloadable software which could be embedded withinso, generating internet chatter is a very effective way to raise homepages, myspace profile pages, blog pages etc. The widgetawareness and interest in a product. In addition, promoters can buy allowed exclusive footage of the film to be shown within theadvertising space on web sites which can contain audio and video audience member’s own web areas and then encouraged viewersmaterials which can be hyperlinked directly to official web sites to to go to the web site and download the widget for themselves.make it as easy as possible to draw the audience into the marketing Everyone who downloaded this piece of software registered theirof the product. details and the number of new downloaders who had come via their widget was counted. A competition was set up and the userUse of Web Sites who generated the most new downloads was offered a trip toThe official web sites for films and TV programmes are able to offer New York.audiences so much more than traditional advertising. A poster oradvert has to rely on a visual hook (the image) and the use of Exam Hint:- When discussing how institutions make use of awritten language to inform the audience as to how they can access range of platforms, consider the benefits that the institutionthe text (e.g. ‘… at a cinema near you, now’). Even trailers were receives from creating multiple texts. Also, consider how thesimple one way communication formats and, whilst carefully selected different formats of texts allow audience to access the texts andmoments of moving image could be combined with sound, interact with them in different ways.advertisers were limited to simply informing audiences about thetext and showing selected extracts. On-line marketing provides manymore ways to engage the audience, mostly through elements of The web offers many additional ways to create interest andinteractivity. Getting the audience involved, even in something as encourage others to pass the word on: MySpace profiles, fictionalsimple as downloading a desktop image, helps to create a feeling web sites, information send via SMS and email, additional videothat the audience member is involved with the text and, therefore, material posted on YouTube, competitions, ‘unofficial’ web siteshas more of a connection with it. This raises awareness, encourages which add to the narrative of the film/programme… the list goes on.a personal attachment and, therefore, increases the possibility that Marketers are often keen to encourage a feeling of spontaneityat the appropriate time, the audience member will be prepared to within viral marketing so that the success of a text appears to bespend money on the text. generated by the user (UGC or User Generated Content) rather than controlled by large profit seeking institutions.There are a whole host of methods available using e-technologies.One method that is being used in increasingly sophisticated waysis viral marketing. Activity • How do you access additional information on your favourite film and/or TV programme? Which aspects of the texts could be seen to constitute viral marketing? • Perhaps you have been actively involved at some point in viral marketing. o In what ways have you been part of the promotion of a media text? o Have you used to technology to inform other people about a media text? • Identify the different benefits the different platforms offer you. 3
  4. 4. 037. Cross Media Case Studies Media Studies www.curriculum-press.co.ukCase Study: Dark Knight (C Nolan: 2008) • The Ha Ha Ha TimesDuring the summer of 2008 it would have been difficult to avoid the o The Joker’s own newspaper websitesecond of the most recent interpretations of the Batman franchise. • Rory’s Death KissAs a Hollywood blockbuster, the film was heavily marketed via o A site that enabled fans to upload images of themselves intraditional methods with the publication of posters, television slots, Joker costumesmedia and newspaper advertising, the support for feature articlesand promotional activities aimed at making the film newsworthy. • The Gotham TimesEven in these traditional areas, the marketers of the film used e- o A newspaper web sitemedia to increase the impact of a traditional marketing campaign. from the fictionalThese are just some of the marketing activities that preceded the Gotham city – laterrelease of Dark Knight. ‘vandalised’ by The Joker. The newspaper contained links to a number of other web sites • A teaser trailer was released and shown before I am Legend in cinemas • A first scene of the film was shown at IMAX screenings of I am Legend • A trailer was released that had been• Whysoserious.com – the Joker’s web site ‘vandalised’ by The Joker • Subscribers received text messages from Whysoserious.com to provide information for online games • Exclusive footage of the new film was released with the Blu-Ray release of Batman Begins • A related collection of animations was released straight to DVD • The ‘Dentmobile’ tour• IbelieveinHarveyDent.com o A touring election campaign bus for the character Harvey Dent • A Dark Knight themed roller coaster ride opened in theme parks • Action figures were made available before the film’s release • The Dark Knight logo was used on a Formula One car• IbelieveinHarveyDenttoo.com – a ‘vandalised version of the Harvey Dent site• Scavenger Hunts o A number of virtual and real-world scavenger hunts were Summary created which gave out clues for audience members to Media texts exist within a number of media platforms. Each platform follow which would lead to a ‘reward’ of some kind: provides its own unique benefits and gratifications for the audience exclusive trailers and pictures and audience members are free to choose how they wish to engage were revealed on-line to with a media text from a range of options. Media producers can use scavenger hunt winners; these platforms to arouse interest, create awareness, develop brand special cakes were available in loyalty and generate viral marketing. Audiences now experience a bakeries in selected American media text in a number of ways, in different forms and across different cities for those that followed the platforms. This makes the audience member’s experience of a text clues; the Batman logo was much broader and institutions are keen to tap into these new revealed in Times Square and audience behaviours. scavenger hunt game players were given the time and location Acknowledgements: This Media Studies Factsheet was researched and written by Steph Hendry in advance; free gifts (which Curriculum Press. Bank House, 105 King Street, Wellington, TF1 1NU. Media Factsheets included a bowling ball and a mobile phone) were won by may be copied free of charge by teaching staff or students, provided that their school is a audience members following clues from the fictional ‘Clown registered subscriber. No part of these Factsheets may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any other form or by any other means, without the prior permission Travel Agency’ to specific bowling alleys in the US; of the publisher. ISSN 1351-5136 4

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